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七年制理论教学大纲.doc

Teaching Syllabus of Pharmacology
(For 7th-Year Program students, School of Medicine) Pharmacology is a required medical course. It deals with the chemical and physical properties, action, mechanism of action, biotransformation, side effects, clinical uses and contraindications of drugs. This outline sums to 94 teaching hours according to plan. 1.Objective
Understand the character, object and status of pharmacology in the medicine. Master the basic concept of drug and pharmacology.
2.Teaching content
The concept of drug. Distinguish between drug from poison. The brief history and perspective of pharmacology abroad and technological research findings of our country. Teaching hour: 1 hour
1.Objective
Master basic concept of pharmacodynamics and basic role of pharmacological action.
2.Teaching content
The actions and effects of drug. They include the selective character of drug action, the dual character of drug action, therapeutical effect and untoward reaction. The principle of drug action: diversity of action; the concept of ligand and receptor, the significance of receptor in the drug action, affinity, intrinsic activity, PD2, significance of feedback. Agonist, partial agonist, antagonist, PA2, structure - activity relationship of drugs. Dose–effect relationship of drug action: quantal dose response, graded dose response. dose-effect curves, intensity of action maximal effect and 50% effective dose, threshold dose, therapeutic dose, maximal dose, toxic dose and lethal dose. Teaching hour: 3 hours
1.Objective
Master basic concept of pharmacokinetics and calculation of basic parameters. Understand compartment models and clinical significance
of blood drug determination.
2.Teaching content
The principle of first-order kinetics and zero-order kinetics. Transmembrane transport of drugs. Drug absorption pathway, first-pass effect, hepatoenteral circulation, bioavailability, The principle and meanings of plasma protein binding .The reason and meaning of drug uneven distribution. apparent volume of distribution, transformation of drug and its metabolites, the characteristic of hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzyme (hepatic drug enzyme and cytochrome P450), enzyme inducers and enzyme inhibitors, elimination of drug. ie. metabolism, excretion, of drug and storage. drug elimination rate constant and general idea of drug elimination, drug excretion pathways and the mechanism. time-effect curve, drug plasma, half-life, drug accumulation in vivo continuous medication. Css and loading dose. The application of drug plasma concentration monitoring. Teaching hour: 3 hours
Chapter 4 The factors of influence on drug action 1.Objective
Master the factors affecting drug actions and principle of reasonable medication.
2.Teaching content
The factors affecting drug actions: drug preparations, route of administration, interaction, individual difference, allergic reaction, physiologic and pathologic status, drug-resistance and environmental factors. Teaching hour: 1 hour
Chapter 5 Introduction of autonomic nerve system pharmacology 1.Objective
Master biosynthesis, transport, storage, release and metabolism of acetylcholine and noradrenaline. Master physiologic effects of different
type of receptors when excited and the classifications of autonomic
nerve system drugs.
2.Teaching content
(1)Review autonomic nerve system according to the transmitters and phyisological functions. The biosynthesis, transport, storage, release and metabolism of acetylcholine and noradrenaline. (2)The classfication of receptors: α ( α 1, α 2) and β ( β 1, β 2) adrenoceptors, M (M1, M2) and N (N1, N2) cholinoceptors. The distribution of receptors. Receptor-effector coupling mechanism, the (3)The basic mechanism of action of autonomic nerve system drugs: direct action on receptor, influence the biosynthesis of the transmitters, transport, transfer and storage. The classification of autonomic nervous system drugs. Teaching hour: 2 hours
1.Objective
Understand the muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic effects of acetylcholine, master the actions, clinical uses, untoward effects of
pilocarpine and neostigmine.
2.Teaching content
(1)The muscarinic effects and nicotinic effects of acetylcholine. (2)The pharmacologic effects of pilocarpine: M-receptors, local effects on pupil, intraocular pressure and accommodation uses. (3)cholinesterase-inhibitors: severely inhibiting effect on cholinesterase. The pharmacokinetics of physostigmine, the effect on CNS and eye, clinical uses. The pharmacokinetic behavior of neostigmine, drug action, clinical use and side effects. Teaching hour: 2 hours
Chapter 7 M-Cholinoceptor Blocking Drugs 1.Objective
Master action, use and untoward effects of atropine. The characteristics of anisodamine and scopolamine.
2.Teaching content
(1)The M-cholinoceptor blocking actions of atropine, It has competitively blocking effect on M-cholinoreceptor, The receptor sensitivity on various are different. The action on cardiovascular system, smooth muscle, glands, eye and CNS. Clinical uses, side effects and the symptoms and treatment of atropine intoxication. (2)The characteristic effects of anisodamine and scopolamine on CNS and periphery, clinical uses. The uses of homatropine and probanthine. The evaluation of synthetic antispasmic drugs. Teaching hour: 2 hours
Chapter 8 N- Cholinoceptor Blocking Drugs 1.Objective
Understand pharmacological effects and clinical use of ganglionic blocking drugs. Master the difference of two kinds of skeletal muscular
relaxants.
2.Teaching content
(1)Selective blocking N1 receptors of ganglionic blocking drugs. The action characteristic and chlinical use of mecamylamine. (2)The action on N2 receptor on skeletal muscular relaxants. The difference of deplarizing muscular relaxants (succinycholine) and nondepolarizing muscular relaxants (tubocurarine and gallamine triethiodide) on drug action, clinical uses and side effects. Teaching hour: 1 hour
1.Objective
Master the pharmacological effects and clinical uses of adrenaline, noradrenaline, isoprenaline. Understand the pharmacological effects
and clinical uses of ephedrine, dopamine and phenylephrine.
2.Teaching content
(1)The basic chemical structure and structure effect relationship of (2)The pharmacokinetics, pharmacological action of noradrenaline: α and β1 receptor agonists. Little effect onβ2 receptor. The clinical use, side effects and contraindication of noradrenaline. (3)The pharmacokinetics, pharmacological action of adrenaline: potent stimulator of both αand βreceptor. The clinical uses, side effects and contraindication of adrenaline. (4)Isoprenaline: activated β1 and β2 receptors, clinical uses , (5)The pharmacological action characteristics of dopamine, Teaching hour: 3 hours
1.Objective
Understand the action of α adrenoceptor blocking drugs. Master the pharmacological actions and clinical uses of β adrenoceptor
blocking drugs.
2.Teaching content
(1) α adrenoceptor blocking drugs: the selective effects of phentolamine and phenoxybenzamine on αreceptors, and their clinical uses. (2)βadrenoceptor blocking drugs: β blocking effect, membrane stabilizing action and endogenous sympathomimetic effects, characteristic of propranalol. Clinical uses, side effects and progress of β-blockers. Teaching hour: 2 hours
Chapter 11 Introduction of Central Nervous System Pharmacology 1.Objective
Understand the regularity of drug on central nervous system. Master the classification and mechanism of action of CNS drugs.
2.Teaching content
The characteristics of central nervous system on anatomy, physiology and biochemistry. The classification of central nervous system drugs: nonspecific action drugs (general anesthetics, sedatives and hypnotics, local anethetics); specific action drugs (analgesic, antipsychotic antiparkinsonism drugs, antihistamine drugs). Teaching hour: 1 hour
1.Objective
Master the pharmacological effect, clinical uses and main side effects of chlorpromazine. Understand the action characteristic of other
drugs.
2.Teaching content
Concept of mental disorder and the classification of drugs. (1)Antipsychotic drugs: the pharmacological effects of antiadrenergic effects, temperature regulation, antiemetic effects, endocrine effects. Clinical uses and main side effects (extrapyramidal system reactions). The characteristic of other drugs. (chlorperphenazine, trifluperazine, Fluophenazine, Chlorpyrifos,haloperidol). (2)Antimanic drugs and antidepressant drugs: antimanic drugs: the antimanic action, clinical uses and side Antidepressant drugs: the antidepressant action of imipramine, its clinical uses, side effects and contraindications. Teaching hour: 3 hours
1.Objective
Master the pharmacological effects, clinical uses and side effects of levodopa. Understand the uses of anticholinergic drugs on
Parkinson’s disease.
2.Teaching content
Etiology of Parkinson’s disease. (1)Levodopa: pharmaclolgical effects, mechanism of action, clinical uses, side effects and contraindication. (2)The mechanism of action and side effects of anticholinergic (3)Others: the action characteristics of amantadine and seligiline.
Teaching hour: 1 hour
1.Objective
Master pharmacological effects, clinical uses and side effects of benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Understand action characteristics of
other drugs.
2.Teaching content
Concept of sedatives and hypnotics. (1)Benzodiazepines: pharmacological effects of diazepam. Mechanism of action and pharmacokineitcs. Clinical uses, tolerance, addiction and other side effects. The characteristics of nitrazepam, clonazepam, estazolam . (2)Barbiturates: the difference of phenobarbital amobarbital, secobarbital, thiopental on pharmacokinetics and drug action. Acute poisoning and principle of treatment. (3)Others: the characteristic of meprobamate, chloral hydrate and Teaching hour: 3 hours
Chapter 15 Anticonvulsant and Antiepileptics 1.Objective
Master the pharmacological effects, uses and side effects of magnesium sulfate, phenobarbital, phenytoin and ethosuximide
2.Teaching content
(1)Anticonvulsant: The pharmacological effects and clinical uses (2)Antiepileptic: the symptoms and classification of epilepsy. barbiturates: clinical uses, the relation of GABA anti-epilepsy. The characteristics of phenobarbital and primidone . hydantoins: phenytoin: clinical uses and pharmacokinetics, side effects and interaction with other drugs. Succinimide: the clinical uses and side effects of ethosuximide. Others: the characteristics of valproic acid, clonazepam, diazepam Teaching hour: 2 hours
1.Objective
Master the pharmacological effects, uses and side effects of aspirin, acetaminophen, phenobutazone. Understand the mechanism of
drug action and side effects.
2.Teaching content
Pharmacological effects of antipyretic-analgesic agents. They (1)Salicylates: aspirin: pharmacokinetics, pharmacological effects, (2)Acetaminophen: pharmacological effects and side effects. (3)The characteristics of phenobutazone, amidazofen and (4)Others (indomethacin , Mefenamic, clofenamic acid , Teaching hour: 3 hours
1.Objective
Master action characteristic, uses and side effects of morphine, pethidine, pentazocine and rotundine. Understand the hazard of
analgesic abuse.
2.Teaching content
Classification of analgesic. (1)Opioid analgesics: morphine: pharmacological effects, opioid receptors, mechanism of action, clinical uses, side effects, contraindication and announcements. The characteristics of codeine. (2)Synthetic analgesics: the characteristic of pethidine, (3)Other drugs: rotundine
(4)Opioid receptor antagonist :naloxone ,nalorphine
Teaching hour:
3 hours
Chapter 18 Central Stimulants(analeptics) 1.Objective
Master characteristics and clinical , uses and attention of caffeine, nikethamide, and dimefline.
2.Teaching content
Concept, clinical uses of central stimulants. (1)Corticocerebral effects(central nervous system effects, cardiovascular effects, effect on smooth muscle, others), clinical uses, untoward effects. The characteristics and uses of methylphenidate, meclofenoxate. (2)Stimulants that mainly stimulate apneustic center in medulla oblongata: nikethamide, dimefline, lobeline, bemegride. Teaching hour: 1 hour(experiment)
Chapter 19 Drugs used in the treatment of Congestive Heart Failure 1.Objective
Understand the source, pharmacokinetics of cardiac glycosides. Master the pharmacological effect, side effects and uses of cardiac
glycosides. Understand characteristic of the other drugs.
2.Teaching content
(1)Cardiac glycosides: source and chemistry, pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion), pharmacological effects (positive intropic effect, negative chronotropic effect, electrical activity, extracardiac effects), mechanism of positive inotropic effect of digitalis, clinical uses, untoward effects, treatments of untoward effects, route of administration. (2)Other drugs used in congestive heart failure: βadrenergic receptor stimulators, diuretics, angiotensin-conventing enzyme inhibitors, vasodilators, isosorbide dinitrate, calcium channel blockers. Teaching hour: 4 hours
1.Objective
Understand the classification of antihypertensive agents. Master the pharmacological effects and untoward effects of clonidine, α
-methyldopa, reserpine, guanethidine, prazosin, hydralazine, minoxidil,
diazoxide, β-adrenergic blocking drugs, captopril.
2.Teaching content
(1)Understand the etiology of hypertension. The significance of antihypertensive agents treatments in hypertensive. The classification of antihypertensive agents according to the site of action. (2)Drugs that alter sympathetic nervous system function: centrally acting sympathetic agent: pharmacological effects and mechanism of action. clinical uses and untoward effects of clonidine. The characteristic of α-methyldopa. Ganglionic blockers: the clinical uses, untoward effects and Agents that block postganglionic adrenergic neuron: the characteristic, clinical uses of reserpine. Agents that block adrenergic receptors: α-adernergic blocking agents(prazosin, phentolamine), β-adrenergic blocking agents. (3)Vasodilator: the characteristic, uses and untoward effects of hydralazine, diazoxide, minocidil, sodium nitroprusside. (4) Diuretics: hydrochlorothiazide. (5)Drugs that interfere with the renin- angiotensin system. Angiotensin Ⅱ receptor blockers: losartan, Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors: captopril. Mange principle of hypertension: drug seletion of different stages of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies. Combination of drugs, dosage individualization. Teaching hour: 4 hours
1.Objective
Understand the relationship between anigna with oxygen supply and demand. Master the pharmacological effects and clinical uses of
nitrates and β adrenergic blocking drugs.
2.Teaching content
(1)Symptoms and mechanism of angina pectoris. (2)Nitrates and nitrites: nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate, pentaerythritol tetranitrate. pharmacological effects: relaxation of smooth muscle, especially blood vessel smooth muscle. Decrease preload and afterload, decrease oxygen consumption. It helps to remove morre blood flow. Epicardial area to afford, the endocardial area. Opening of the by-pass. clinical effects and untoward effects. (3) β adrenergic blocking drugs: pharmacological effects, shortcomings and the basis on combination of βblockers and nitrates. (4)The pharmacological effects and uses of nimodipine, diltiazem, Teaching hour: 3 hours.
1.Objective
Understand the untoward effects and clinical uses of antiarrhythmic drugs. Master the influence of antiarrhuthmic drugs on
the membrane potential of cardiac cell.
2.Teaching content
(1)Review elementary knowledge related to myocardium physiology: action potential phases and ions across membrane. Automaticity, conductivity, excitability, absolute refractory period, effecitive refractory period, action potential duration, reentry, mechanism of arrhythmias. (2)The classification of antiarrhythmic drugs: Na+ channel blocking drugs(Ⅰa): quinidine: decrease membrane permeability to Na+, also decrease membrane permeability to K+, Ca2+, decrease automatioty, conduction speed, prolong effective refractory period, decrease cardiac contractity, ECG changes, used to treat atrial fibillation, atrial flutter, side effects: syncope, precautions in using qunidine. Procainamide: the difference with quinidine. Ⅰb: lidocaine, promote K+ efflux, and inhibit Na+ influx, mainly affect on purkinje’s system, decrease automaticity, enhance the conduction speed of damaged fiber, shortening refractory period and duration of action potential. Used to treat ventricular arrhythmias. Pharmacokinetics and side effects. Phenytoin: characteristics of action, compared with lidocaine. flecainide: propafenone, encainide: pharmacological Ⅱ: βadrenergic blocking drugs: propranolol: the relationship of antiarrhythmic effects with βreceptor blocking action and membrane stabilizing effects, clinical uses, untoward effects and contraindications. Uses of other β adrenergic blocking drugs. Ⅲ: prolongation of APD drugs: amiodarone, sotalol, bretylium: pharmacological effects, clinical uses and untoward effects. Ⅳ: Ca2+ blockers: verapamil, diltiazem: pharmacological effects, Teaching hour: 4 hours
1.Objective
Master pharmacological characteristics of clofibrate, nicotinic acid, cholestyramine.
2.Teaching content
(1)Review the types of hyperlipoproteinemia. Evaluation of antihyperlipidemics in preventing and treatment of coronary diseases. (2)Pharmacological effects, clinical uses and untoward effects of clofibrate, nicotinic acid, cholestyramine. The characteristics of unsaturated fatty acid. Teaching hour: 1 hour
1.Objective
Understand the action sites of diuretics. Master the pharmacological effects, clinical uses and untoward effects of
furosemide, thiazides, triamterene, mannitol, etc.
2.Teaching content
(1)The concept of diuretics. Review urinary physiological process, glomerular filtration, reabsorption and secretion of tubes and function of collective tubes. The importance of diuretics in treatment of edema, hypertension and congestive heart failure. The classification of diuretics depending on the action sites. (2)High efficacy diuretics (loop diuretics): furosemide and bumetamide, pharmacological effects, characteristics: high efficacy fast onset. Inhibit Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport system in the thick ascending limb of loop of Henle in medulla and contex, inhibit Cl- active reabsorption and Na+ passive reabsorption. Inhibit concentrating and diluting function of kidney. clinical uses: used to treat severe edema, acute pulmonary edema and cerebral edema, renal failure. and untoward effects. (3)Moderate efficacy diuretics (thiazides or thiazide-like diuretics): primary site of action is at distal convoluted tubule, inhibit Na+-Cl- cotransport. hydrochlorothiazide, pharmacological effects, clinical uses and untoward effects. Comparison on the same kind drugs. triamterence, amiloride: pharmacological characteristic, clinical uses and untoward effects. (5)Osmotic diutetics: concept, dehydration effects of mannitol, sorbitol and hypertonic glucose. Clinical uses and side effects. (6)Chinese herbal medicine: diuresis of tuckahoe, agaric, Teaching hour: 3 hours
Chapter 25 Drugs used in the treatment of Asthma 1.Objective
Master the pharmacological effects of antiasthmatic drugs. 2.Teaching content
Mechanism of action, clinical uses of drugs: adrenergic drugs (ipratropine), theophylline(Aminophylline), sodium cromoglicate, adrenal cortical hormone. Teaching hour: 1 hour (experiment)
Chapter 26 Drugs affecting Uterine Motility 1.Objective
Understand principle of selection of drugs on augment dysfuncitonal labor, induce labor and postpartum uterine haemorrhage. Master the pharmacological effects and untoward effects of oxytocin,
ergot alkaloids.
2.Teaching content
(1)Physiological characteristics of uterine muscle. (2)The pharmacological effects, clinical uses and untoward effects (3)Ergot alkaloids: characteristics, clinical uses and attention. (4)The pharmacological effects of prostaglandins on uterine Teaching hour: 1 hour(experiment)
Chapter 27 Anticoagulants, Coagulants and Antianemia Drugs 1.Objective
Understand the pharmacological effects and uses of dicoumarol, Vitamin K, dextran. Master the pharmacological effects and clinical
uses of heparin, folic acid and vitamin B12.
2.Teaching content
Review the mechanism of blood coagulation and anticoagulation. (1)Antocoagulant: heparin: source and chemistry, pharmacological effects, clinical uses and untoward effects. Coumarin: warfarin, dicumarol, acenodicumarol. Action characteristics, clinical uses and untoward effects of drugs. Anti-platelet aggregation drugs: aspirin. (2)Coagulants: vitamin K: source, pharmacological effects, uses. Anti-fibrinolytics: the pharmacological effects, clinical uses and untoward effects of aminomethylbenzoic acid and tranexamic acid. (3)Antianemia drug: Clinical uses, untoward effects of ferrous sulfate, iron dextran, ferric ammonium citrate, folic acid and vitamin B12. (4)Plasma expander: dextran, expand the blood volume, improve microcirculation, diuresis and anticoagulant effect, clinical uses. Teaching hour: 3 hours.
Chapter 28 Histamine and Antihistamine Drugs 1.Objective
Understand the relationship between histamine and allergy. Master the pharmacological effects and clinical uses of antihistamine drugs(H1
and H2 antagonists).
2.Teaching content
(1)Histamine: source, relationship with allergy, clinical uses. (2)Antihistamine drugs: H1 receptor antagonist (diphenhydramine, promethazine, chlorphenamine, buclizine): H1 receptor blockade, clinical uses, main H2 receptor antagonist (cimetidine): H2 receptor blockade, clinical Teaching hour: 1 hour(experiment)
1.Objective
Understand the basic knowledge and learn how to use them properly in clinic, avoid or decrease adverse effects. grasp the main
physiological actions and pharmacological actions of adrenocortical
hormones, clinical uses ,adverse effects, and cautions.
2.Teaching content
Pharmaceutical classification, structure-activity relationship. (1)mineralocorticoids :pharmacological actions and clinical uses (2)Pharmacological action of glucocorticoids. ①Physiological action: regulating metabolism of carbohydrate, immunosuppressive effect. antitoxin actions, antishock actions, effect on the formed elements of blood , effect on central nerve system. Elucidate the manifestations of these actions and the reasons of them respectively, immunosuppressive effects based on advantage and disadvantage aspects. (3)Mechanism of glucocorticoids: cytoplasmic receptor, combine with DNA in nucleus, activate transcripition, synthesize new proteins. (4)Clinical uses of glucocorticoids: severe infections, relieve symptoms; inflammation; allergic disorders; and autoimmune disorders; shock, hematologic diseases. Substitution therapy, local applications form dermatogic disease. (5)Adverse effects: similar to the symptom of hyperfunction of adrenal cortex, long term administration result in insufficiency of adrenal cortex, induce or exacerbate infection, induce peptic ulcers, prolong wounded healing. Caution and contraindication. (6)Advantages and disadvantages of using glucocorticosteroids, the severe consequence of abuse, withdrawl of steroid therapy after long term adminsitration. (7)Typical glucocorticoids: cortisone, hydroacortisone, prednisone, prednisolone dexamethasone fluocinolone acetonide, medication. (8)Corticotropin: pharmacological actions and clinical uses.
Teaching hour: 3 hours.
Chapter 30 Agents affecting the thyroid gland 1.Objective
Understand thyroid gland and clinical uses of thyroid hormone preparations. Grasp mechanism of actions of thyroid gland agents,
clinical uses, adverse effect and caution.
2.Teaching content
Review biochemistry and physiology of thyroid hormones: synthesis, storage and secretion of thyroid hormone. Relationship to hypothalamus and hypophysis. Action on growth and differentiation of cells. And on energy metabolism, clinical uses and adverse effect. Inhibit peroxidase, block oxidation of iodide, inhibit iodination of tyrosine, block synthesis of thyroid hormone. Characteristic of each drug, used to treat hyperthyroidism. Adverse effects and caution. Lugol’s solution: caution. (3)Radioactive iodine: for diagnosis and therapy of Teaching hour: 2 hours
1.Objective
Grasp mechanism of action of insulin and oral hypoglycemic 2.Teaching content
Review biochemistry of insulin. Enhance glycogenesis and glycolysis, regulate carbohydrate metabolism. insufficiency of insulin results in diabetes. substitution therapy. intermediate-acting insulin (insulin zinc suspention amorphous); long-acting insulin (insulin zinc suspension ), principle for selection of drugs, adverse effect and caution. Oral hypoglycemic agents: Sulfonylureas: tolbutamide chlorpropamide glibenclamide. Direction stimulation of insulin release from the B cell. treatment of patients suffering from typeⅡ diabetes. Biguanides : hyperglycemia with refractory obesity and combine Cause lactic acidosis
Teaching hour: 2 hours
1.Objective
Understand chemotherapy implication and brief history of antibacterial drugs. Grasp commonly used term of antibacterial drugs
and mechanism of antibacterial drugs.
2.Teaching content
chemotherapy implication relationship among drugs, host and pathogen, establishment and development of antibacterial. Commonly used terms: antimicrobial spectrum, resistance and Bacteria structure and function: Principle of antibacterial: Inhibit metabolism of bacterial Folic acid : sulfonamides and Effect on synthesis of bacterial cell wall: penicillins and Effect on synthesis of bacterial protein: streptomycin, erythromycin chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Effect on function of bacterial cell membrane: polymyxins Teaching hour: 2 hours
Chapter 33 Sulfonamide and other synthetic antimicrobial drugs 1.Objective
Grasp antimicrobial spectrum, indications, pharmacokinetics and clinical uses of sulfonamides. Grasp mechanism and significance of integration of sulfonamides and trimethoprim. Comprehend antibacterial usage in urinary tract infection (furadanti).
2.Teaching content
Relationship among chemical structure, pharmacological action Relationship among pharmacokinetics, drug selection and toxicity. Adverse effects, and their prevention. Commonly used Sulfanilamide: SD、SIZ、SMZ. Characteristic and selection of drugs. disadvantage, long acting Sulfanilamides. Principle of potentiation of Sulfanilamide by trimethoprim (TMP), Combination with SMZ. Evaluation on use of SMZ+TMP combined with antibacterial. pharmacological action, mechanism of action, characteristics. Principle of treating urinary tract infection. Development of new quinolones. Teaching hour: 3 hours
Chapter 34 Beta-lactam antibiotics and cephalosporins 1.Objective
Pharmacological action, antimicrobial spectrum, indications, adverse effects, and their prevention. Characteristics of penicillin G, semi-synthetic development of penicillins and cephalosporins.
2.Teaching content
Physical and chemical property of penicillin G, antimicrobial spectrum, mechanism of action, characteristic pharmacokinetics and routes of administration, bacteria resistance,allergy, and its prevention. Clinical uses. Long-acting mechanism of procaine penicillin G and Benzathine Benzylpenicillin, clinical evaluation. Side chain binding to 6-aminopenicillanic acid form semi-synthetic penicillins. Beta-lactamase-resistant oxacillins can be used to treat infection caused by resistant staphylococci. Characteristics and aminobenzylpenicillin, carbenicillin and antipseudomonal extended spectrum penicillins. Side chain binding to 7-aminocephalosporanic acid form Chemical structure and pharmacological actions are similar to those of benzylpenicillin , antimicrobial spectrum is extensive, commonly used cephalosporin: first-generation cephalosporin, second-generation cephalosporin, third-generation cephalosporin. Characteristics and clinical uses of different drugs. Teaching hour: 3 hours
1.Objective
Grasp antimicrobial spectrum , indications ,resistance adverse effects, and their prevention of streptomycin; gentamycin ,kanamycin.
Comprehend development of aminoglycosides.
2.Teaching content
Chemical structure, physical and chemical properties of aminoglycoside, antimicrobial action, antimicrobial spectrum, resistance, pharmacokinetics, toxicity and other adverse effects. Commonly used aminoglycosides: streptomycin, gentamycin, kanamycin, comparison among different drugs. Clinical uses and caution. Characteristics of tobramycin, amikacin, ethyl sisomicin
Teaching hour: 2 hours.
1.Objective
Antibacterial activity, clinical uses, adverse effect and characteristics of macrolides.
2.Teaching content
Antibacterial activity, clinical uses, adverse effect, mechanism, resistance of erythromycin. Substitute of benzylpenicillin, comparison with benzylpenicillin. Antibacterial activity, clinical uses, adverse effects, mechanism, Antibacterial activity, clinical uses, adverse effects, mechanism, Teaching hour: 2 hours.
1.Objective
Grasp characteristics of tetracycline and chloramphenicol, mechanism, clinical uses, adverse effects, their prevention and
treatment.
2.Teaching content
Tetracyclines: basic structure, antimicrobial mechanism of action, antimicrobial spectrum, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, their prevention and treatment. Characteristics of commonly used tetracyclines, clinical uses, and drug selection. antimicrobial spectrum, bone marrow disturbance, and other adverse effects, clinical uses and caution. Evaluation on broad spectrum antibiotics.
Teaching hour: 1 hour
Chapter 38 Antifungal agents,antiviral drugs 1.Objective
Grasp antifungal action, clinical uses and adverse effects of antifungal agents (nystatin, amphotericin B, griseofulvin). Understand
antiviral drugs outline.
2.Teaching content
Antifungal activity, pharmacokinetics. Adverse effect and clinical uses of nystatin, amphotericin B and griseofulvin Characteristics of antiviral drugs (amantadine, idoxuridine and moroxydine). Clinical uses and evaluation . Teaching hour: 2 hour.( antiviral drugs can be arranged to read
1.Objective
Grasp pharmacological action of antimycobacterial drugs (streptomycin isoniazid, aminosalicylic Acid, rifampin, ethambutol), resistance, adverse effects and clinical uses, therapeutic principle of tuberculosis. 2.Teaching content
Antituberculosis action, resistance, clinical significance and Pharmacological action, resistance, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, and their prevention and treatment, indications and clinical uses of isoniazid. Antibacterial activity, resistance, adverse effects and clinical uses Rifampin is semi-synthetic product of rifamycin B, mechanism of antibacterial activity, resistance, adverse effects, clinical uses. Antibacterial activity mechanism of antibacterial activity, adverse effect, and their prevention, clinical uses, dosage and administration of ethambutol. Therapeutic principle of antituberculosis: early treatment, combination medication, long-term treatment, intermittent treatment, and its evaluaton. Teaching hour: 1 hour (antileprotic can be arranged to read by
1.Objective
(1)Comprehend therapeutical principle of immunosuppression agents, main indication, adverse effects, characteristics of commonly used immunosuppression agents. (2)Grasp mechanism of anti- malignant tumor agents, indication and adverse effect. Comprehend relationship between cell proliferation
cycle and cancer chemotherapy.
2.Teaching content
Overview: status of anti-malignant tumor agents on cancer chemotherapy. cell proliferation kinetics and malignant tumor chemotherapy. formylmerphalan, carmustine, thiophosphoramide, busulfan cross-link with DNA and inhibits its replication. Antimetabolites: Folic acid antagonist: methotrexate; purine Pyrimidine antagonist: Fluorouracil; DNA synthesis antagonist: Antibiotics: actinomycin D, bleomycin mitomycin C, plicamycin, Plant alkaloids: vinblastine, vincristine, colchicine, affect spindle formation. Camptothecine hydroxycamptothecin, harringtonine. Hormones: adrenal cortical hormone; androgen, estrogen. Other agents: cisplatin and carboplatin, L-asparaginase, Interferon. Selectivity of available cancer chemotherapy is not high, cause lesion to normal tissue in high proliferation. high toxicity. The application is limited, consideration the combination of drugs on the base of pharmacology. Teaching hour: 3 hours

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