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Indian Research Output on Malaria:
A Bibliometric Study using Scopus Data Base
Malaria is a major public health problem in India, accounting for sizeable morbidity, mortality and economic loss. Around 1.5 million confirmed cases are reported annually by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), of which Department of Library and Information science, 40–50% are due to Plasmodium falciparum. Malaria Annamalai University.Annamalai Nagar- 608 002 is curable if effective treatment is started early. Apart from preventive measures, early diagnosis and complete treatment are the important modalities that M. Nagarajan
have been adopted to contain the disease. In view of widespread chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum infection, and other recent developments, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002 the national policy has been revised to meet these challenges. This paved way for number of research articles in the malaria research in India. This study reviews the growth of literature on malaria research This study evaluates Indian malaria research out put during 1974–2013 using different bibliometric BIBLIOMETRIC STUDY
indicators. Data have been downloaded from Scopus database for the period 1974–2013 using the Bibliometric analysis is employed by researchers to keywords Indian and malaria in the title and abstract study the growth of literature in given field. Pritchard fields. The study examined the pattern of growth of (1969) defined the term Bibliometric as the the output, its collaboration with other countries, application of statistical and mathematical methods to profile of different countries in different subfields. books and other communication. The bibliometrics The study Malaria vaccine research output is has emerged as a thrust area of research, gradually increasing. The Indian authors incorporating different branches of human collaboration with USA, followed by the UK and knowledge. There are famous Laws of Bibliometric Australia has the highest number of papers. The i.e. Lotka’s law (1926) of scientific productivity, majority of the prolific institutions are located North Bradford’s law (1934) of scattering and Zips law India. The last two decades have witnessed (1949) on frequency of words. But the Bibliometric considerable growth in research output in this field. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Few bibliometric studies dealing with malaria research have been reported in the literature in the past. Maclean et al. and Lewison et al. estimated the financial resources going into malaria research. Garg et al. estimated the quantum of malaria research The journal is available at output during 1990 and 2000 using PubMed (the online edition) and the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux International (CABI) CD-ROM incorporating the Tropical Disease Bulletin (TDB). Lewison and Srivastava mapped the malaria research output during the years 1980–2004 using the Science Citation Index (SCI) and malaria vaccine research. However, none of these studies deals with the status of malaria research other than the medical data bases, Journal of Advances in Library and Information Science
which constitutes approximately 9% of the total ISSN: 2277-2219 Vol. 2. No.4. 2013. pp.192-196 Journal of Advances in Library and Information Science, Vol.2,No.4.Oct-Dec., 2013, pp-192-196 Indian Research Output on Malaria: A Bibliometric Study using Scopus Data Base /M.Meena and M.Nagarajan OBJECTIVES
package for social sciences) for the purpose of analysis. Statistical tools such as frequency 1. To examine the Indian research production in distribution and percentage analysis and Scientometric techniques such as Authorship pattern, Relative Growth Rate (RGR), Doubling time (dt) citation analysis etc will be used for the study. 3. To identify the organizations conducting the DATA ANALYSIS
4. To study the language wise distribution of Table 1: Year wise Distribution of Malaria
5. To study the authorship pattern of research Research Output
The following hypotheses will be formulated for this 1. There exists substantial literature on Malaria 2. There exists domination of collaborative research 3. The research productivity in Malaria research is 4. Journals are major source of publications for 5. There exists steady growth in publication METHODOLOGY
Normally the medical data base was selected for the purpose of identifing the growth of lietrature on medicine. But in this case the scopus data base is considered for research in order to identify the coverage of secondary periodical in the field of malaria research rather than the primary periodicals. Though Scopus covers life science journals, it is not considered as primary data base for identifing the For this study, the literature on malaria research data multidisciplinary online database, which is an international indexing and abstracting database, using the search term “ ((TITLE-ABS-KEY(india) AND TITLE-ABS-KEY(malaria)) AND PUBYEAR > 1974 AND PUBYEAR < 2013)” For this study, publications commencing from 1974-2013 (40 years) has been downloaded from the database. A total of The collected data has been classified by using Excel and the same was loaded in to SPSS (statistical Journal of Advances in Library and Information Science, Vol.2,No.4.Oct-Dec., 2013, pp-192-196 Indian Research Output on Malaria: A Bibliometric Study using Scopus Data Base /M.Meena and M.Nagarajan “Note form” of literature output account to 2.50% in Indian malaria research. Table 3: Document Type
S.No Description
Their exist uniform and study growth of publication in malaria research year after year. Hence it can be stated that there exist a linear growth of publication out put in the field of research of malaria. The forty years were further divided into five years block in order to identify the growth rate of malaria publications. The data were shown in table 2. Normally it is belived that the Indian articles will Further the ratio of growth has also been calculated appear only in english language. In order to identify with base block year 1974-78 and the same is shown whether all the indian research output are only in english or in other language too, language wise distribution has been ascertain and the same is shown Table 2: Block Year Wise Distribution and Ratio
of Growth
Table 4: Language Of The Research Output
S.No Block
S.No Language Output
6 1999-2003 431 14.7 49 5.46 7 2004-2008 585 20 69 7.41 The block year wise growth also shows the linear trend. There exists a substantial increase in every block year. Doubling of the publication can be seen in every decade. Nine times of growth of articles on malaria research can be seen in eight block years. This indicates that the decise malaria has still persist and there needs exhaustive research in eradicating the The output can be seen in thirteen different bibliographic formats. Nearly 76.33% of publications are published has journal articles. It is followed by Review papers (8.38%) and Letters (5.13%). The Journal of Advances in Library and Information Science, Vol.2,No.4.Oct-Dec., 2013, pp-192-196 Indian Research Output on Malaria: A Bibliometric Study using Scopus Data Base /M.Meena and M.Nagarajan It is surprise to note that the 2.91 percent of articles are published in other 17 languages. However 97.09% of articles are published in English. Indian authors also produced articles in French, German, Russian etc. This may be due to collaborative Table 5: Authorship Pattern
No of authors
Frequency Percent Cumulative
It can be seen that only 19% of Indian research article on malaria appeared as individual author publications. Remaining 81% of articles are collobarative in nature. 15.7% articles are by two authors and 17.1% are by three others. 48.2% of Indian articles are authored by more than three authors. This may be due to collaborative research. Single author publications are considered as solo research and other than the single author publications are considered as collaborative research. Type of research, whether it is a solo research or collaborative research, over the year has been ascertained and the same is shown in table 6. Further ratio of collaboration and degree of collaboration using Subramaniam formula has been calculated and the same is shown in table 6. Table 6: Year Vs type of Research
S.No Year
collabora DC
It can be seen from the table 6 that solo research is more in the year 1974 and 1983, whereas the collaborative research are more in remaining years. From the year 2009 onwards the collaborative Journal of Advances in Library and Information Science, Vol.2,No.4.Oct-Dec., 2013, pp-192-196 Indian Research Output on Malaria: A Bibliometric Study using Scopus Data Base /M.Meena and M.Nagarajan Table 7: Top institutions that has 20 above
HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, measles, hepatitis B, and publications
pneumonia), accounts for 85% of global infectious disease burden.Reports of malaria are increasing in India as like that of many countries and in areas S.No Name of the Institutions
thought free of the disease. One of the factors contributing to the reemergence of malaria is human migration. People move for a number of reasons, including environmental deterioration, economic necessity, conflicts, and natural disasters. These factors are most likely to affect the poor, many of whom live in or near malarious areas. Identifying and understanding the influence of these population movements can improve prevention measures and malaria control programs. Till such time the eradication of malaria fully in a global environment, there will be a research publication persist in the field REFERENCES
1. Dunavan, C. P. Interventions available today could lead to decisive gains in prevention and treatment—if only the world would apply them. 2. Garg, K. C., Dutt, B. & Kumar, S. A preliminary scientometrics investigation of malaria research. Annals of Library and Information Studies 2006, 3. Guan, J. & Ma, N. A comparative study of research performance in computer science. Scientometrics 2004, 61, 339–59. 4. Kailash C. Garg, Suresh Kumar, Yennapu Madhavi and Mala Bahl , Bibliometrics of global malaria vaccine research, Health Information & Libraries Journal, V26 (1),2009, pp 22-31. 5. Lewison, G. & Srivastava, D. Malaria research, Proceedings of the International Conference on Webometrics, Informetrics, Scientometrics, Science and Society, 8th COLLNET Meeting, National Institute of Malaria Research has published 453 research articles. It is followed by All india Institute of Medical Sciences (82 Publications), 6. Lewison, G., Lipworth, S. & De Francisco, A. Vector control research centre India (76) and Indian Input indicators from output measures: a bibliometric approach to the estimation of malaria research funding. Research Evaluation CONCLUSION
Malaria imposes great socio-economic burden on humanity, and with six other diseases (diarrhea,


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