Tanzania Birding trip, January 16-27, 1999
Tanzania has 1040 different bird species and the Northern Tanzania covers over 600 species what for the country can be considered as one of the best birding place in the world.
I participated to a birding trip arranged by Tema Tours (specialized group of Fritidsresor) and its guide Paul Segersvärd. He tailored the trip to the people who wants to see high number of different species and good number of game animals in few of the best bird/animal places in Northern Tanzania. The group consisted of 13 birdwatchers and Paul (eager birder and very keen to Africa). Local trip organizer was Andersson African Adventures based in Arusha. The tour was very successful with excellent birding, good number of wild animals and great landscapes. The group saw altogether around 380 species from which I saw 345 species, 254 were new to me.
Packet price was 2200euros. The trip price included all transportations (flights, minivan), all accommodations, breakfast and dinner, picnic lunch (water included), park entrance fees, and guidance. Beers and other drinks at dinner had to be paid, also optional sea trip in Tanga. Tip (4USD per person per day) is recommended to pay for the driver as it's usually in these countries major income source to the drivers. So, we all paid 40USD to our driver in the end.
National park fees are usually very high what for a group of five is more or less minimum to keep the cost down. The more are sharing the driver and minivan costs, the lower you can get daily costs. However, be prepared to pay minimum 50USD/day in national parks plus the accommodation. Lodges charge usually 100-150USD per day with a half pension. These prices are applicable for game parks, like Lake Manyara, Ngorongoro, Serengeti, and Lake Tarangire. Mt Kilimanjaro trekking has extra fees, as you need to have local guide. You can count around 300USD per day for trekking there. Usambara Mountains do not have any fees.
The weather was during the trip mainly sunny. The morning temperature was around +15-18°C but very soon it rose up to +25-28°C. Some thunder/showers were usually late afternoon or in the evening. Otherwise weather was pleasant throughout the trip. So, shorts, t-shirt, sandals and hat to protect the head were the usual clothing. In Tanga the weather was quite humid.
We used two minivans, which had a lifted roof. Each minivan had places for 7 plus a driver. Main roads were paved but smaller ones between Lake Manyara and Ngorongoro were unsurfaced. The main road from Arusha to Tanga was paved. Roads to Usambara Mountains were partially very ruff. However, they were possible to drive.
Necessary vaccinations are tetanus, typhoid, polio, hepatitis, and yellow fever. The last one is checked at the airport. Malaria bills (Lariam) are must as well, as Tanzania is one of the worst malaria areas in Africa. Stomach upsets are rather common but careful selection what to eat can protect you rather well. Usually prevent to eat salads and other non-cooked food. However, I must say that Muller's Lodge and Gibb's Farm had excellent salad, which I could not resist. However, I did not have any stomach upsets. Maybe my stomach is rather well used to various bacteria bases as I have been travelling in Central Asia and in India.
Drink daily a lot due to the heat. 3-5 litres of bottled water were usual amount. Mango, bananas, and other fruits were very delicious and cheap. We bought them often from local people on the road to serve us as a quick aid and as part of our picnic lunch during the day.
16 Jan – Day 1
KLM flight left from Helsinki 7.15am via Amsterdam to Kilimanjaro airport
where we arrived 9.30pm. Drive to Hotel Novotel Mt Meru near Arusha.
17 Jan – Day 2
Early birding in the hotel's garden until our breakfast (7.30am), thereafter
drive to Lake Manyara with few stops on a way, a lunch at Lake Manyara Hotel. Afternoon
we drove to Ngorongoro where we arrived to the Ngorongoro Wildlife Lodge 6.20pm.
18 Jan – Day 3
The whole day drive in the Ngorongoro crater.
19 Jan – Day 4
Morning birding at the Wildlife Lodge, after breakfast driving towards Lake
Manyara making stops now and then, a lunch at Gibb's Coffee farm. Then drive to the Lake
20 Jan – Day 5
Morning birding at the lodge before the breakfast. All day drive in the Lake
Manyara National Park. Evening back to the Lodge.
21 Jan – Day 6
Morning birding at the lodge. After breakfast a drive without stops to Arusha
and further through Moshi to Western Usambara. Arriving late to the Muller's Lodge.
22 Jan – Day 7
Morning birding around the lodge forests. Thereafter drive to Sawmill track
where birding the whole afternoon. Back to the Muller's Lodge.
23 Jan – Day 8
Morning birding after an early breakfast around Muller's Lodge and on a way
to Eastern Usambara. We did several stops between Western and Eastern Usambara. Arriving
late afternoon Amani National Park where staying night in very basic rooms.
24 Jan – Day 9
Morning walk first towards North through the forest to a high hill and then
watching birds around the park buildings until early afternoon. Then we drove directly to the
coast to Tanga. Later afternoon we did some birding around Mkongo Hotel.
25 Jan – Day 10
Morning watching around the hotel. After the breakfast part of the group
participated to a sea trip with a fisher's boat. Others had free activities (shopping, birding,
etc). Later in the afternoon visit south of Tanga fish ponds to search shorebirds.
26 Jan – Day 11
Morning watching around the hotel. After the breakfast walk to the southern
part of Tanga. After the lunch we drove from Tanga to Dar-es-Salaam with few short stops
on a way. Arriving 8pm international airport.
27 Jan – Day 12
Flight left slightly after the midnight (00.30am) towards Amsterdam and
12.40pm next flight to Helsinki where we arrived 1pm and the temperature was –20°C!
Lake Manyara National Park
The name of the park is based on a flower, which Maasai people call "manyara". The park is located on the Rift Valley, which rises hundreds meters up on the western side of the lake. The northern side of the lake belongs to the park and takes 230km2 from the park's total area of 330km2. The park is famous of its elephants though the number had declined. With luck you may see a lion or a leopard, even possible climbed and sitting in trees. Giraffes, antelopes, hippos, and buffalos are typical in the park. Northern side of the lake has a special ground water forest, which hosts the home for Hornbills and Vervets (monkey). The park is famous of its bird life; far over 360 species have been seen there.
Ngorongoro National Park
The area covers apr. 8300km2 and it has got its name according to the world largest complete crater, called Ngorongoro. The crater is 260km2 with a diameter of 16km. The lodges located at the edge of the crater are 2300m above the sea level and there you can have a great view over the crater. The crater itself is 600m lower. A Soda Lake is on the crater hosting thousands of flamingos. Fresh water is falling from the crater edges to the crater floor making extremely rich animal and bird life. Here is possibility to see Black Rhino and Lions are common. Even up to 25000 grazing animals, like Wildebeest, Zebra, Thomson and Grant's Gazelle can be seen there. The crater is the park of the "mother nature", or you can call it also "Africa in miniscope". Bird life is also very rich and diverse; over 250 species are in the area.
Gibb's Coffee Farm
Gibb's Farm is a small coffee farm, which is located in the southeastern corner of the Ngorongoro Park's conservation area. The farm's name is coming from the owner's name, the war veteran James Gibb, who bought it 1948. The farm has been founded a German company in 1930. Since 1972 it has had a guesthouse type accommodation and a small restaurant, which serves very delicious home made food. The farm's splendid garden has full of beautiful flowers, which are attracting lots of birds as well. Near by the garden inside of the Ngorongoro Park's conservation area is a waterfall to where a path leads from the farm. By the path you can see quite good number of bird species.
Western Usambara Mountains and Muller's Lodge
Western Usambara has very beautiful landscape but forests are already extensively deforested in favour of cultivation and exotic plantations. Some areas are still providing very nice sceneries and interesting birds. Very homey Muller's Lodge is located in the middle of the
hills where several new forest species can be found. The area is 1500-2000m above the sea level. Western Usambara has ten threatened species. See more details in http://www.africanbirdingclub.org/feature/usambara.html and /usambar2.
Eastern Usambara Mountains and Amani National Park
Western and Eastern Usambara Mountains are separated by Lwengeran valley. The Eastern Usambara Mountains forests are much more in natural state and Amani Nature Park has been established in 1997 to protect it. This area is rather difficult to explore due to the missing infrastructure and most roads are in a bad shape. However, or maybe therefore, Eastern Usambara Mountains have several bird species, which cannot be seen in any other place in Tanzania. More details can be found in files of the web address /usambar2 and also /usambar3.
A typical small old colonial seaside town with sandbars, mangroves, shorelines, and beaches is offering good number of gulls, waders, terns, egrets, etc. The area combines well the bird life of excellent inland places and mountain forests. The town is more like a seaside holiday resort, though the second biggest port in Tanzania.
Zimmerman, et al: Birds of Kenya and Northern Tanzania
The best book in 1999 and it covers all birds to be seen in the area, even endemic species in Northern Tanzania. Though very heavy to the field but nowadays field guide version is available.
Terry Stevenson and John Fanshawe: Field Guide to the Birds of East Africa.
Lately (2002) published field guide with good pictures.
Lonely Planet: East Africa
It provides very useful information about Tanzania, National Parks, animals, travelling and life in overall there.
Marttila&Virtanen (1998): Kilimanjarolta Serengetiin (in Finnish)
The book describes extremely well Kenya and Tanzania parks wildlife and nature excellent way with text and high level pictures. I very well recommend read it.
Marttila (2003): Suuri savanni, Tansanian kansallispuistot ja muut avainsuojelualueet (in Finnish)
The book covers all Tanzanian National Parks and major protected areas very thoroughly. It's an excellent nature source to all Tanzanian nature lovers.
http://www.africanbirdingclub.org/feature/usambara.html, /usambar2 and /usambar3
The whole day was spent for travelling to Tanzania. On the flight most were preparing and familiarizing to birds' identification and species possible to see there. After our late arrival to Kilimanjaro airport breathing rather humid warm air at 10pm, then visa application (20USD), yellow fever vaccination checking, customs formalities and finally 11pm ready to drive in our minibus to Arusha, to Hotel Novotel, near by Mt Meru, where we arrived close to the midnight. By the road in bus's lights we saw our first species, Spotted Eagle Owl.
Wake up already 5.30am and immediately to the hotel's garden when it was still dark. We watched birds until the breakfast (7.20-7.35am) and then again until 8.40am when we finally headed west towards Ngorongoro road A104 in Andersson African Adventure mini buses. From the hotel balcony was very good view to Mt Meru (4556m), which soon was covered by clouds. Among 22 bird species around the hotel I could mention Hadada Ibis, Brown-breasted Barbet, Golden Palm Weaver, Spekes Weaver (20), and trip's only Peregrine Falcon sitting on the roof of the hotel.
We did two stops before Makuyuni from where there is only short distance south to Tarangire National Park, which was not in our trip agenda. However, it is bird wise a very good destination having more or less the same species as Lake Manyara National Park. Our first stop near a small pond provided ao. Black-headed Heron (2), Spur-winged Goose (30), Comb Duck (40), African Mourning Dove (3), Red-eyed Dove (8), Ring-necked Dove, Grassland Pipit (3), Mosque Swallow (10), Black Saw-wing (10), Long-tailed Fiscal (4), and trip's only Winding Cisticola (10). Some lucky ones spotted African Crowned Eagle and 4 Eastern Pale Chanting Goshawks.
At Makuyuni smaller road headed towards Ngorongoro, which we drove. A quite large tourist shop required us to make a stop and look at wooden animals, masks, etc but the place brought us new species like Yellow-collard Lovebird, Rufous Sparrow (10) and trip's only Alpine Swift (2) among hundreds of swifts.
On a way before Mta Wa Mbu we saw 6 Yellow-necked Spurfowls. Mta Wa Mbu is at Rift Valley just North of Lake Manyara and it had good habitat for nesting Pink-backed Pelican (150), Yellow-billed Stork (3), Marabou Stork (20), African White-backed Vulture (15), Ruppel's Griffon Vulture (2), Lapped-faced Vulture, and African Palm Swift (10).
We enjoyed a good lunch at the Lake Manyara Hotel and had some time to explore in its lovely garden finding Taita Fiscal (5), Scarlet-chested Sunbird (10), Pin-tailed Whydah (10), Striped Kingfisher, Abyssinian Scimitarbill (2), Lesser Striped Swallow (6), Blue-capped Gordon-bleu (20), and Purple Grenadier.
Several kilometres before The National Park gate in the village (Karutu) were 100 Cut-throat Finches, 50 Crimson-rumped Waxbills, 100 Yellow-rumped Seedeaters, and 5 Red-billed Firefinches.
Just at the national park gate we stopped for a while and picked up African Dusky Flycatcher (4), White-eyed Slaty Flycatcher, Cape Robin Chat (3), Olive Pigeon (10), and a beautiful male Klaas's Cuckoo. Possible African Hawk Eagle was flying over us.
When we arrived at the crater edge 5pm, we were just enjoying the sceneries of the world famous Ngorongoro crater and its large tiny animal groups. We were 600 meter higher than the crater bottom what for only nearest animals (<5km could be separated) was possible to identify. At this point we found Brown Parisoma, Mountain Yellow Warbler (2), Eastern Double-collard Sunbird (3), and Grey-headed Negrofinch (4).
We arrived just before dusk (6.20pm) the Wildlife Lodge, which was a very pleasant and luxury accommodation. The terrace offered great views over the darkening crater. Thunder and lightning on the other side of the crater crowned our first full day in Tanzania. The dinner was very tasty one and the bird count showed that we managed to get 120 species though mainly transferring from Arusha to Ngorongoro but through very good bird areas.
Several of us had an early wakeup to watch the awakening morning and sunrise, and to find first birds from the terrace before the breakfast (7.15am). The terrace watch brought female Streaky Seedeater, Hunter's Cisticola (2), and a pair of Tacazze Sunbird. Hunter's Cisticola is endemic to a restricted area of Tanzania and Kenya. At least two Silvery-cheeked Hornbills were flying and calling in large rainforest trees on the eastern side of the lodge. Six White-naped Ravens were sitting on the terrace.
After the breakfast 8am we left for a whole day trip of Ngorongoro crater. Before the crater's western gate we did several stops. Black-bellied Bustard flew over the track towards the crater. Tens of Maasai people were by the track and on the fields with their sticks and spears. Few kilometres before the gate road was gradually descending through rather dry hills and thus, dry hill species were dominant. Lapped-faced Vulture we circling over us. Rufous-naped Larks (5), two juvenile Wattled Starlings, African Paradise Flycatchers (5), Jackson's Widowbirds (5), African Citrils (5), Yellow-throated Longclaws (2), and Harlequin Quails (4) were additions to the trip list. Jackson's Widowbird is endemic to a restricted area of Tanzania and Kenya.
We slowly drove from the gate down to the crater to watch ao. Long-billed Pipits (2), Banded Martins (15), Schallow's Wheatear (20), Rufous-tailed Weaver (10), Northern Anteater Chats (35), Little Bee-eaters (15), and tens of Helmeted Guineafowls. Rufous-tailed Weaver is endemic to northern Tanzania and its main habitat is just Ngorongoro area.
Sky was mainly cloudy but the temperature was around +20°C or above it. Immediately down in the crater there was wide shallow water pools, which we started to explore 10.30am. They had great number of ducks, waders and other waterbirds: Lesser Flamingos (3000), African Spoonbills (7), Great White Pelicans (30), Hottentot Teals (120), Red-billed Teals (100), Cape Teals (25), a male Southern Pochard, Blacksmith Plovers (100), Kittlitz's Plovers (20), Tree-banded Plovers (3), Crowned Plovers (30), Marsh Sandpipers (7), Red-knopped Coots (50), and a Grey-headed Gull.
Drier sand areas brought Fischer's Sparrow-larks (20), Red-capped Larks (30), Isabelline Wheatears (3), Grey Crowned Cranes (40), Ostriches (25), Kori Bustards (5), Capped Wheatears (10), three male Fan-tailed Widowbirds, and over flying Cape Rooks (2).
Twenty Yellow-billed Oxpeckers and five Red-billed Oxpeckers were "eating" on the Buffalos' back and ears.
Raptor selection was good: Bateleur (2), Ayre's Hawk Eagle (2), Lapped-faced Vulture (2), Ruppel's Griffon Vulture (1), African White-backed Vulture (2), Steppe Eagle (1), Tawny Eagle (2), Montagu's Harrier (2 males), and few unidentified Harriers and Eagles.
This drive (10.30-14.15) provided major part of new bird species and excellent number of animals showing hence the greatness of the crater wildlife. The northwestern, northern and central part of the crater had thousands of animals: 3 African Elephants, 50 Hippos, 350 Buffalos, 1000 Zebras, 2 Rhinos with a baby rhino, 2000 Wildebeests, 150 Thompson's and 70 Grant's Gazelles, and 9 Lions (male, 5 females and 3 juveniles).
We had a picnic lunch on the southeastern part of the park, where we at the same time could enjoy new species. However, Black Kites were flying close above us to grab a part of our picnic lunch, if we left any part of the food unattended. A nearby pond had ten Long-tailed Cormorants and three Black Drakes. Two Black-crested Snake Eagles and three Lanners were sitting in nearby trees. Two Wire-tailed Swallows were flying around a small building. Superb Starling was very common. Pied Wheatear (male), Isabelline Shrike (male) and Rock Thrush (female) presented the "step" species.
After the lunch we continued (15.20-17.30) southern part through a marsh area, which had mainly the same species as in the morning but some were much more numerous, like Sacred Ibis (600), Yellow-billed Stork (70), Marabou Stork (120), Grey Crowned Crane (40), Glossy Ibis (300), Flamingo (200), Cattle Egret (1000), Hamerkops (50), Egyptian Goose (100). New species were Long-crested Eagle, Woolly-necked Stork, two Black Storks, 500 White Storks, 1juv Purple Heron, 10 Intermediate Egrets, male Garganey, Long-toed Plovers (30), Gull-billed Terns (20), Whiskered Terns (100), male Greater Painted Snipe, Malachite Kingfishers (2), Rosy-breasted Longclaws (5) and Plain Martins (10). Few Common and Golden Jackals, and Hyenas were lying on the sun. Around 20 Black-bellied Bustards were here and there in the grassy areas.
Few showers and some thunder was in the afternoon but otherwise we enjoyed really excellent day. We had to drive up from the crater before 6pm through a steep winding track straight to our lodge, where we arrived 6.15pm. Day count was long-lasting and showed, that we got 161 species for the day. There were several species, which only few of us saw as we drove now and then a little bit separately in the crater. Some of those species were: Rufous-bellied Heron, Chestnut-banded Plover, Secretary Bird, African Fish Eagle (2), Olive Thrush, Cinnamon Breasted Bunting (2) and a pair of Oriole Finch at the lodge.
Happily and tired we went to the bed close to the midnight to digest the day's experience and waiting for a new day to come.
The wake-up again 6am to witness at the lodge terrace that the crater was covered by fog after yesterday evening thunder and rain. Some new species we were able to find prior to the breakfast, like flying flock of 12 Fulvous Whistling Ducks and few Tawny-flanked Prinias. Around 10 Little Swifts were circling around.
We left the Lodge 8am towards Gibb's Coffee Farm making continuously stops and walking on the road when descending the crater road and forest. This part was very good for several new species, like Golden-winged Sunbird (5m, 1f), Bar-throated Apalis, Mountain Buzzard, African Goshawk (m&f), Schallow's Turaco (3), Cinnamon-chested Bee-eater, Yellow-bellied Bulbul (2), Mountain Greenbul (5), Grey Cuckoo-Shrike (3), Black-backed Buffback, and Red-billed Quelea.
We ate a very delicious lunch at Gibb's Coffee Farm at noon and the afternoon we spent in the vicinity of the farm and walking the 4km path hill up to the waterfall and back. The forest was very good for birds and the afternoon added good number of new species: Red-billed Firefinch (2), White-browed Robin-Chat, Bronze Sunbird (2), Cardinal Woodpecker (1m&3f), Mountain Wagtail (2), Black Cuckoo-Shrike, Chin-spot Batis, Black-throated Waffle-eye, White-tailed Blue Flycatcher (2), Brown-headed Apalis (5), Yellow-bellied Waxbill (5), Thick-billed Seedeater, African Hill-babbler (2), Cinnamon Bracken Warbler and Grey-backed Camaroptera (5).
After this very productive afternoon walk we had an hour drive to the Lake Manyara Hotel before the dusk. We ate a good dinner, then listened local choir singing and watched local acrobat presentations. During our evening bird-count strong thunder and lightning lighted the night sky until we finally went to the bed when also electricity was off due to thunder. Mosquito nets were needed.
We did a morning walk around the hotel 6.15-7.30 before the breakfast. The garden and nearby hosted among others Red-chested Cuckoo, African Fish-Eagle, Spot-flanked Barbet, White-headed Barbet, White-browed Scrub-Robin, Spotted Morning Palm-Thrush, Red-cheeked Gordon-bleu and Green-winged Pytilia.
After a quick breakfast we drove towards the Lake Manyara National Park, which started from a small rainforest at the northwest corner of the lake and the nature park area reached far south of the western side of the lake. We walked the road 2km before the gate birding all the time. This part produced already several new species: Common Scimitarbill (2), African Harrier Hawk, African Pygmy Kingfisher, Red-fronted Thinkerbird (2), Ashy Flycatcher, African Firefinch (2), and Yellow-rumped Seedeater.
We entered the National Park 9.50am and spent the whole day there until the entry gate was closed 5.30pm. Inside the park we had to stay in the car due to wide number of wild animals. We saw tens of Vervet and Gentle Monkeys, a male lion, 40 Elephants, 150 Zebras, 15 Giraffes, 50 Wildebeests, various antelopes and gazelles, etc. Our picnic lunch we ate in a picnic area on the western side of the lake in the shadow, when the temperature was around +35°C. The park has very varied biotopes and produces really good number of species. Total count of the species of the day was 150, which was almost the same as the day at Ngorongoro crater. However, now raptors, vultures and shorebirds played more important role on top of good number of dry savannah species.
New species list in the park was long: Blue-naped Mousebird (2), Narina Trogon, Crowned Hornbill (2), Grey-headed Kingfisher (6), Brown Snake-Eagle, Verreaux's Eagle, Emerald-spotted Wood-Dove, Black-and-white Cuckoo, African Grey Hornbill (6), Amethyst Sunbird, Wahlberg's Eagle, Southern Ground-hornbill (5), White-faced Whistling-Duck (300), Water Thick-knee, Palm-nut Vulture, African Grey Flycatcher (2), Hildebrandt's Francolin (2ad, 5juv), Speckle-fronted Weaver (10), Nubian Woodpecker (3), d'Arnaud's Barbet, Western Violet-back Sunbird, Beautiful Sunbird, Yellow-breasted Apalis, Slate-coloured Boubou, Cliff Chat (2), Von der Decken's Hornbill, Two-banded Courser (6),Tambourine Dove, Verreaux's Eagle-Owl.
On the return drive to the hotel a small group of us stopped to a local village to Lambada Bar to enjoy a local beer as I had passed my 1000 world bird species already yesterday. It was time to buy a beer to all volunteers. Then we walked to the nearby hotel in the darkening evening and enjoyed refreshing swimming in the pool. The day was excellent and the hotel view over the rift to the lake and park was really enjoyable. It was absolutely the top place together with the day in Ngorongoro.
An early wake-up, packing, our breakfast and we left the hotel already 7am to drive to Arusha, where we arrived 10.30am. We changed some money and did few shoppings until we headed towards east and to Usambara Mountains through Moshi. It was very long driving day and hot weather. In Mombossa we ate late and quick lunch 4.30pm until we started to climb up towards Western Usambara Mountains through Lushoto near to Mlalo to the Muller's Lodge. It was already dark and 7.20pm until we arrived there but we were very warmly welcomed to a homey and small mountain hotel. Just quickly checking to the rooms and to enjoy very delicious dinner after which we tried to catch the owl in the garden of the lodge without succeeding. It flew off just when we found it sitting on an electricity pole. The lodge owner suspected it to be Usambara Eagle Owl, one of our target species. Another possibility is African Eagle Owl.
During the day we did several small stops between Arusha and Mlalo, and we got good number of new species: Segretary Bird, Eastern Chanting-Goshawk (3), Grasshopper Buzzard, Pygmy Falcon, Brown-hooded Kingfisher, Northern Carmine Bee-eater, Madagascar Bee-eater, Rufous-crowned Roller (3), Golden Pipit, Rosy-patched Bush-shrike (m), Chestnut Sparrow (20), White-headed Buffalo-Weaver (2), Red-billed Buffalo-Weaver (6), White-bellied Canary (2) and Vitelline Masked Weaver (50).
An early breakfast before the sunrise and 6.30am we started the day with watching the garden birds and then walking the trail, which leads to a nearby forest hill. Visibility was rather limited due to dense vegetation, bushes and trees. The weather was really pleasant like summer weather and temperature in Finland. We returned to the lodge 10.30am and the walk produced a pair African Black Duck, African/Common Cuckoo, Stripe-cheeked Greenbul (2), White-tailed Crested-flycatcher (a pair and a nest), Olive Thrush, White-starred Robin, Olive Sunbird, Black-and-white Mannikin (8) and a beautiful Crested Barbet.
At the lodge we drank tee, picked up necessary goods for the afternoon walk on the Sawmill Track, where we drove by the car. The area was rather badly logged and only patches of trees
were anymore left. We drove rather bad track 2km above the closed sawmill and ate there a light field lunch. Then 1.15pm we started walking slowly downwards the road until 6pm we reached the park's lower border and completely logged hills. We walked around 8km and did several good observations about the species, which have either endemic subspecies in the area or appear in these East African mountain forests. New species were Eastern Bronze-naped Pigeon (3), Hartlaub's Turaco (2), Shelley's Greenbul (2, ssp roehli), Mountain Greenbul (5, ssp uzanbarae), Waller's Starling (2), Black-fronted Bush-shrike (yellow and white bellied bird), Evergreen Forest Warbler (5), African Tailorbird (2), Yellow-throated Woodland Warbler, Yellow White-eye (2) and Olive Woodpecker (m&f, ssp kilimensis). Though sceneries were not very nice due to widely logged hills, the area was completely different after the Rift Valley and lowland open savannah or cultivated areas. African Tailorbird is almost endemic to Tanzania but its breeding range slightly extends to Northwest Mozambique.
We returned the lodge a bid after the sunset and enjoyed again very delicious dinner.
We ate an early breakfast, packed and we left the lodge 6.30am by walking down the road around 3km by watching birds until our busses picked up us to drive further down on a way to Eastern Usanbara. We did a couple stops between Makamba and Soni, continued down to Mombo, where we arrived 11am. We did few stops before Maurui and then drove directly to Korogwe, where we ate a lunch 1-2pm. The drive continued to Muheza, from where rather bad road started to wind up to Amani, our very lightly prepared destination but better saved forests. We arrived Amani 5.45pm and settled down into very rusty IUCN huts. My hut's window was partially broken and door could not be locked. Also due to quite high elevation the night was rather cold. Just to mention also that only cold water was available for bathing. It was certainly refreshing after a long day travelling. We had a decent dinner and we went early to the bed.
By the road in Muheza local school children were pointing us in the buss and laughing by shouting: Mzungu! It meant a white colour person in Swahili. I felt that white tourists were not often seen in the area.
We knew that Amani did provide very basic accommodation but nowadays (2005) situation should be different when some old government research buildings have been prepared to a nature tourism purpose and facilities are better to host small groups of nature lovers.
New trip species were a calling male African Emerald Cuckoo, Black-headed Apalis and 20 Common Waxbills near Muller's Lodge, 3 Dark-capped Yellow Warblers in Lushoto, 25 African Open-bill Storks, 4 Red-headed Quelas, a male Zanzibar Red Bishop and 10 White-winged Widowbirds near Maurui, and a White-eared Barbet in Amani.
We had 6am the breakfast. We did half an hour birding around our huts and then headed to the hill forests following a path up to 1050m above the sea level to the nearby hill top, where we watched a short while and then returned to our huts 10.30am. There we watched soaring raptors until noon when our lunch was served. The path went through untouched park forests, which was a pleasant experience after West Usanbara's widely logged hills. The morning
walk provided new trip species like a Great Sparrowhawk, 2 Fischer's Turacos, a Trumpeter Hornbill, a Yellow-streaked Greenbul (ssp tenuirostris), 2 calling Green-headed Orioles, 10 Square-tailed Drongos, a Red-tailed Ant-Thrush, 3 Collared Sunbirds, 5 Dark-backed Weavers and 2 Tanzanian endemic Banded Green Sunbirds. Fischer's Turaco has very restricted breeding area to Eastern Usambara but occurs also in coastal mountain forests in Kenya side and thus, it's almost endemic.
After the lunch we drove the road 15km forwards to the tea plantation areas by stopping now and then. 2pm we returned and prepared to drive to the final destination, Tanga, which locates by the Indian Sea and is Tanzanian's second biggest port. On a way down from Amani we walked now and then on the road until Muheza. Then we drove directly on a good paved road to Tanga, where we arrived 6.20pm. Hot and humid weather welcomed us to the seaside. We settled down into Mkongo Hotel, which has had better colonial times earlier. We had few minutes to watch to the sea before dark. The warm shower and the dinner were well deserved.
Near Muheza we managed to find African Golden Weavers (35) and Black-headed Weavers (15), and in Tanga 3 Sooty Gulls to the trip's new species.
We watched local sea and shoreline birds until 10am when Paul was searching possibilities to have a boat trip to the sea for mangrove shorelines and some sand stripes. Only 9 of us participated to this voluntary program and gathered to a nearby Jacht Club to load to an open 9m long and 4m wide local fishboat. We went about 5km out to the sea, where we saw small sand stripes to come visible when water level was lowering after the high tide. Good number of terns was gathering to this widening sand: Roseate Terns (15), Saunders's Tern (130), Lesser Crested Terns (50) and Greater Crested Terns (3). We enjoyed the trip by swimming there until we returned to the Jacht Club 2.15pm. During the same time smaller group had done shopping tour in Tanga's shops.
We ate a late lunch and drove then south of Tanga stopping in interesting places. Nearby Tongoni village we found very good salt pools where we spent the last hour (5-6pm) watching mainly waders, which were quite numerous and increasing our trip species list. Dimorphic Egret (10) was best to mention. On a way to Tongoni we saw a Lizard Buzzard, 15 White-throated Bee-eaters and Village Indigobirds (1m&3f). Pied Kingfisher was in many places and 8 Crab Plovers flew north at the hotel shoreline.
To our surprise AAA had not included last evening dinner to the trip package and thus, Paul made a proposal to have lobster in our farewell dinner. The hotel did the best to find sufficient amount of lobsters, though few of us had to accept scrimps in delicious sauce. Several of us had burned faces and skin on shoulders during the boat trip.
The last morning was again dedicated to the hotel garden and seawatch until the breakfast (7.30am). Then we drove few km south following the shoreline and found good wader places. We also walked some Tanga outskirts looking for new species. 50 Red-eyed Doves flew from the sea to the town but otherwise we got only a half dozen new trip species though not lifers.
The last lunch was at noon and an hour later we left Tanga and drove the road to Dar-es-Salaam. We made two stops on a way and 130km before Dar-es-Salaam a small sand road eastern side of the highway produced the last new species: Sulphur-breasted Bush-shrike, Red-faced Crombec, Pale Batis, Yellow-fronted Canary, and a family with a nest of Lead-colored Flycatcher.
We arrived in the dark Dar-es-Salaam airport 8.45pm. Unloading busses, tipping and thanking our drivers, Arnold and Andrew, checking flights and other custom practicalities we had finished our very good trip. It was my first sub-Saharan trip and gave a nice overview of East African birds and nature.
The flight left just after midnight towards Amsterdam where we arrived early in the morning and transfer flight to Helsinki left 9.10am. When we arrived Helsinki 1pm, cold temperature (–20°C) welcomed us. The temperature difference was 50°C.
Possible comments to the report or about birding in Tanzania can be addressed to the writer, email: kari.t.Haataja@nokia.com or email@example.com.
according to the book "Field Guide to the Birds of East Africa"
and places of most interesting observations:
AR= Arusha, NG=Ngorongoro, GF=Gibb's Farm, LM=Lake Manyara, WU=Western Usambara, EU=Eastern Usambara, TA=Tanga, DES=Dar-es-Salaam
1. Common Ostrich, Struthio camelus - NG 25 and LM 5 2. Great White Pelica, Pelecanus onocrotalus - NG 30 3. Pink-backed Pelican, Pelecanus rufescens 4. Little Grebe, Tachybaptus ruficollis - NG 50 5. Black-necked Grebe, Podiceps nigriceps - NG 2 6. Great Cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo - TA 4 7. Long-tailed Cormorant, Phalacrocorax africanus 8. Cattle Egret, Bubulcus ibis 9. Common Squacco Heron, Ardea ralloides - NG 1 10. Rufous-bellied Heron, Ardea rufiventris - NG 1 11. Striated Heron, Butorides striatus - TA 4 12. Little Egret, Egretta garzetta - LM 1 13. Dimorphic Egret, Egretta dimorpha - TA 5 dark and 8 white 14. Great Egret, Egretta alba - NG 2 15. Intermediate Egret, Egretta intermedia - NG 8 16. Purple Heron, Adrea purpurea - NG 1 17. Grey Heron, Adrea cinerea 18. Black-headed Heron, Adrea melanocephala 19. Hamerkop, Scopus umbretta 20. White Stork, Ciconia ciconia
21. Yellow-billed Stork, Mycteria ibis 22. Black Stork, Ciconia nigra - NG 2 23. Woolly-necked Stork, Ciconia episcopus - NG 1, TA 1 24. African Open-billed Stork, Anastomus lamelligerus - between WU ja EU 40, TA 1 25. Marabou Stork, Ephippiorhynchus senelagensis 26. Sacred Ibis, Threskiornis aethiopicus 27. Hadada Ibis, Bostrychia hagedash 28. Glossy Ibis, Plegadis falcinellus 29. African Spoonbill, Platalea alba - NG 7 30. Greater Flamingo, Phoenicopterus rubber - NG 200 31. Lesser Flamingo, Phoeniconaias minor - NG 3000 32. Egyptian Goose, Alopochen aegyptiacus 33. Spur-winged Goose, Plectropterus gambensis 34. Knob-billed Duck, Sarkidiornis melanotos 35. White-faced Whistling-Duck, Dendrocygna viduata - LM 350 36. Fulvous Whistling-Duck, Dendrocygna bicolour - NG 12 37. Red-billed Teal, Anas erythorhyncha - NG 100 38. Hottentot Teal, Anas hottentota - NG 20 39. Cape Teal, Anas capensis - NG 20 40. African Black Duck, Anas sparsa - WU 2 (near Muller's Lodge in the river) 41. Northern Shoveler, Anas clypeata - NG 100 42. Garganey, Anas querquedula - NG 6 43. Southern Pochard, Netta erythrophthalma - NG 1 44. Black Kite, Milvus migrans 45. Black-shouldered Kite, Elanus caeruleus 46. Secretary Bird, Sagittarius serpentarius - NG 1 and on a way to WU 1 47. African Fish Eagle, Haliaeetus vocifer 48. Palm-nut Vulture, Gypohierax angolensis 49. Hooded Vulture, Necrosyrtes monachus - LM 8 50. African White-backed Vulture, Gyps africanus 51. Ruppel's Griffon Vulture, Gyps rueppellii 52. Lapped-faced Vulture, Torgos tracheliotus - NG 4 53. Black-chested Snake-Eagle, Circaetus pectoralis - NG 2 54. Western Banded Snake-Eagle, Circaetus cinerascens - LM 1 55. Eurasian Marsh Harrier, Circus aeruginosus - NG 10 and TA 1m 56. Montagu's Harrier, Circus pygargus - NG 7 and Cir pyg/mac 5 57. Eastern Chanting-Goshawk, Melierax poliopterus - On a way to NG 4, on a way to
58. Lizard Buzzard, Kaupifalco monogrammicus - TA 3 and on a way to DES 2 59. African Goshawk, Accipiter tachiro - NG 2 60. Great Sparrowhawk, Accipiter melanoleucus - EU 1 61. Little Sparrowhawk, Accipiter minullus - NG possible 1 62. African harrier-Hawk, Polyboroides typus 63. Grasshopper Buzzard, Butastur rufipennis - on a way to EU 1 64. Augur Buzzard, Buteo augur 65. Mountain Buzzard, Buteo oreophilus - NG 1 66. Common Buzzard, Buteo buteo 67. Tawny Eagle, Aquila rapax 68. Steppe Eagle, Aquila nipalensis 69. Wahlber's Eagle, Aquila wahlbergi
70. Booted Eagle, Hieraaetus pennatus - EU 1 light, on a way to DES 1 dark 71. Ayre's Hawk-Eagle, Hieraaetus ayresii - NG 2 72. African Hawk-Eagle, Hieraaetus spilogaster - NG possible 1 73. Bateleur, Terathopius ecaudatus - NG 1ad 1juv, LM 2ad 74. Long-crested Eagle, Lophaetus occipitalis 75. Verreaux's Eagle, Aquila verreauxii - LM 1 76. African Crowned Eagle, Stephanoaetus coronatus - NG 1, EU 1 77. Pygmy Falcon, Polihierax semitorquatus - on a way to WU 1 78. Lanner Falcon, Falco biarmicus - NG 3, WU 1 79. Peregrine Falcon, Falco peregrinus - NG 1 80. Helmeted Guineafowl, Numida meleagris 81. Hildebrandt's Francolin, Francolinus hildebrandti - LM 16 82. Yellow-necked Spurfowl, Francolinus leucoscepus - NG 6 and LM 2 83. Harlequin Quail, Coturnix delegorguail - NG 4 84. Common Quail, Coturnix coturnix - WU 1 calling 85. Black Crake, Amaurornis flavirostris - NG 3 86. Red-knobbed Coot, Fulica cristata - NG 50 87. Common Moorhen, Gallinula chloropus - NG 3 88. Grey Crowned Crane, Balearica regulorum 89. Kori Bustard, Ardeotis kori - NG 5 90. Black-bellied Bustard, Eupodotis melanogaster - NG 25 and 1 on a way to WU 91. Black-winged Stilt, Himantopus himantopus 92. Pied Avocet, Recurvirostra avocetta - NG 40 93. Crab-plover, Dromas ardeola - TA 9 94. Greater painted-snipe, Rostratula benghalensis - NG 1m and LM 2m 95. Water Thick-knee, Burhinus vermiculatus - LM 2 and TA 2 96. Two-banded Courser, Rhinoptilus africanus - LM 6 97. Collared Pratincole, Glareola pratincola - LM 100 98. Blacksmith Lapwing, Vanellus armatus 99. Long-toed Lapwing, Vanellus crassirostris - NG 30 100. Crowned Lapwing, Vanellus coronatus 101. Kittlitz's Plover, Charadrius pecuarius 102. Three-banded Plover, Charadrius tricollaris 103. Chestnut-banded Plover, Charadrius pallidus - NG 1 104. Common Ringed Plover, Charadrius hiaticula - TA 50 105. Lesser Sandplover, Charadrius mongolus - TA 3 106. Greater Sandplover, Charadrius leschenaultii - TA 100 107. Grey Plover, Pluvialis squatarola - TA 130 108. Ruff, Philomachus pugnax - NG 150 109. Common Sandpiper, Actitis hypoleucos 110. Wood Sandpiper, Tringa glareola 111. Green Sandpiper, Tringa ochropus 112. Terek Sandpiper, Xenus cinereus - TA 35 113. Common Greenshank, Tringa nebularia 114. Marsh Sandpiper, Tringa stagnatilis 115. Little Stint, Calidris minuta 116. Sanderling, Calidris alba - NG 3 117. Curlew Sandpiper, Calidris ferruginea 118. Ruddy Turnstone, Arenaria interpres - TA 5 119. Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus - TA 17
120. Eurasian Curlew, Numenius arquata - TA 6 121. Lesser Black-backed Gull, Larus fuscus - TA 1 122. Grey-headed Gull, Larus cirrocephalus - NG 20 123. Sooty Gull, Larus hemprichii - TA 70 124. Lesser Crested Tern, Sterna bengalensis - TA80 125. Greater Crested Tern, Sterna bergii - TA 5 126. Gull-billed Tern, Sterna nilotica - NG, LM, TA 127. Common Tern, Sterna hirundo - TA 128. Roseate tern, Sterna dougallii - TA 20 129. Saunders's tern, Sterna saundersi - TA 150 130. Whiskered Tern, Chlidonias hybricus - NG 100 131. Eastern Bronze-naped Pigeon, Columba delegorguei - WU 7 132. Speckled Pigeon, Columba guinea 133. Olive Pigeon, Columba arquatrix 134. Feral Pigeon, Columba livia 135. Emerald-spotted Wood-Dove, Turtur chalcospilos - LM 30 136. Tambourine Dove, Turtur tympanistria 137. Namaqua Dove, Oena capensis 138. Ring-necked Dove, Streptopelia capicola 139. Red-eyed Dove, Streptopelia semitorquata 140. African Mourning Dove, Streptopelia decipiens 141. Laughing Dove, Streptopelia senegalensis 142. Fischer's Lovebird, Agapornis fischeri - TA 4 143. Yellow-collared Lovebird, Agapornis personatus - on a way to NG 1 and 2
144. White-bellied Go-away-bird, Corythaixoides leucogaster - NG 5, on a way to
145. Bare-faced Go-away-bird, Corythaixoides personata - on a way to WU 2 146. Hartlaub's Turaco, Tauraco hartlaubi - WU 2 147. Schalow's Turaco, Tauraco schalowi - LM 5 148. Fischer's Turaco, Tauraco fischeri - EU 2 149. Black-and-white Cuckoo, Oxylophus jacobinus - LM 1 150. African/Common Cuckoo, Cuculus gularis/canorus - WU 1 151. Red-chested Cuckoo, Cuculus solitarius 152. Black Cuckoo, Cuculus clamosus, EU 1 153. Klaas's Cuckoo, Chrysococcyx klaas - NG 1m, LM 2 154. African Emerald Cuckoo, Chrysococcyx cupreus - WU 1m 155. White-browed Coucal, Centropus superciliosus 156. Verreaux's Eagle-Owl, Bubo lacteus - LM 1 157. Spotted Eagle-Owl, Bubo africanus - AR 1, WU 1+1 Spotted/Uzambara Eagle-
158. Little Swift, Apus affinis 159. White-rumped Swift, Apus caffer 160. Alpine Swift, Apus melba - on a way to NG 2 161. Eurasian Swift, Apus apus 162. African Palm Swift, Cypsiurus parvus 163. Blue-naped Mousebird, Urocolius macrourus - LM 3 164. Speckled Mousebird, Colius striatus 165. Narina Trogon, Apaloderma narina - LM 1 166. Pied Kingfisher, Ceryle rudis - TA 10
167. Striped Kingfisher, Halcyon chelicuti 168. Grey-headed Kingfisher, Halcyon leucocephala 169. Brown-hooded Kingfisher, Halcyon albiventris 170. Malachite Kingfisher, Alcedo cristata - NG 2, TA 1 171. African Pygmy Kingfisher, Ispidina picta - LM 2 172. Little Bee-eater, Merops pusillus 173. Cinnamon-chested Bee-eater, Merops obeobates 174. White-throated Bee-eater, Merops albicollis - TA 15 175. European Bee-eater, Merops apiaster - on a way to WU 10 176. Blue-cheeked Bee-eater, Merops persicus 177. Northern Carmine Bee-eater, Merops nubicus 178. Lilac-breasted Roller, Coracias caudate 179. European Roller, Coracias garrulous 180. Rufous-crowned Roller, Coracias naevia - LM 4 181. Hoopeo, Upupa epops - LM 1 182. Abyssinian Scimitarbill, Rhinopomastus minor - LM 2 183. Common Scimitarbill, Rhinopomastus cyanomelas - LM 3, TA 1 184. Von der Decken's Hornbill, Tockus deckeni - LM 2 185. African Grey Hornbill, Tockus nasutus - LM 20 186. Crowned Hornbill, Tockus alboterminatus 187. Trumpeter Hornbill, Bycanistes bucinator 188. Silvery-cheeked Hornbill, Bycanistes brevis 189. Souther Ground-hornbill, Bucorvus leadbeateri - LM 15 190. Green Barbet, Stactolaema olivacea - WU 1, EU 5 191. White-eared Barbet, Stactolaema leucotis - EU 4 192. Red-fronted Tinkerbird, Pogoniulus pusilus - LM 2 193. Spot-flanked Barbet, Tricholaema lacrymosa - LM 1 194. Brown-breasted Barbet, Lybius melanopterus - NG 1, TA 2 195. White-headed Barbet, Lybius leucocephalus - LM 3 196. d'Arnaud's Barbet, Trachybonus darnaudii - LM 8 197. Crested Barbet, Trachybonus vaillantii - WU 2 198. Nubian Woodpecker, Campethera nubica - LM 4 199. Cardinal Woodpecker, Dendopicos fiscescens 200. Olive Woodpecker, Dendropicos griseocephalus - WU 1m2f, TA 1m1f 201. Fawn-coloured Lark, Mirafra africanoides - NG 10 202. Red-capped Lark, Calandrella cinerea - NG 30 203. Fischer's Sparrow-Lark, Eremopterix leucopareia 204. Rock Martin, Hirundo fuligula 205. Plain Martin, Riparia paludicola 206. Banded Martin, Riparia cincta - NG 15 207. Common House Martin, Delichon urbica 208. Red-rumped Swallow, Hirundo daurica 209. Mosque Swallow, Hirundo senegalensis 210. Lesser Striped Swallow, Hirundo abyssinica 211. Barn Swallow, Hirundo rustica 212. Ethiopian Swallow, Hirundo aethiopica - TA 1 213. Wire-tailed Swallow, Hirundo smithii 214. Black Saw-wing, Psalidoprocne holomelas 215. African Pied Wagtail, Motacilla aguimp 216. Mountain Wagtail, Motacilla clara
217. Grey Wagtail, Motacilla cinerea - NG 1f 218. Yellow Wagtail, Motacilla flava - NG 200 219. Golden Pipit, Tmetothylacus tenellus - on a way to WU 2, between WU and EU
220. Yellow-throated Longclaw, Macronyx croceus - NG 2 221. Rosy-breasted Langclaw, Macronyx ameliae - NG 5 222. Grassland Pipit, Anthus cinnamomeus 223. Long-billed Pipit, Anthus similes - NG 2 224. Tree Pipit, Anthus trivialis 225. Red-throated Pipit, Anthus cervinus - NG 3 226. Black Cuckoo-shrike, Campephaga flava - GF 1 227. Grey Cuckoo-shrike, Coracina caesia - NG 2, EU 1 228. Common Bulbul, Pygnonotus barbatus 229. Mountain Greenbul, Andropadus nigriceps - LM 10, WU 4 230. Shelley's Greenbul, Andropadus masukuensis - WU 4, EU 1 231. Stripe-cheeked Greenbul, Antropadus milanjensis - WU 4 232. Yellow-streaked Greenbul, Phyllastrephus flavostriatus - EU 1 233. Yellow-bellied Greenbul, Chlorocichla flaviventris - LM 4 234. White-starred Robin, Pogonocichla stellata - WU 10 235. Cape Robin-Chat, Cossypha caffra 236. White-browed Robin-Chat, Cossypha heuglini 237. Olive Thrush, Turdus olivaceus - NG 1, WU 1 238. Red-tailed Ant-thrush, Neocossyphus rufus - EU 1 239. Common Rock-Thrush, Monticola saxatilis - NG 1, TA 1f 240. Northern Anteater Chat, Myrmecocichla aethiops - NG 35 241. Cliff Chat, Myrmecocichla cinnamomeiventris 242. Common Stonechat, Saxicola torquata 243. Capped Wheatear, Oenanthe pileata - NG 10 244. Schalow's Wheatear, Oenanthe schalowi 245. Northern Wheatear, Oenenthe oenanthe - NG 1m, WU 2 246. Isabelline Wheatear, Oenanthe isabellina - NG 3 247. Pied Wheatear, Oenanthe Pleschanka 248. Nightingale, Luscinia megarhynchos - LM 10 249. White-browed Scrub-Robin, Cercotrichas leucophrys - LM 2 250. Eastern Bearded Scrub-Robin, Cercotrichas quadrivirgata - LM 2 251. Spotted Morning-Thrush, Cichladusa guttata - LM 5 252. Dark-capped Yellow Warbler, Chloropeta natalensis - WU 6 253. Mountain Yellow Warbler, Chloropeta similes - NG 1 254. Cinnamon Bracken Warbler, Bradypterus cinnamomeus - GF 1 255. Evergreen Forest Warbler, Bradypterus lopezi - WU 7 256. Olivaceus Warbler, Hippolais pallida - LM 2 257. Garden Warbler, Sylvia borin - NG 2 258. Blackcap, Sylvia atricapilla 259. Common Whitethroat, Sylvia communis - LM 1 260. Sedge Warbler, Acrocephalus schoenobaenus - LM 1 261. Willow Warbler, Phylloscopus trochilus 262. Buff-bellied Warbler, Phyllolais pulchella - LM 1 263. Yellow-throated Woodland Warbler, Phylloscopus ruficapillus - WU 2 264. Red-faced Crombec, Sylvietta whytii - LM 1, TA 1 265. Brown Parisoma, Parisoma lugens - AR 1
266. African Tailorbird, Orthotomus metopias - WU 3 267. Rattling Cisticola, Cisticola chiniana - LM 8 268. Winding Cisticola, Cisticola galactotes - West of AR 10 269. Hunter's Cisticola, Cisticola hunteri - NG 13 270. Desert Cisticola, Cisticola aridulus - between LM and WU 1 271. Zitting Cisticola, Cisticola juncidis - NG 5 272. Tawny-flanked Prinia, Prinia subflava 273. Grey-backed Camaroptera, Camaroptera brachyuran 274. Yellow-breasted Apalis, Apalis flavida - LM 1m 275. Brown-headed Apalis, Apalis alticola - GF 8 276. Black-headed Apalis, Apalis melanocephala - WU 5 277. Bar-throated Apalis, Apalis thoracica 278. White-eyed Slaty Flycatcher, Melaenornis fischeri 279. African Grey Flycatcher, Bradornis microrhynchus - LM 6 280. Ashy Flycatcher, Muscicapa caerulescens - LM 3 281. Spotted Flycatcher, Muscicapa striata 282. African Dusky Flycatcher, Muscicapa adusta 283. Lead-colored Flycatcher, Myioparus plumbeus - TA 2 284. Chin-spot Batis, Batis molitor - GF 2 285. Pale Batis, Batis soror - TA 1 286. Black-throated Wattle-eye, Platysteira peltata - GF 1 287. African Paradise-flycatcher, Terpsiphone viridis 288. White-tailed Crested-flycatcher, Trochocercus albonotatus - WU 8 289. White-tailed Blue-flycatcher, Elminia albicauda - GF 2 290. African Hill-Babbler, Pseudoalcippe abyssinica - GF 2 291. Rufous Chatterer, Turdoides rubiginosus 292. Montane White-eye, Zosterops poliogaster 293. Yellow White-eye, Zosterops senegalensis 294. Bronze Sunbird, Nectarinia kilimensis - GF 3 295. Golden-winged Sunbird, Nectarinia reichenowi - NG 10 296. Tacazze Sunbird, Nectarinia tacazze - NG 3 297. Amethyst Sunbird, Chalcomitra amethystine 298. Green-throated Sunbird, Chalcomitra rubescens - EU 3 299. Olive Sunbird, Cyanomitra olivacea - WU 1 300. Scarlet-chested Sunbird, Chalcomitra senegalensis - NG 10 301. Beautiful Sunbird, Cinnyris pulchella - LM 1 302. Variable sunbird, Cinnyris venusta 303. Collared Sunbird, Hedydipna collaris - EU 5 304. Eastern Violet-backed Sunbird, Anthreptes orientalis - LM 1 305. Common Fiscal, Lanius collaris 306. Taita Fiscal, Lanius dorsalis - NG 5 307. Long-tailed Fiscal, Lanius cabanisi 308. Isabelline Shrike, Lanius isabellinus 309. Red-backed Shrike, Lanius collurio - LM 2, TA 1 310. Tropical Boubou, Laniarius aethiopicus 311. Slate-coloured Boubou, Laniarius funebris - LM 2 312. Black-backed Puffback, Dryoscopus cubla 313. Black-crowned Tchagra, Tchagra senegala - LM 1 314. Rosy-pached Bush-shrike, Rhodophoneus cruentus - LM 1 315. Sulphur-breasted Bush-shrike, Malaconotus sulfureopectus - on a way to DES 1
316. Black-fronted Bush-shrike, Malaconotus nigrifrons - WU 1 golden- and 2 buff-
317. Fork-tailed Drongo, Dicrurus adsimilis 318. Square-tailed Drongo, Dicrurus ludwigii - EU 5 319. House Crow, Corvus splendens 320. Pied Crow, Cosvus albus 321. Cape Rook, Corvus capensis - NG 2 322. White-naped Raven, Corvus albicollis 323. Green-headed Oriole, Oriolus chlorocephalus - EU 3 324. Eurasian Golden Oriole, Oriolus oriolus - TA 1 325. Yellow-billed Oxpecker, Buphagus africanus - NG 20, between EU and TA 1 326. Red-billed Oxpecker, Buphagus erythrorhynchus - NG 4, LM 8 327. Red-winged Starling, Onychognathus morio 328. Waller's Starling, Onychognathus walleri 329. Violet-backed Starling, Cinnyricinclus leucogaster - LM 4, EU 1 330. Hildebrandt's Starling, Lambrodornis hildebrandti - LM 7 331. Superb Starling, Lamprotornis superbus 332. Wattled Starling, Creatophora cinerea - NG 20 333. Rufous Sparrow, Passer rufocinctus 334. House Sparrow, Passer domesticus 335. Chestnut Sparrow, Passer eminibey 336. Speckle-fronted Weaver, Sporopipes frontalis - LM 20 337. Grey-headed Sparrow, Passer griseus 338. Rufous-tailed Weaver, Histurgops ruficaudus - NG 40, between LM and AR 3 339. White-headed Buffalo-Weaver, Dinemellia dinemelli - between LM and AR 3 340. White-browed Sparrow-Weaver, Plocepasser mahali - between LM and AR 15 341. Red-billed Buffalo-Weaver, Bubalornis niger - between LM and Arusha 15 342. Black-headed Weaver, Ploceus cucullatus 343. Vitelline Masked Weaver, Ploceus velatus 344. Spece's Weaver, Ploceus spekei 345. Baglafecht Weaver, Ploceus baglafecht 346. Grosbeak Weaver, Amblyospiza albifrons 347. Golden Palm Weaver, Ploceus bojeri - AR 1 348. African Golden Weaver, Ploceus subaureus - EU 35 349. Dark-backed Weaver, Ploceus bicolour - EU 4 350. Spectackled Weaver, Ploceus ocularis - between WU and EU 5 351. Red-billed Quelea, Quelea quelea 352. Red-headed Quelea, Quelea erythrops - between WU and EU 5 353. Jackson's Widowbird, Euplectes jacksoni - NG 5 354. Fan-tailed Widowbird, Euplectes axillaries - NG 100 355. White-winged Widowbird, Euplectes albonotatus - between WU and EU 10 356. Zanzibar Red Bishop, Euplectes nigroventris - between WU and EU 1m 357. Grey-headed Negrofinch, Nigrita canicapilla - NG 4 358. Green-winged Pytilia, Pytilia melba - LM 1 359. Red-faced Crimsonwing, Cryptospiza reichenowii - between AR and NG 1 360. Red-cheeked Gordon-bleu, Uraeginthus bengalus - LM 5 361. Blue-capped Gordon-bleu, Uraeginthus cyanocephalus - LM 20 362. Purple Grenadier, Uraeginthus ianthinogaster - LM 1 363. Red-billed Firefinch, Lagonosticta senegala 364. African Firefinch, Lagonosticta rubricata - LM 2
365. Yellow-billed Waxbill, Estrilda quartinia 366. Common Waxbill, Estrilda astrild - EU 40 367. Crimson-rumped Waxbill, Estrilda rhodopyga - NG 50 368. Black-and-white Mannikin, Lonchura bicolour 369. Cut-throat Finch, Amadina fasciata - NG 100 370. Pin-tailed Whydah, Vidua macroura 371. Village Indigobird, Vidua chalybeate - TA 5 (one red-billed male, ssp
372. Yellow-fronted Canary, Serinus mozambicus - TA 1m 373. White-billed Canary, Seronus dorsostriatus - between LM and WU 9 374. Thick-billed Seedeater, Serinus burtoni - GF 4 375. African Citril, Serinus citrinelloides 376. Yellow-rumped Seedeater, Serinus reichenowi 377. Streaky Seedeater, Serinus striolatus 378. Oriole Finch, Linurgus olivaceus - NG 1m1f 379. Cinnamon-Breasted Rock Bunting, Emberiza tahapisi - NG 3
M E D I E N U N D W E R B U N G Kultur und Moral im Wandel der Gesellschaft Vom „Sanso“-Schäfchen zur Folterkammer Am Beispiel der Werbung und ihrer Entwicklung lassen sich sowohl Veränderungenvon Gesellschaft und Kommunikation prägnant beschreiben als auch die jeweils in denEpochen vorherrschenden Leitbilder und Lebensstile: Werbliche Schöpfungen am Pulsder Zeit brechen oft konventi
Global Gene Expression Profiling in Neonatal Rat Myocardium inResponse to the Anti-diabetic Drug RosiglitazoneChao-Jen Wong 1,∗, Elliot Kleiman 1, Frank Gonzales 3, Paul Paolini 1,2,1. Computational Science Research Center, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA2. Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA3. School of Public Health, San Diego State Univers