Do you want to buy antibiotics online without prescription? - This is pharmacy online for you!

International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 1(1): 22-24, 2009ISSN: 2041-2908 M axwell Scientific Organization, 2009 Effect of Aqueous-ethanolic Stem Bark Extract of Commiphora Africana on Blood
Glucose Levels on Normoglycemic Wistar Rats
1A.D .T.Goji, 2A.A .U. Dikko, 3A.G . Bakari, 1A. M ohamm ed, 1I. Ezekiel, and 1Y. Tanko ¹Departm ent of Hu man ph ysio logy , Ah madu B ello U nive rsity, Z aria, N igeria 2Department of Human physiology, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.
3Departm ent of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Shika, Nigeria Abs tract: This study was undertaken to determine the hypog lycemic effec t of Comm iphora africana (family:
Burseraceae) stem bark aqueous-ethanolic extract in normoglycemic W istar rats. In one set of experiment,
graded doses of C. africana stem bark aqueous extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o) were sepa rately
administered to groups o f fasted norma l rats. The hypo glycem ic effect of C. africana stem bark aqueous
ethan olic extrac t was com pared with th at of M etform in (250 mg/kg) in fasted norm al rats. Fo llowin g treatm ent,
relatively mode rate to high dose s of C. africana (100, 200 and 400 mg /kg p.o ) produced a dos e-dep endent,
significant reduc tion (p< 0.05) in blood glucose levels of fasted normal rats. Three doses of the extract (100,
200 and 400 mg/kg) were administered orally. A significant decrease in the blood glucose levels after 5 and
7 day of administration with the doses of 200 mg/k g and 400mg/k g w as ob serve d w hen com pared to contro l.
As regard s to the dose of 100mg/kg there was no any significant decreased in the blood glucose levels when
compared to con trol. The Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins,
flavonoids, steroids and saponins. The median lethal dose (LD ) in rats was calculated to be 3807.8 m g/kg
body we ight. In conclusio n the aque ous ethan olic extract of Comm iphora africana possesses hypoglyc emicactivity in normoglycemic rats.
Key w ords: Comm iphora african, hypoglycemic activity, phytochemicals.
scales; slas h red, p leasan tly scented, exuding a clear gum. Has a creeping root system that spreads Administration of various plant extract for the several meters around the tree. Leaves trifoliate, leaflets reduction of blood suga r levels of diabetics comprises an cuneate at the base and with irregular and bluntly toothed important aspect of the indigenous medicinal systems of margins, waxy grey-green above with a sparse covering many countries including Sri Lank a (Jayaw eera, 1982 ).
of hairs, lighter in color and more dens ely hairy below, up Mo st of the plants prescribed for d ia be te s m ellitu s (D M ) to 4x2.5 cm, the middle leaflet larger than laterals.
are not edible (Atta-ur-Rahman and Zaman, 1989; Flow ers in axillary clusters of 4-10; petals 4, red, not Serasinghe et al., 1990) and th erefore the studies on fused, but forming a tube about 6 mm long. Fruits reddish, edible plants which have a hypoglycemic effect would be 6-8 mm acros s but so metim es larger, almost stalkless, of great value in the dietary management of the disease.
made up of a tough outer layer, which splits when ripe to The oral hypoglycemic activity of the stem bark of reveal a hard, furrowed stone embedded in a red, resinous comm iphora africana in normoglycemic healthy, Wistar flesh. The generic name ‘Commiphora’ is based on the Greek words ‘kommi’ (gum) and ‘phero’ (to bear). The Com miphora africana belongs to the family of spec ific nam e simp ly me ans A frican. T he ob jective o f this Burseraceae and a group of plant called M yrrh (Hanus et research work is to de termine the effect of aqueous al., 2005; Dalziel and Hutchinson, 1956) and it is found ethan olic stem b ark ex tract of commiphora africana on on dry sites and savannah forest of Africa (Irvine, 196 1).
blood gluco se leve ls on no rmoglyce mic w istar rats. T his It is traditionally used for the treatment of a number of wo uld help in contributing toward ethno botanical uses of ailment including the treatment of typhoid and wound commiphora africana in Nigeria. healing (Lew is and Elvin-Lew is, 197 7). Com miphoraafricana is a small tree, sometimes reaching 10 m but MATERIALS AND METHODS
usua lly not m ore tha n 5 m high. It can be recognizedunm istakab ly from a distance by its outline-a spherical Plan t M ateria l: The stem bark of commiphora africana
top and a short trunk with low branches. Crown is was collected within Main campus, Ah mad u Bello rounded, with the branches ascending and then curving University, Zaria. The plant was identified and downw ards. Many of the branchlets end in spines. The authenticated by M. Musa of the herbarium section in bark is grey-green, som etime s shiny , peeling in the Depa rtment of Biolo gical Scien ce, A hma du B ello Corresponding Author: A.D.T.Goji, Department of Human physiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Int. J. Anim. Veter. Adv., 1(1): 22-24, 2009 Effect of aqueo us ethanolic stem bark ex tract of commiphora africana on blood glucose levels of no rmoglycem ic Wistar rats.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Day 0 a = P< 0.05; a = significant, ns=not significant Un iversity Zaria, where a herbarium specimen was days after A lloxan injection , the blood glucos e leve ls was prepared and deposited there with a voucher number measured using the gluco se-ox idase princip le and only those rats with fasting blood glucose g reater than 200mg/dL will be included in the study. (Stanley et al., Extract Preparation: The stem bark of commiphora
africana were collected and dried under shade and ground The normoglyc emic rats were randomly assig ned into into powder. The powder (500 g) was macerated in 30% five groups (1-5) of six rats (n = 6) each as follows, of distilled water and 7 0% ethanol at room temperature for 24 hours. It was then filtered using a filtered paper(W hatm ann size no .1) and the filtrate ev aporated to N ormal, treated W istar rats (were given dryness in water bath at 60ºC. A brownish residue No rmal sa line, 5 m l/kg bo dyw eight p .o weighing 30.5 g was obtained. This was kept in air tight Normal treated with 100 mg/kg extract p.o.
bottle in a refrigerator until used.
Normal, treated with 200 mg/kg extract p.o No rmal, trea ted w ith 400 mg/k g extra ct p.o Ch em icals used: All chemicals and drugs u sed w ere
No rmal, trea ted w ith metfo rmin (250 mg/kg obtained commercially and of analytical grade.
p.o) (Marta et al., 2000: Solskov et al., A preliminary phytochemical screening of the stem Determination of blood glucose levels: All blood sam ple
bark extract of comm iphora africana seed was also done were collected from the tail artery of the rats at interval of using standard methods of analysis (Trease and Evans, 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days. Determination of the blood glucose levels was done by the glucose-oxidase principle (Beachand Turner,1958) using the ONE TOUCH B asic Acu te toxicity study: LD determination was conducted
(Lifescan, MilpitasCA ) instrument and results were using the method of Lorke (1983). In the initial phase, expresse d as mg /dL (Rh eney an d Kirk, 20 00).
Albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups of threerats each. They were treated with the comm iphora Statistical ana lysis: Blood glucose levels were expressed
africana stem bark extract at doses of 100, 100 and 1000 in mg/d L as m ean ± SEM . The d ata w ere statistically mg/kg per orally. Animals were observed for 24hours for analyzed using ANOV A with multiple comparisons any signs of toxicity. In the sec ond phas e of the toxicity versus control group by Dunnett’s method. The values of study the animal were grouped into three groups of one p<0 .05 w ere tak en as significa nt.
rat each .Th ey w ere treated with the commiphora africana Tab le 1. Effect of aq ueous eth anolic stem bark extract of stem bark extract at doses of 1600, 2900 and 5000 mg/kg commiphora africana on blood glucose levels of per orally. Anim als were observed for 24 h and there was Tab le 1 showed the results of the effect of three doses Signs of the toxicity were first noticed after 5-8 h of (100, 200 and 400 m g/kg) of aqu eous etha nolic stem ba rk extract administration. There were decreased locomotor extract of commiphora afriana, metformin and control activity and sensitivity to touch. Also there was decreased groups in normoglycemic Wistar rats. The dose of feed intake, tachypnoea and prostration after 12 h of metfo rmin and 100mg/kg of the extract did not show any extract administration.The LD was calcu lated as 3807.8 significant change in blood glucose levels when comp ared to the normal treated control group. However, the dosesof 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract showed a significant An ima ls used and experimental design: Thirty six
(p<0.05) decrease in the blood glucose levels after day 5 (36 ) Wister rats weighing between (120-150g) of about 20-25 weeks of age of both sexes was used and wasobtain from the Animal House of the Departmen t of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, A.B.U. Zaria. Theywere kept in plastic cages under laboratory condition of P hy to ch em ical screening: Resu lt of the preliminary
temperature and humidity and placed on standard feed phytochemical screening o f comm iphora africana stem and allow free access to wa ter with 12 h light/dark cycle.
bark extract revealed the presence of flavinoid s, tannin, The animals w ere fasted for 12-18 h w ith free ac cess to anthraquinone, cardiac glycosides alkaloids, triterpenoids, water prior to the administration of the extract. Three Int. J. Anim. Veter. Adv., 1(1): 22-24, 2009 Acu te toxicity study: Signs of the toxicity were first
of Physio logy, F aculty of M edicin e Ahma du B ello noticed after 5-8 hours of extract adm inistration. There were decreased locomotor activity a nd se nsitivity totouch. Also there was decreased feed intake, tachypnoea REFERENCES
and prostration after 12 hours of extract administration.
The LD was calculated is 3,807.8 mg/kg by the log- Akah, P.A. and C.L. Okafor, 1992. Blood sugar lowering probit using the method of Miller and Tainter effect of Veronia amygdalina (Del) in anexperimental rabbit mod el. Phytother. Res., 6:171-173.
Atta-ur-Rahman, and K. Zaman, 1989. M edicin al plan ts with hypoglyc emic activity. J E thnop harm acol., The major classes of synthetic oral hypoglyc emic agen ts currently available for the management and/or Beach, E.F. and J.J. Turner, 1958. An enzymatic method control o f a du lt-o nse t, N ID D M , type-2 diabetes mellitus for gluco se de termin ation in body fluids . Clin.
include the sulphonyureas, biguanides, thiazolidinediones, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and so on.Com miphora Da lziel, J.M. and J. Hutchinson, 1956. The useful plants africana have been shown to have hypoglycemic potential of west tropica l Africa. 2nd Edn., Crown Agent for in normoglycemic W istar rats by possibly stimulating the Oversea Govt. and Admin. London, pp: 112-132.
$-cells and or du e to its insulin-like activity. C. africana Hanus, L.O., I. Rezanka, V.M. Dembitsky and A.
at dose s of 10 0 200 and 400 mg/k g is shown in Table 1.
M oussaieff, 2005. My rrh-commiphora chemistry.
In relation to the normal rats that received 100 mg/kg body weigh t of the extract of C.africana, there was no Irvine, F.R., 1961. Woody Plants of Ghana. Oxford significant chan ge in the blood glucose levels when compared to the co ntrol. In regard to the dose of 200 and Jayaweera, D.M .A.198 2. M edicinal plants (Indigenous 400 mg/k g, it significa ntly (p< 0.05) lowered the blood and Exotic) used in Ceylon, Part 11. National Science glucose level when compared to control after day 5 and 7 Lewis, W .H. and M .P.E. Elvin-Lewis, 1977. Medicinal Botany: Plants Affecting Mans Health, John Wiley A number of investigators have shown that coumarin, flavonoid, terpenoid and a host of other secondary plant Lorke, D., 1983. A new approach to practical acute metabolites including arginine and glutamic acids posses’ toxicity testing. Arch. Toxicol., 54: 275-287.
hyp oglyc emic effects in variou s exp erime ntal an imals Marles, R.J. an d N .R. Fa rnsw orth, 19 95. A ntidiab etic model (Akah and O kafor, 1992; Marles and Farnsworth, plants and their active constituents. Phytomedicin, 2: How ever, if the hypothesis of Marles and F arnsw orth M arta, S., P. M aryse and G . Nath alie, 2000. E ffect of (1995) which stipulates that plant w hich c ontain terpen oid metfo rmin on the vascular and glucose meta bolic and/or coum arin po sses h ypo glyce mic a ctivities in actions of insulin in hypertensive rats. Am. J.
diabetic and normal mammal, then it would seen Physiol. Gastr. Liver Physiol., 278: 682-692.
reaso nable to assume that, in part, at least, the Rheney, C.C. and K.K. Kirk, 2000. Performance of three hyp oglyc emic activity of the stem b ark of C. africana blood glucose me ters. Ann. Ph armaco ther. 34(3): may probably d ue to terpenoid present, which appe ars to be involve in th e stimulation of the ß-cells and the Serasinghe, S., P. Se rasing he an d H . Yam azak i et al., subseq uent secretion o f preformed insulin. One o r more 1990. Ora l hypo glyce mic e ffect of S alacia re ticulate of the o ther ch emic al con stituents of the plant espec ially in the streptozocin induced diabetic rat. Phytother.
Res., 4(5): 205-295.
flavon oid is also likely to have played a cruc ial role in the Sofowora, A., 1992. Medicinal Plants and Traditional hyp oglyc emic action of the p lant ex tract. Medicine in African. Spectrum Books Limited, In conclusion, the present study showed that aqueous ethan olic stem b ark ex tract of C. africana possessed Solskov, L., B. L ofgren, S.B . Kristian sen, N . Jesse n, R.
hyp oglyc emic properties in no rmoglyce mic W istar rats Pold, T. N elson , H.E. Boker, O. Schmitz and S.
which suggest the presence of biologically active Lund, 2008. M etformin induces cardioprotection com pon ents which may be worth further investigation and against ischaem ia/Reperfus ion injury in the rat heart elucidation. The effective hypoglycemic dose was found 24 hours after ad ministration. B asic Clin. Pharm.
to be 400mg/kg w eight. F urther s tudies are cu rrently under way to isolate and characterized the active Stanley, M.P. and M.P. Venugopal, 2001. Anti-oxidant com pon ents o f the cru de ex tract of this plant.
action of Tinospora, Cordifolia ro ot extra ct inalloxan-induced Diab etic rats. P hytoth er. Res.,15: ACKNOW LEDGMENTS
Trease, G.E. and M.S. Evans, 1989. Textbook of The authors of this work wish to acknowledge the Pharmacognosy. 14th Edn., B alliere T indall., technical assistance of Malam Y’au M . of the Department


Microsoft word - global_purim

Target population: Middle school/High school students Notes: Students can work alone or in pairs, using atlases or a world map. If computers with Internet access are available, they can make use of online maps. Name: King Achashverosh was Finnish with his disobedient wife Vashti. "You Congo now!" he ordered her. After she had Ghana way, the king's messengers went Roman the land to find a

Referenz 1 ) Parkinson Study Group. Pramipexole vs levodopa as initial treatment for Parkinson disease: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2000: 284:1931-38. 2 ) Parkinson Study Group. Pramipexole vs Levodopa as Initial Treatment for Parkinson Disease. A 4-Year Randomized Controlled Trial Arch Neurol 2004: 61:1044-53. 3 ) Corbin A et al. Maintained pramipexole monotherapy treatment

Copyright © 2010-2014 Medical Pdf Finder