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How Archaea differs from Bacteria and Prokaryotes 1. Cel wal s contain various polysaccharides o NOT peptidoglycan (like in bacteria) or cel ulose (like in plants) or chitin (in fungi) 2. Plasma membranes contain phospholipids that differ from the phospholipids found in bacteria o The glycerol found in archaea phospholipids is an isomer of the glycerol found in o Hydrocarbon chains are branched and attach with ether-linkages (in bacteria and eukaryotes it is un-branched ester linkages) 1. DNA in both archaea and eukaryotes is associated with histone proteins 2. Ribosome activity in archaea and eukaryotes is NOT inhibited by antibiotics (i.e.: streptomyocin • Obligate anaerobes – exist without O2 • Produce methane (CH4) as a by-product of obtaining energy from H2 in order to fix CO2 • Live in mud, swamps and the guts of cows, 1. Halophiles • Live in environments with high salt • Most are aerobic and heterotrophic, which others are anaerobic and photosynthetic with
the pigment bacteriorhodopsin
• Live in hot environments such as hot springs • Most are sulfur-based chemoautotrophs • Other extremophiles live in high acid Domain Bacteria
How Bacteria differs from Archaea and Eukaryotes 1. Bacterial cel wal s are made with peptidoglycan, which is a polymer of a monosaccharide with 2. Bacterial DNA is not associated with histone proteins 3. Ribosome activity can be inhibited with antibiotics (i.e. streptomycin and chloramphenicol) 1. Many bacteria categorized by their mode of nutrition or how they metabolize resources2. Some bacteria are distinguished by their ability to produce endospores o Endospores: resistant bodies that contain the genetic material and a smal amount of
3. Bacteria are distinguished by their means of motility, whether by flagel a, corkscrew motion or gliding through slimy material that they secrete 4. Bacteria are classified into three shapes a. Cocci—sphericalb. Bacil i – rod-shapedc. Spiril a – spirals 5. The wel wal distinguishes between gram(+) and gram(-) bacteria o Gram (+) – has a thick peptidoglycan cel wal
o Gram(-) – thin peptidoglycan wal covered in a layer of liposaccharides
• Photosynthetic, using chlorophyl a to capture light energy, splitting • Phycobilins: accessory pigments
Heterocysts: specialized cel s that produce nitrogen-fixing enzymes
Nitrifying Bacteria: convert nitrite (NO -
• Mutualistic relationship with plants Both bacteria and plant benefit from an interdependent • Nodules: specialized structures in plant roots where this bacteria lives
• Coiled bacteria that move with a corkscrew motion • Flagel a are internal, positioned within the layers of the cel wal Domain Eukarya
Protista
• Protists: Unicel ular eukaryotes that exhibit more structural and functional diversity than any • The evolutionary relationships are not very understood o Some shared features can represent convergent evolution 1. Euglenoids: have one to three flagel a at apical
o P el icles : smal thin strips that wrap around cel o Some have eyespots that permits phototaxis, which is the ability to move in response to light 2. Dinoflagellates: have two flagel a, one of which is
posterior (in the back) while the other is transverse lies o Can produce nerve toxins that concentrate in filter-feeding shel fish, which cause il ness in humans when eaten o Abundant components of marine and freshwater 3. Diatoms: have shel s (tests) that fit together like a box
4. Brown Algae: multicel ular and have flagel ated sperm
5. Rhodophyta (red algae): contain red accessory
o Multicel ular and gametes do not have flagel a 6. Chlorophyta (green algae): have both chlorophyl a and
b, have cel ulose cel wal s and store their o C harophytes : lineage of chlorophytes and are o I sogamous – gametes where both sperm and egg nisogamous – sperm and egg differ in size ogamus – where a large egg cel remains with the parent and is fertilized by a smal , motile sperm 1. Rhizopoda: amoebas that move by extensions of their
o Pseudopodia encircle food and absorb it by 2. Foraminifera (forams): have tests made of calcium
o Found both in ocean and freshwater o Many fossilized forams are excel ent markers for correlating the ages of sedimentary tocks in 3. Apicomplexans: parasites of animals
pical complex : complex of organel es located at the apex (end) of the cel o No physical means of motility o form spores which are dispersed by hosts that participate in the completion of their life cycles o Ex: sporozoan that cause malaria spend part of life 4. Ciliates: distinguished by their cilia, which they use
o Contain structures like mouths, anal pores, contractile vacuoles, two kinds of nuclei and other 1. Cellular Slime Molds: exhibit fungus-like and
protozoalike characteristics during life cycle o Spores germinate into amoebas which feed on o When food sources are depleted, the amoebas aggregate into a single unit, which migrates as a o Individual cel s of the slug mobilize and form a o The spores repeat the cycle when they germinateo C yclic AMP – secreted by amoebas that experience food deprivation. Serves as the stimulus for aggregation. 2. Plasmodial Slime Molds: Grow as a single unit,
spreading mass (plasmodium) and feeding on decaying vegetation o When food is scarce, stalks bearing the spore o Haploid spores are released from the capsule and germinate into haploid amoeboid or flagel ated o The diploid cel grows into the spreading 3. Oomycota : include water molds, downy mildews and
o Form filaments (hyphae) which secret enzymes  These filaments lack septa (cel s wal s), which in many of the true fungi partition the filaments into compartments o Coenocytic – contain many nuclei within a single o Cel wal s of Oomycota are made of cel ulose Fungi
o Saprophytic: decompose dead materialo Parasitic • Hyphae: bodies of fungi form a network of tiny filaments
o Hyphae are composed of tubular cel wal s surrounding the plasma membrane and • Mycelium: Mass of hyphae
Septa: cross wal s which divide the filaments into compartments containing a single nucleus
o When fungi lack septa, they are multinucleate, or coenocytic
• Cel wal s of fungi are made of chitin
Haustoria: the hyphae of parasitic fungi that penetrate the host
1. Secual reproduction in fungi begins with hyphae from two distinct mycelia release sexual 2. plasmogamy : The union of the cytoplasm of the parent mycelia to produce single cel with
o Dikaryon: pair of haploid nuclei, one from each strain o Dikaryotic Hypha – hyphae containing a dikaryon 3. Karyogamy: the haploid nuclei contributed by the two parents fuse, producing diploid cel s
o Many hours, days or even centuries may pass between plasmogamy and karyogamyo This is the only stage where diploidy exists in most fungio Zygotes and other transient structures form during this time 4. Meiosis of the diploid nucleus restores the haploid condition o Daughter cel s develop into haploid spores, which germinate and form haploid hyphae • Fragmentation – breaking up of hyphae• Budding – the pinching off of a smal hyphal outgrowth • Asexual spores a. Sporangiospores: produced in saclike capsules cal ed sporangia that are each borne on a
b. Conidia are formed at the tips of specialized hyphae, not enclosed inside sacs. Hyphae
• Reproduce sexual y by fusion of hyphae from different strains, followed by • Haploid zygospores are produced which germinate into new hyphae • Lack septa but do not produce zygospores • Fungi that only exists with mutualistic associations with roots of plants Mycorrhizae: fungus-root relationship
• Have septa that reproduce sexual y by producing haploid ascospores • Ex: yeasts, powdery mildews and truffles • Have septa and produce sexual y by producing haploid basidiospores • Artificial group comprising fungi for which no sexual reproductive cycle • Ex: penicil ium from where penicil in is obtained • Mutualistic associations between algae and fungi • Algae (chlorophyta or cyanobacteria) provides sugar from photosynthesis • The fungus (ascomycota) provides water and protection from environment o Some fungi produce figments that shield algae from UV Plantae
Plant Adaptations to Survive on Land
a. Diploid structure more apt to survive genetic damage because has two copies of each 2. Cuticle: waxy covering that reduces desiccation (extreme dryness)3. Vascular system has tissues that transport water, minerals and nutrients to al parts of the plant a. Xylem: specialized for water transportb. Phloem: specialized for sugar transport 4. In more advanced systems, the sperm is packaged as pollen which can be delivered by wind or 5. Gametophytes are protected by being enclosed in an ovary6. Some plants have developed adaptations to seasonal variation in the availability of water and • Apical Meristems: localized cel division at the tips of shoots and roots of plant cel s o Because plants cannot move, their shoots and roots continue to elongate to keep o Shoots – generate leaves in many plants • Alternation of generations – sexual gametophyte (haploid) stage followed by an asexual o Sporophyte undergoes meiosis to make haploid spores that are capable of developing into a new organism without fusing with another cel o Gametophytes, on the other hand, must fuse with another cel in order to make a zygote Common Name
Bryophytes (Nonvascular)
Seedless Plants (Vascular)
Seed Plants (Vascular)
Bryophytes (Nonvascular)
• Plants that do not have an extensive transport system (i.e.: xylem and phylem) o They do not have true roots, true stems or true leaveso They must remain smal and water must be readily available for absorption through 1. Gametes are produced within multicel ular organs cal ed gametangia o Female gametangia: archegonia
o Male gametangia: antheridia
2. Antheridia produces flagel ated sperm that swims to the egg through water droplets or water 3. Each egg is fertilized within the archegonium, where the zygote develops into an embryo4. The embryo grows a long stalk (seta) that emerges from the archegonium o The long stalk contains a capsules ful of haploid spores that are distributed by the wind, germinate and grow into haploid gametophytes Tracheophyta: Seedless Vascular
Psilophyta
• The most primitive of the tracheophytes and contain rhizoids instead or roots• One vascular bundle • Possess roots, microphyl leaves and hollow jointed systems that have leaves on each joint • Contain sporophyl s, which are modified leaves that bear sporangia o The sporophyl s form cone-like structures cal ed strobil i which in turn makes spores • (Spike Moss)“Resurrection Plant” – plant that recovers from dead-like appearance once it is • Lycophytes from on tropical trees as epiphytes (plants that use other plans as a substrate, but • Produce clusters of sporangia cal ed sori (sorus sing.) that develop on the undersurface • Sporangia undergo meiosis and produce spores • Most widespread seedless vascular plants • Have hollow, robbed stems that are jointed at nodes• The nodes occur at intervals along the stem and produce smal , scale-like leaves and • The stems, branches and leaves are green and photosynthetic and have a rough texture • Plants consisting of branching stems without any roots• Secondary loss – these structures were lost as whisk ferns diverged from their ancestors Seed Plants –Vascular
Life Cycle
a. Microsporangium produce microspore mother celb. Microspore mother cel divide by meiosis to make 4 haploid microsporesc. Microspores mature into pollen grains d. Pollen grains divide further into 3 cel s (flowering plants) or 4 cel s (conifers) i. Vegatative tube – controls growth of pollen tube a. Megasporangium (nucel us) produce megaspore mother celb. Megaspore mother cel divides my meiosis to make 4 haploid cel s i. One of the haploid cel s matures into one megaspore c. Megaspore divides by mitosis to produce one egg (flowering plants) or two eggs • I ntugments surround megasporangium• O vule = nucel us + megaspore daughter cel crophyle —opening in the intugement that al ows for pollen to access the egg Coniferophyta
• Pines, firs, spruces, junipers, redwoods, cedars, etc• Male and female reproductive structures are borne in pollen-bearing male cones and ovule- • G ymnosperm – seeds produced in unprotected megaspores near the surface of the reproductive • Fertilization and seed development can take up to 1-3 years Anthophyta (Flowering Plants)
Pistil: female reproductive structure
Stamen: male reproductive structure
Petals (sepals): attract pollinators
• Successful pollination results in the germination of pollen tubes which aid in the fertilization of • The ovary eventual y ripens into fruit, which is the means by which the seeds as dispersed • Dicotyledons o Flower parts in multiples of four or five o Maple trees, apple trees, potatoes, carrots, goldenrods and buttercups o Contain flower parts in multiples of threeo Wheat, corn, rye, rice, sugar cane, pineapple, irises, bananas, orchids and palms Kingdom Animalia
Common characteristics
1. Differentiation of tissues, organs and organ systems2. Alimentation: most animals ingest food (holotrophic), digest it and then eliminate the remains3. Locomotion 4. Bilateral Symmetry: left side is mirror image of right side5. Nervous System: system enabling them to receive stimuli and control their actions 6. Chemical Coordinating System: animals secrete hormones that operate in conjunction with 1. Tissue Complexity – Eumetazoa and Parazoa o Eumetazoa: have three tissue layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm) that develop into different structures during embryonic development o Parazoa: cel s are not organized into true tissues 2. Body Symmetry: radial symmetry (top and bottom – usual y circular) and bilateral symmetry(ventral, dorsal, anterior and posterior end) 3. Cephalization: Animals with bilateral symmetry have greater increase in nerve cel tissue 4. Gastrovascular Activity5. Coelem: cavity that develops from tissue derived from the mesoderm germ layer, which is fluid o Acoelomate: lack coelemo Psuedocoelomate: animals with the cavity, but it is not completely lined with mesoderm 6. Segmentation 7. Protosomes and Deuterostomes: specify different development patterns between animals • Chaonocytes: flagel ated cel s that filter water. Mechanism by which sponged feed • Osculum: opening by which water exits • Hydrozoans, jel yfish, anemones, and corals • Medusa: body form that is floating, umbrel a shaped, with rising tentacles • Contain digestive tract that is sealed at one end • Bilateral y symmetrical with no circulatory system 1. F latworms : carnivores or scavengers that live in marine or fresh water 2. F lukes : internal animal parasites or external animal parasites that suck tissue fluids 3. T apeworms : internal animal parasites that often live in the digestive tract of Have no digestive tract so need to injest already digested food Proglottids: segments that develop secondarily for reproduction and • Possess long digestive tubes and an anus • Free-living soil dwel ers that help decompose and recycle nutrients • Multicel ular, microscopic rotifers with specialized organs enclosed in a • Filter feeders – draw water and food in by the beating action of cilia • Snails, bivalves(clams, mussels, etc), squids and octopuses • Coelomate bodies, complete digestive tract and an open circulatory system with an internal cavity cal ed hemocoel • Octupuses: highly developed nervous system with complex brain • Segmented worms with a coelem (true body cavity) contained in mesoderm • Leeches, earthworms, and polychaete worms • Wel defined systems including nervous, circulatory and excretory • Spiders, insects, crustaceans and other related organisms • Jointed appendages, wel developed nervous system, specialization of body segments, and exoskeleton made of chitin • Nymphs: smal versions of the adult and change shape gradual y as they grow to • Larvae: maggots, specialized for eating. When they reach a certain size, they enclose themselves in a pupa • Sea stars, sea urchins, and sand dollars • Possess the ability to regenerate body parts ochord : provides dorsal, flexible rod that functions as support • D orsal Hollow Nerve Cord : forms the basis of the nervous system. Can become the • P haryngeal gil slits : provides channels across the pharynx to the outside of the body. The slits can develop into gil s, or they disappear during embryonic scular tail : extends beyond the digestive tract. In many chordates (i.e. humans) the tail disappears during embryonic development 1. Fish: al fish possess two chambered heart, gil s and utilize external fertilization for reproduction
wless Fish : eel-like and maintain notochord throughout life. Have a cartilaginous internal skeleton, no jaws and a sucking mouth. b. C artilaginous Fish : possess jaws and teeth. c. B ony Fish : They have scales and no notochord in adult form. During development the cartilage is replaced by bony skeleton. (most abundant of al fish) 2. Amphibia
a. Tadpole (larval stage) – found in water, possesses gil s, a talk and has no legsb. Adult – lives on land, has lungs, two pairs of legs, no tail, 3-chambered hear, no scales 3. Reptiles: Terrestrial animals that breathe air by means of lungs, lay eggs and utilize internal
fertilization. They are cold-blooded, have scales and a 3-chambered heart.
4. Birds: warm-blooded and their eggs are surrounded by shel s
5. Mammals
etremes : lay leathery eggs, have horny bil s and milk glands with numerous openings but no nipples. (ex: anteater and platypus) rsupials : pouched mammals. The embryo begins development in the uterus and completes development while attached to nipples in the abdominal pouch. c. P lacental Mammals : have embryos that develops ful y in the uterus. The placenta attaches the embryo to the uterine wal and provides for the exchange of food, oxygen and waste materials.

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