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Maturita Card 16: Science
What are the different fields of science and what
the relationship between volume and pressure of
are they concerned with?
gases. Nicholas Copernicus was the first person to
One field of science is… chemistry, which is concerned
theorize that the Earth revolved around the Sun. Galileo
with / deals with / studies… the composition /
Galilei later proved this with a telescope… Marie Curie
components of matter / substances / chemicals such
developed the theory of radioactivity and discovered
as elements / molecules / ions and their properties…
new elements, polonium and radium… Albert Einstein
physics, which studies… physical laws / laws of nature
developed the theory of relativity, which described
/ forces such as heat, motion, gravity, magnetism,
the nature of gravity in relation to space and time.
electricity… subatomic particles such as protons,
neutrons and electrons… biology, which deals with
What were some of the most significant
inventions in human history and why?
/ studies… organisms / plants and animals / life / the
composition / building blocks… of life, such as cells,
Some of the most significant inventions in human
chromosomes, genes, DNA, proteins and amino acids.
history are… the wheel because it allowed people
to transport goods or themselves quickly and over
What is the procedure for conducting / doing an
great distance with less effort… penicillin because
it kills bacteria and has saved lots of lives… X-ray
First, you need to have a hypothesis / an idea… that
technology because it allows us to look inside the
you want to prove. Second / next, you have to test
human body… the internal combustion engine
this hypothesis / do an experiment… It’s important to
because it improved / quickened transportation /
record all of your results very accurately / precisely…
allowed people and goods to travel even further… the
Sometimes you may have to do the experiment more
telephone because it allowed people to communicate
than once to test / check your results. If the experiment
over long distances… the computer because it allows
confirms / shows your hypothesis you can say it proves it.
people to calculate difficult equations / sums quicker
/ store lots of information… the internet because it
What is some of the equipment you might need
connects people all over the world / allows people to
for an experiment?
communicate with others across the world and create
You would need… a lab / laboratory where you can do
virtual realities / enables people to access a huge
/ conduct the experiment… a microscope to look at
very small objects like cells… an electron microscope
to look at subatomic particles… a beaker to measure
Which invention can you not live without?
and pour substances / chemicals… a test tube to mix
The invention I cannot live without is… my computer
chemicals and watch / study reactions… a Bunsen
because it allows me to play games / use the internet
burner to heat chemicals… a stopwatch to measure
/ communicate with friends / do my schoolwork… my
time… Petri dishes to breed and study bacteria / fungi /
mobile because I can be in contact with friends and family
micro-organisms … a lab coat to protect your clothes…
all the time… my iPod / MP3 player because it stores all my
a computer to store and calculate results / run tests.
music… my digital camera because it allows me to keep
a record of my life / I love taking photographs… television
What benefits does science bring?
because I need it to relax / I love television shows.
Science… increases our understanding / knowledge
of the world… shows how the world / universe /
What have been some of the most dangerous or
natural phenomena work(s)… is the most reliable
least helpful inventions in history?
way of showing what is true or false… can be applied
An example of… the most dangerous / least helpful
to make our lives more convenient / better… improves
invention is… the nuclear bomb because it can only
living conditions in the form of technology or medicine.
cause destruction… television because it wastes a lot
of time and stops people learning… guns because
What is the difference between discovery and
they are used to kill people… plastic because it
Discovery means coming across something that
already exists (e.g. the law of gravity) while invention
How has digital technology changed our lives?
refers to creating something new (e.g. a telephone).
Digital technology… has made it easier to
communicate… can store lots of information, so
Who were some famous scientists and what did
it is easier to conduct research or create images or
they discover or invent?
work with sound and pictures on a computer… has
One famous scientist was… Isaac Newton, who first
improved the quality of audio and video recording…
developed the idea of gravity and the laws of motion…
has given people more access to information… has
Robert Boyle developed Boyle’s law, which describes
reduced the cost of sending and storing information.
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