CF Guidelines - Burkholderia Cepacia Burkholderia Cepacia Complex:
Burkholderia cepacia complex organisms are Gram-negative motile rods which
occur in the environment - soil - and are pathogens for vegetables. These organisms
can infect CF lungs with the consequences of acquisition varying from asymptomatic
carriage through to rapidly progressive clinical deterioration and death.
Burkholderia cepacia complex species are isolated from the sputum of approximately
3% of CF patients - all ages - meaning an average adult clinic of 50 patients will
Complexes isolated include:
Other B. cepacia complex species - much less common. Infection control issue with Burkholderia Cepacia:
Burkholderia cepacia complex can be spread between patients and may be
retained on skin and equipment. For this reason all Burkholderia cepacia
patients should be isolated from other CF patients. This should involve seeing
them in a separate out patient clinic and admitting them to a separate area/
ward - one not used for non Burkholderia cepacia colonised patients.
B. cepacia does not usually cause infection in patients with normal
Precautions to be taken in all CF patients presenting with Burkholderia cepacia:
All patients should be segregated as inpatients and outpatients.
Burkholderia cepacia patients are especially discouraged from socialising with
those who are not infected, both in and out of hospital.
Equipment must not be shared between Burkholderia cepacia, Pseudomonas
and any other respiratory patients, either with or without CF.
Either use a separate stethoscope to examine Burkholderia cepacia patients or
use an alco-wipe between each patient.
Hands should be washed thoroughly after treatment or handling any equipment
Physiotherapists should treat Burkholderia cepacia inpatients after treating non
Burkholderia cepacia in patients where at all feasible. A change of clothing/
scrubs should be used when undertaking physiotherapy treatment. Treatment of Burkholderia cepacia:
3 distinct consequences of colonisation with Burkholderia cepacia are recognised:
Progressive deterioration over many months with a recurrent fever, weight
Rapid, usually fatal deterioration in a previously mildly affected patient.
Burkholderia cepacia is more resistant to antibiotics than Pseudomonas and resistance
develops easily. At presentation the organism is typically resistant to aminoglycosides,
colomycin, ticarcillin and quinolones. Treatment options are often limited but isolates
may be susceptible to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Septrin),
doxycycline, ceftazidime and meropenem. Discussion with microbiologists maybe
helpful. Treatment should be based on sensitivity patterns and will often involve
Page 02 - CF Guidelines - Burkholderia Cepacia
multiple antibiotics. The role of synergy testing is not fully established. Other issues:
Patients colonised with Burkholderia cepacia have a worse prognosis following lung
transplantation. Some centres will not consider colonised patients for transplantation. References:
The Burkholderia Cepacia Complex - Suggestions for Prevention and Infection
Control, Second Edition. September 2004, CF Trust. Acknowledgements:The Peninsula CF team acknowledges the use of guidelines produced by The CF Trust, Manchester, Papworth, Leeds and Brompton CF teams during development of these local Peninsula protocols and guidelines.Page 02 - CF Guidelines - Burkholderia Cepacia
Embajada de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela en los Emiratos Árabes Unidos Artículo 51: prohíbe a los funcionarios consulares y demás empleados de la oficina ".redactar documento alguno por encargo de los particulares, ni deberán mezclarse en ninguna forma en los contratos y actos de las partes." Los registradores y empleados de su dependencia no podrán solici
Reviews and Overviews Why Olanzapine Beats Risperidone, Risperidone Beats Quetiapine, and Quetiapine Beats Olanzapine: An Exploratory Analysis of Head-to-Head Comparison Studies of Second-Generation Antipsychotics Stephan Heres, M.D. Objective: In many parts of the world, the results in favor of the sponsor’s drug. John Davis, M.D. largely replaced typical antipsychot