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Microsoft word - 1-2-02 urban areas.doc

Issue 16 – Urban areas
Background
There are fifteen townships in the Hurunui District, which provide services for the rural economy,
and social and cultural facilities for the people of the District. The reasons for and purpose of
providing a distinct management system for these urban areas generally come within two categories:
the need to sustainably manage the different environmental qualities from the adverse effects of
activities, and the need to sustainably manage the resources invested in urban areas.
Urban environmental quality
Despite the relatively small size of Hurunui’s townships, these urban areas have environmental
qualities that differ in many respects from those of the District’s rural environment. Such differences
are derived from many sources, including the density of settlement, the proximity of different land
uses, the concentration of population, the level of traffic, the collective character of buildings and
development, the standard of roads and facilities, and the range of amenities.
The community’s expectations regarding the environmental qualities within each township differ from those for the rural environment, as do the levels of acceptance in regard to the effects of activities in urban areas. For example, the visual impact of a development is very much assessed in terms of its location and the effects on the character and amenity values of that location – a development may have less of an effect in a built-up environment than in a rural setting. However, such effects will vary considerably within urban areas, from residential to industrial areas, from street to street, and often from property to property. Furthermore, the proximity of development to one another increases the potential for adverse effects on a larger number of properties. It also enhances the potential for what would be minor or negligible effects in a rural setting to create significant negative impacts on neighbouring properties. The community’s acceptance of the effects of activities will also vary according to the circumstances in which the activity takes place. Many activities, for example, that may generate traffic, parking or visual effects may generally be accepted within a residential area if they provide services and facilities (such as diaries and childcare centres) that make it a more attractive area in which to live. Overall, the benefits of such activities to the community are often considered to outweigh any detraction that may incur. Within each urban area, there are areas which maintain different characteristics and types of environmental quality. For example, residential areas are primarily areas in which people reside, supported by a range of community services and facilities, with only limited amounts of business activity occurring. The character of residential areas may vary between localities, influenced by other factors, such as natural features (such as streams, hills, and coastline), major roads, and the history of development. The sustainable management of the environmental quality of these areas is a significant resource management issue for the Council. Investment of resources
Compared with rural areas, the District’s urban areas have a relatively higher level of public
investment of resources in terms of infrastructure (such as water supply, sewage disposal, roading
and footpaths, and public utilities) and other facilities (such as parks, reserves, community services,
and amenity features). Private investment is also generally higher in urban areas because of the value
of locating within concentrations of population, close to support facilities, services and markets.
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Issue 16 – Urban areas 003
The level of public and private investment in resources also varies between different parts of each urban area. The forms of public investment may vary from upgraded roads in the vicinity of an industrial area, to public parks and reserves within a residential area. Private investment is also considerable, particularly in business and industrial activities, and the commitment of resources to particular areas must be recognised. For example, the cumulative investment of individual households in a residential area represents a significant physical resource. Environmentally incompatible activities within urban areas can result in major impacts on surrounding land uses, and the resources which have been established in the area. The efficient utilisation of the existing infrastructure, including new development of these resources, is considered to be a sustainable use of public resources in urban areas. Urban boundaries
Limits to the District’s urban areas have been established for a number of purposes:
(a) To control the spread of urban development into adjoining productive rural land, which often
comprises high quality soils, to limit the loss of potential of such land; (b) To ensure that the development of urban infrastructure and services is a sustainable use of
(c) To prevent ribbon development along the main highways;
(d) To manage the change in landscape and visual impacts created by urbanisation;
(e) To manage the change in amenity values and environmental quality;
(f) To encourage the efficient utilisation of land, infrastructure and other natural resources within
(g) To respond to community concerns.
In determining appropriate boundaries to the District’s townships, the following matters have been taken into account: The maximum extent of existing water supply and sewerage disposal systems and other
The existing limits of urban development, as well as those areas that are in the process of, or are firmly committed to, being developed for urban land uses Providing opportunities for further urban development that would consolidate the present
pattern of development without over extending the capacity of existing systems Providing opportunities for rural lifestyle or large-lot residential development within urban
boundaries to promote consolidation of such development Other relevant matters, such as natural hazards, special physical features and barriers, and protected features or landscapes Any future developments that would effectively constitute a change to the urban boundaries should be undertaken by way of a change to the District Plan. For the Hurunui District, the issues facing the sustainable management of its urban areas are summarised below. 004 Management strategy – Part II
Last amended 15/12/2010
Issue 1
The adverse effects of urban development, physical expansion of settlements and the
use and provision of the network utility infrastructure.

While the urban areas within the District are not expected to grow significantly in the future, all townships face varying pressures for development and growth. The expected rate of population growth, and the consequential rate of urban development in the District can easily be contained within the existing urban areas of the District (this includes land that has been identified as available for urban development). However, there is often pressure for urban development outside these areas, including rural-residential development, which may have significant implications in planning for future urban infrastructure and the provision of public amenities. For example, a large-lot residential development isolated from an urban area could establish a pattern and direction of future development that would require substantial investment of resources to service, compared to other more serviceable adjoining areas. To promote the sustainable management of Hurunui’s land resources, urban development within the District should help to maximise the use of the existing infrastructure and promote a consolidated pattern of urban development. The Council does not seek to prevent or unnecessarily inhibit urban development, but rather to provide for growth and development in a manner that promotes the efficient use of existing resources and infrastructure, and channels, in the first instance, development to these areas. Urban development within existing areas will assist in: Avoiding sporadic urban-type development around the periphery of Hurunui townships without adequate consideration of long-term effects and planning for the provision of infrastructure, services and facilities Avoiding ribbon development along main highways Providing for a wide range of urban land use opportunities within a consolidated area In order to ensure that people and communities are aware of the costs and benefits of new and existing development, the Council requires financial contributions for certain reasons. Financial contributions provide the opportunity and the ability to offset any adverse effects (including cumulative effects) arising from resource use, where it is impossible, or unreasonable, to avoid, remedy or mitigate those effects. However, this alone will not address the issue of pattern of development that enable the efficient use of existing resources, and meeting the needs of future generations without excessive costs. Issue 2
Loss of character and degradation of amenity values from inappropriate development
and activities.

Each township has its own character, and own set of amenity values. While the character and amenity values of urban areas differ between locations, the predominant character of all townships within Hurunui is residential, with pockets of commercial and industrial uses. The community expects that residential areas will largely remain primarily for residential purposes and that existing amenity values will be maintained or enhanced. Last amended 15/12/2010
Issue 16 – Urban areas 005
Factors that differentiate one urban area from another in the District include natural features, major roads, intensity of development, mixture of land uses, visual appearance and historic development. Elements that contribute to the character of residential areas includes the predominance of residential activities, a low to medium density pattern of development, detached single or two storey residences and a diversity of landholdings and development types providing a range of residential lifestyle opportunities. A diversity of business and industrial activity within urban areas also contributes to the character of urban areas. Amenity refers to those elements that people value as contributing to their quality of living environment. These elements can include the visual quality of their environment, such as outlook, private open space, and the design and character of their neighbourhoods (buildings, open spaces and trees). It also refers to the general quality of the environment, and how it affects their health, safety and wellbeing. This may include the ability to enjoy their surroundings without objectionable odour, noise, and other nuisances. It also relates to on-site amenity values, such as having private open space and access to sunlight. All parts of the District have amenity values, but within urban areas, the proximity of development and activities to one another, with most sections unable to have wide buffer strips, creates the potential for even relatively innocuous activities to have adverse impacts on the amenity values of neighbouring properties, such as a large imposing building on a boundary. In addition to the amenity values held by individuals, the community holds collective values about the character and amenity values of its townships. Each township is valued for its unique character-by the people that reside and work in them, by the District as a whole, and by visitors to the District. Hurunui is relatively special in that, unlike most districts within New Zealand, there is no one major urban centre, but a dispersed pattern of small towns, each with its own history and character. These range from a fishing village (Motunau) to an alpine resort village (Hanmer Springs), as well as a variety of small service centres with their own history, character and environmental qualities. Part of the issue, therefore, is to provide a management system that provides opportunities for development and change which is undertaken in a manner that protects each township’s special character. Activities and development can have different effects, depending on where they take place within any one township. Activities may generate traffic, noise or visual effects that have a detrimental effect on the character of one area but not another. In particular, conflict can occur where industrial or commercial activities adjoin residential activities. Industrial and business activities can impact on the amenity of residential areas in terms of noise, odour, traffic, loss of privacy and scale of buildings. Industrial activities are often characterised by visually unattractive sites or structures. It is not desirable to prevent non-residential activities from occurring within residential areas. Many can occur with minimal adverse effects on the environmental quality of the neighbourhood, particularly if measures are incorporated into the design of the development and its operation to avoid or mitigate the potential for adverse effects. In addition, within limits, the community will accept some level of adverse impact from those activities which directly service the needs of the community. Some non-residential activities, however, due to the nature of their operations and requirements, are usually unacceptable in a residential environment, particularly if there is little that can be undertaken to ensure that the activity is compatible with its residential environment or where there is a risk, albeit low, of a high potential impact. 006 Management strategy – Part II
Last amended 15/12/2010
Issue 3
The provision of a variety of activities within urban environments can have adverse
effects on the values of the area.

Urban areas, even relatively small ones, are characterised by the wide range of activities that can occur within them. While there are factors that encourage mutually compatible activities to locate within close proximity of one another, such as retailing within shopping centres, the scale and size of townships within Hurunui are such that these factors are often not significant. Consequently, many townships are characterised by a variety of land uses. There is a need to provide the flexibility to allow for a variety of activities throughout urban areas to ensure that the needs of the community are met and the social and economic base of the District is maintained, whilst ensuring that any adverse environmental effects are avoided, remedied or mitigated. Where land uses may generate adverse effects on adjoining or adjacent properties, environmental standards will need to be met. These standards seek to enhance the character of Hurunui townships, as well as their environmental quality. Environmental quality and character of urban areas is also encouraged by promoting the consolidation of complementary activities. Complementary activities are those land uses which contribute to the functioning and amenity value of different areas within urban centres. Collectively, such land uses form areas with distinct urban character. Within Hurunui, a minimum of five types of urban character can be identified: Open spaces – large areas of open spaces, including parks, reserves, recreational and sport facilities, but not including very small areas of parks and reserves Residential – areas in which the predominant character is residential, including those land uses which complement and service the needs of a residential neighbourhood Rural lifestyles – areas on the periphery of urban areas where there is a known or likely demand for rural lifestyle Business – areas in which a variety of business activities take place, including retailing, services and administrative, depots and light industry Industrial – areas in which a range of industrial land uses occur Each area is expected to provide for a range of complementary activities. For example, activities that provide for residents’ needs within residential areas include retail uses, commercial services, places of assembly, educational facilities, community services, cultural and spiritual services, recreational facilities, and parks and reserves. Objective 16
The sustainable management of urban areas which maintains and enhances both the
character of each township and the environmental quality and attributes of
neighbourhoods.

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Issue 16 – Urban areas 007
Policies
Policy 16.1
To identify urban areas which provide for the present and future urban development
needs of the Hurunui District.

Policy 16.2
To encourage rural lifestyle developments which are able to be further developed and
serviced for more intensive residential uses in the future and which avoid, remedy or
mitigate adverse effects on the environmental quality of the area.

Methods
Policies 16.1 and 16.2 shall be implemented through:
District Plan rules which delineate limits to urban development based on existing patterns of urban land uses, amended to provide land for future development, including long-term residential development (refer to the rules in Sections A3 – Subdivision (particularly Rule A3.2.5), B1 – Urban Areas and F – Planning Maps) Plan change process to manage changes to urban limits Explanation
Establishing limits to urban growth by way of rules is an effective method of controlling urban
development, providing certainty and clarity in policy direction. Such limits are not necessarily fixed
permanently, as any person may request a change to the Plan to extend, alter or decrease the urban
limit. Such requests will be assessed in terms of whether the proposal would promote the
sustainable management of the District’s natural and physical resources. This will include whether
the proposal is consistent with the objectives and policies of this Plan.
The external boundaries of the District’s urban areas have been derived from existing patterns of development and investment of resources to service urban areas. They also take account of the potential for adjoining land to be developed and serviced in the future. This includes the maximum extent of existing supply and sewage disposal, while providing opportunities for further development that would consolidate the present pattern of development. Other factors are also taken into account, including the risks from natural hazards (such as flooding), the quality of the underlying soils, the impact on landscape values, and the effects on the roading network. The boundaries also make provision for rural lifestyle development on the periphery of many of the District’s townships, particularly where there is a known or likely demand for rural lifestyle development. This policy has a dual purpose. First, it provides an opportunity for rural-lifestyle development within close proximity to an urban area or where the necessary resources and land area are available. Second, it provides a reserve of land that has the potential for more intensive residential development to occur at a later stage. Policy 16.3
To allow for activities within residential areas, provided they meet identified
environmental standards and values to protect the environmental amenity.

008 Management strategy – Part II
Last amended 15/12/2010
Methods
Policy 16.3 will be implemented through:
District Plan rules that identify residential zones within each township, and establish a
management system which identifies minimum environmental standards and controls activities which have the potential to generate significant adverse effects on these neighbourhoods (refer to the rules in Section A1 and Rule B1.1) Explanation
Hurunui’s townships are where the majority of the District’s inhabitants reside. The character of
residential areas varies between localities and neighbourhoods. Maintaining and enhancing the
character of residential areas must include managing those elements that contribute to the character
of different neighbourhoods: the predominance of residential activities, low to medium density
pattern of development, detached single or two storey residences and a diversity of landholdings and
development types providing a range of residential lifestyle opportunities. It should also seek to
promote the sustainable management of the resources that service and support residential areas.
Residential areas contain a range of activities which serve and support the residential function of such areas, including childcare centres, schools, local shops, reserves, parks, churches, halls and healthcare facilities. These facilities are required to meet certain environmental standards in order to protect the environmental qualities of the surrounding area. The most effective method to implement this policy is to establish residential zones by way of rules (the word “zone” differentiates this management approach from others adapted in this Plan), which provide a greater level of certainty and control than other management methods. Residential areas include areas identified for “rural lifestyle” purposes in which large-lot residential development is appropriate (refer to Policy 16.2). Policy 16.4
To ensure that the adverse effects of activities on the environmental quality of business
areas are avoided, remedied or mitigated.

Methods
Policy 16.4 shall be implemented through:
District Plan rules that identify business zones within each township, and establish a management system which identifies minimum environmental standards and controls for activities which have the potential to generate significant adverse effects on these areas (refer to the rules in Sections A1 – Environmental Amenity and B1 – Urban Areas) Explanation
The purpose of identifying business zones within the urban areas is to ensure that the resources
committed to such areas are used on a sustainable basis. The predominant character of these areas
is business orientated and the environmental quality and character is related to such activities. This
policy seeks to consolidate and enhance the business centres of the District’s urban areas as a
method of enhancing the character of each township, and to ensure that business activities are
undertaken which meet certain environmental standards.
Provision for residential activities should also be made, to recognise existing mixed patterns of land uses, and to recognise that residential accommodation can coexist in business areas, provided it is designed in a manner that will avoid or mitigate the potential for adjoining activities to adversely affect their living environment. Last amended 15/12/2010
Issue 16 – Urban areas 009
There is not the need to impose as rigorous controls on activities within general business areas, given the character of these areas and the wide variety of activities, apart from key environmental standards to maintain the quality of environment. However, activities which have the potential to create significant impacts on the amenity values or pose risks from environmental pollution or hazards are not generally appropriate within these areas. The Business 1 (Retail & Civic Core) Zone provides for appropriate business activities within a consolidated area, to emphasise a retail and civic core. The types of activities seen as appropriate in the retail and civic core area include: General Retail Activities (including supermarkets) Leisure and Entertainment Facilities – e.g. cinemas, restaurants, drive-through restaurant and licensed (liquor) premises Intensive Sport and Recreation Uses – e.g. health and fitness centres and indoor sports Arts, Culture and Tourism Facilities – e.g. theatres, museums, galleries, concert halls, visitor accommodation and conference facilities Civic Facilities – e.g. libraries, community halls, Council offices On some sites, business activities will adjoin residential areas. In these circumstances, it may be necessary to provide minimum buffer distances and other environmental standards to ensure that the character and amenity values of adjoining residential areas are maintained at an acceptable level. Policy 16.5
To allow for activities within industrial areas, provided they meet identified
environmental standards and values to protect the environmental amenity.

Methods
Policy 16.5 shall be implemented through:
District Plan rules that identify industrial zones and provide for industrial activities which can comply with environmental standards for industrial areas, including protecting environmental amenity (refer to the rules in Sections A1 – Environmental Amenity and B1 – Urban Areas) Explanation
The principal purpose of identifying the industrial zones within the urban areas is to ensure that the
resources committed to such areas, both by existing industry or through public investment, are used
efficiently on a sustainable basis. This policy seeks to maintain and enhance the characteristics of the
District’s industrial areas as a method of enhancing the character of each township, and to ensure
that activities are undertaken which meet minimum environmental standards.
Industrial activities may impact upon the amenity of residential areas in terms of noise, odour, traffic, loss of privacy, scale of buildings and untidy sites, which are managed by compliance with environmental standards. The amenity of industrial areas can affect the overall character of the urban area. Therefore, while the amenity values of industrial zones need not necessarily be the same as other zones, some key standards are required to maintain minimum levels of quality, including such things as landscaping. 010 Management strategy – Part II
Last amended 15/12/2010
Policy 16.6
To provide for open space and recreational requirements within urban areas.

Methods
Policy 16.6 shall be implemented through:
District Plan rules to identify open space zones to manage the larger areas of open space within the townships, including major recreational facilities (refer to the rules in Sections B1 – Urban Areas and A4 – Esplanade Reserves and Strips) Explanation
The larger areas of open space within the townships are important resources which require to be
sustainably managed. They provide a range of opportunities for residents and visitors to the District
in terms of passive and active recreation pursuits. Parks and reserves have an important intrinsic
value, as well as contributing to the overall amenity values within the townships.
The provision of a separate zone recognises the special needs for these areas. As some activities that can occur within these areas can generate significant adverse effects, such as recreational and sports facilities, standards and procedures need to be established to protect the environmental quality of these areas and adjoining zones. Policy 16.7
To provide a management regime for the ongoing development of Ashley Forest Village
that enables the area’s continued development in a manner that recognises the
landscape, habitat and scenic values of the area while avoiding remedying or mitigating
any adverse environmental effects.

Methods
Policy 16.7 will be implemented through:
District Plan rules that allow for development in the Ashley Forest Village by zoning this area as the Ashley Forest Village Comprehensive Development Zone and requiring that applicants submit a comprehensive development plan with any application for subdivision of the area Consultation by the applicant with the Waimakariri District Council prior to lodging of any resource consent application to address any cross-boundary issues arising from development in the Ashley Forest Village Comprehensive Development Zone Explanation
From 1943 Ashley Forest Village has been owned by the Crown when it was purchased privately by
the New Zealand Forest Service. A significant number of buildings were constructed to house staff
as well as a number of large buildings to accommodate service activities required to operate the
forest and associated plant.
Restructuring of the Government’s forestry assets has meant that non-forested assets are now targeted for disposal from Crown control. Presently the dwellings are let privately and the workshop is fully leased. The Council considers any changes to the management of the village should allow a future owner options to progress with a comprehensive low impact, low to medium density residential development for the entire 60 hectare site. This would be within guidelines prepared through a comprehensive development plan process involving consultation with all affected parties. It is anticipated this development will be based around rural lifestyle development combined with an Last amended 15/12/2010
Issue 16 – Urban areas 011
inter-mix of more compact residential development. It is expected any redevelopment of the site will be serviced by a centralised sewerage system. Before any development proceeds further a number of issues need to be addressed. Currently the village is supplied with Ashley rural water but the sewage disposal and treatment system is inadequate to cope with any increased pressure. Sewage is an issue that would have to be addressed before any more development occurred. Provision also needs to be made for subdivision of the individual properties. Any development would also need to make provision for the retention of open spaces, recreational and habitat areas associated with this site. Through the resource consent process the comprehensive development plan will leave the Council unlimited discretion in its consideration over the control of matters such as servicing, roading patterns, landscaping and the location and density of any development. A substantial part of the boundary to the Ashley Forest Village Comprehensive Development Zone follows a line which is contiguous with the territorial boundary between the Hurunui and Waimakariri Districts. Roading, stormwater and sewage infrastructure requirements arising from any comprehensive development of the Ashley Forest Village may have a variety of cross-boundary environmental effects which should be addressed as part of the comprehensive development planning process. Policy 16.8
To recognise the significant natural and cultural values of the coast at Claverley and its
historic coastal settlement; and to provide for very limited residential development
within the Comprehensive Development Zone at Claverley, provided such development
is at a scale and in a form which maintains or enhances the coastal, cultural and amenity
values of the site.

Methods
Policy 16.8 shall be implemented through:
Land use rules for the Comprehensive Development Zone at Claverley; and The Development Plan and Assessment Matters in Section C5.1. Explanation
Located in the very north-east of the Hurunui District between Tutae Putaputa (Conway River) and
the Hundalees, Claverley is a coastal area with a history of MƗori and European occupation and
settlement. The area has important cultural, landscape and amenity values. It has a relatively
unmodified, rugged (though aggrading) coastline with associated landscape and amenity values. The
Canterbury Regional Landscape Study (1993) identified the Motunau-to-Conway Coastal Plain as a
natural feature or landscape of Regional Significance.1 Originally, this area was identified as an Area
of Outstanding Landscape in the Proposed Hurunui District Plan but this classification was altered
through the district plan process.
Claverley is an area of long occupation, use and cultural significance to Te Runanga O Kaikoura. The area was important for mahinga kai and for access to the sea and inland (via Tutae Putaputa). Ngati Mamoe constructed a pa Pariwhakatau on the hill above the coast north of Claverley, which was later besieged and taken by Ngati Kuri. Consequently, the general Claverley area holds historic and 1 The Canterbury Regional Landscape Study was not formally adopted by the Canterbury Regional Council
but is still valid as a landscape reference document for the Canterbury Region.

012 Management strategy – Part II
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cultural significance to local runanga, as well as specific sites; including the pa site, waahi pakanga (battle sites) and urupa, archaeological sites, nohonga and sites of mahinga kai. Claverley has a rich history of colonial settlement and farming and was the site of a small railway settlement. Today the area boasts a hamlet of eight houses and baches located seaward of Claverley Rd. The hamlet and the land seaward of it was zoned Urban in the Kaikoura County Planning Scheme which was proposed in 1976 and made operative in 1980. Due to this history of settlement and zoning combined with the landscape, cultural and amenity values of the area, the site owners and the Council have developed a comprehensive plan to provide for a very limited expansion of the Claverley settlement on that land which was zoned Urban in the Kaikoura District Planning Scheme. Only nine additional lots and houses may be developed, and the form in which such residential subdivision and development may take place is controlled, to ensure potential adverse effects on the coastal landscape and cultural values of the site are mitigated. This provision for a limited expansion of Claverley arises from the unique history of land zoning and development in this locality. These provisions are not to be regarded as a precedent for allowing further expansion of Claverley or any other small coastal settlement; or for creating further settlements within the Claverley area or the Coastal Environment Management Area, generally. Anticipated environmental results
The implementation of these policies is anticipated to have the following environmental results:
A consolidated pattern of urban development Each township having its individual character maintained or enhanced A range of residential living environments that provide for the needs and wellbeing of the District’s inhabitants A range of open space resources that provide for the social, cultural and recreational values of the community Industrial activities that do not degrade the environmental quality of each township The efficient use of land and infrastructure Monitoring and review procedures

Matter to monitor
Information to be
Information source
Review period
gathered
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Issue 16 – Urban areas 013
Matter to monitor
Information to be
Information source
Review period
gathered
type of consent sought records/field work compliance
community services and Valuation New Zealand data 014 Management strategy – Part II
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Source: http://www.hurunui.govt.nz/assets/Documents/District%20Plan/1-2-02-Urban-Areas.pdf

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