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Naval special warfare project list

Tactical Combat Casualty Care
Guidelines
November 2009
* All changes to the guidelines made since those published in the 2006 Sixth
Edition of the PHTLS Manual are shown in bold text. The new material on burns
is in red text.


Basic Management Plan for Care Under Fire

1. Return fire and take cover.
2. Direct or expect casualty to remain engaged as a combatant if
appropriate.
3. Direct casualty to move to cover and apply self-aid if able.
4. Try to keep the casualty from sustaining additional wounds.
5. Casualties should be extricated from burning vehicles or buildings and
moved to places of relative safety. Do what is necessary to stop the
burning process.

6. Airway management is generally best deferred until the Tactical Field
Care phase.
7. Stop life-threatening external hemorrhage if tactically feasible:
- Direct casualty to control hemorrhage by self-aid if able. - Use a CoTCCC-recommended tourniquet for hemorrhage that is
anatomically amenable to tourniquet application.
- Apply the tourniquet proximal to the bleeding site, over the uniform,
tighten, and move the casualty to cover.

Basic Management Plan for Tactical Field Care
1. Casualties with an altered mental status should be disarmed
immediately.
2. Airway Management
a. Unconscious casualty without airway obstruction: - Place casualty in the recovery position b. Casualty with airway obstruction or impending airway obstruction: - Allow casualty to assume any position that best protects the - Place unconscious casualty in the recovery position. - Surgical cricothyroidotomy (with lidocaine if conscious)

3. Breathing

a. In a casualty with progressive respiratory distress and
known or suspected torso trauma, consider a tension
pneumothorax and decompress the chest on the side of the injury
with a 14-gauge, 3.25 inch needle/catheter unit inserted in the
second intercostal space at the midclavicular line. Ensure that the
needle entry into the chest is not medial to the nipple line and is
not directed towards the heart.
b. All open and/or sucking chest wounds should be treated by

immediately applying an occlusive material to cover the defect
and securing it in place. Monitor the casualty for the potential
development of a subsequent tension pneumothorax.

4. Bleeding

a. Assess for unrecognized hemorrhage and control all sources of
bleeding. If not already done, use a CoTCCC-recommended

tourniquet to control life-threatening external hemorrhage that is
anatomically amenable to tourniquet application or for any
traumatic amputation. Apply directly to the skin 2-3 inches above
wound.

b. For compressible hemorrhage not amenable to tourniquet use or
as an adjunct to tourniquet removal (if evacuation time is
anticipated to be longer than two hours), use Combat Gauze as

the hemostatic agent of choice. Combat Gauze should be applied
with at least 3 minutes of direct pressure. Before releasing any
tourniquet on a casualty who has been resuscitated for
hemorrhagic shock, ensure a positive response to resuscitation
efforts (i.e., a peripheral pulse normal in character and normal
mentation if there is no traumatic brain injury (TBI).

c. Reassess prior tourniquet application. Expose wound and
determine if tourniquet is needed. If so, move tourniquet from over
uniform and apply directly to skin 2-3 inches above wound. If a
tourniquet is not needed, use other techniques to control
bleeding.

d. When time and the tactical situation permit, a distal pulse check
should be accomplished. If a distal pulse is still present, consider
additional tightening of the tourniquet or the use of a second

tourniquet, side by side and proximal to the first, to eliminate the
distal pulse.
e. Expose and clearly mark all tourniquet sites with the time of
tourniquet application. Use an indelible marker.

- Start an 18-gauge IV or saline lock if indicated. - If resuscitation is required and IV access is not obtainable, use the intraosseous (IO) route. 6. Fluid resuscitation Assess for hemorrhagic shock; altered mental status (in the absence of head injury) and weak or absent peripheral pulses are the best field indicators of shock. - PO fluids permissible if conscious and can swallow - Repeat once after 30 minutes if still in shock. c. Continued efforts to resuscitate must be weighed against logistical and tactical considerations and the risk of incurring further casualties. d. If a casualty with TBI is unconscious and has no peripheral pulse, resuscitate to restore the radial pulse.
7. Prevention of hypothermia
a. Minimize casualty’s exposure to the elements. Keep protective gear on or with the casualty if feasible. b. Replace wet clothing with dry if possible. e. Put Thermo-Lite Hypothermia Prevention System Cap on the f. Apply additional interventions as needed and available. g. If mentioned gear is not available, use dry blankets, poncho liners, sleeping bags, body bags, or anything that will retain heat and
keep the casualty dry.
8. Penetrating Eye Trauma
If a penetrating eye injury is noted or suspected:

a) Perform a rapid field test of visual acuity.
b) Cover the eye with a rigid eye shield (NOT a pressure patch.)
c) Ensure that the 400 mg moxifloxacin tablet in the combat pill pack
is taken if possible and that IV/IM antibiotics are given as outlined
below if oral moxifloxacin cannot be taken.


9. Monitoring
Pulse oximetry should be available as an adjunct to clinical monitoring.
Readings may be misleading in the settings of shock or marked hypothermia.
10. Inspect and dress known wounds.
11. Check for additional wounds.
12. Provide analgesia as necessary.
These medications should be carried by the combatant and self- administered as soon as possible after the wound is sustained. - Tylenol, 650-mg bilayer caplet, 2 PO every 8 hours Note: Have naloxone readily available whenever administering opiates. - Does not otherwise require IV/IO access - Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC), 800 ug - Recommend taping lozenge-on-a-stick to casualty’s finger as an added safety measure - Add second lozenge, in other cheek, as - Repeat dose every 10 minutes as necessary to - Promethazine, 25 mg IV/IM/IO every 6 hours as needed for nausea or for synergistic analgesic effect 13. Splint fractures and recheck pulse. 14. Antibiotics: recommended for all open combat wounds b. If unable to take PO (shock, unconsciousness): - Cefotetan, 2 g IV (slow push over 3-5 minutes) or IM every
15. Burns
a. Facial burns, especially those that occur in closed spaces, may be
associated with inhalation injury. Aggressively monitor airway status and
oxygen saturation in such patients and consider early surgical airway for
respiratory distress or oxygen desaturation.

b. Estimate total body surface area (TBSA) burned to the nearest
10% using the Rule of Nines.

c. Cover the burn area with dry, sterile dressings. For extensive
burns (>20%), consider placing the casualty in the Blizzard Survival Blanket
in the Hypothermia Prevention Kit in order to both cover the burned areas
and prevent hypothermia.

d. Fluid resuscitation (USAISR Rule of Ten)
If burns are greater than 20% of Total Body Surface Area, fluid
resuscitation should be initiated as soon as IV/IO access is
established. Resuscitation should be initiated with Lactated
Ringer’s, normal saline, or Hextend. If Hextend is used, no
more than 1000 ml should be given, followed by Lactated
Ringer’s or normal saline as needed.

Initial IV/IO fluid rate is calculated as %TBSA x 10cc/hr for
adults weighing 40- 80 kg.
For every 10 kg ABOVE 80 kg, increase initial rate by 100
If hemorrhagic shock is also present, resuscitation for
hemorrhagic shock takes precedence over resuscitation for
burn shock. Administer IV/IO fluids per the TCCC Guidelines in
Section 6.

e. Analgesia in accordance with the TCCC Guidelines in Section 12
may be administered to treat burn pain.
f. Prehospital antibiotic therapy is not indicated solely for burns, but
antibiotics should be given per the TCCC guidelines in Section 14 if
indicated to prevent infection in penetrating wounds.

g. All TCCC interventions can be performed on or through burned
skin in a burn casualty.

16. Communicate with the casualty if possible.

17. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
Resuscitation on the battlefield for victims of blast or penetrating
trauma who have no pulse, no ventilations, and no other signs of life
will not be successful and should not be attempted.
18. Documentation of Care
Document clinical assessments, treatments rendered, and changes
in the casualty’s status on a TCCC Casualty Card. Forward this
information with the casualty to the next level of care.
Basic Management Plan for Tactical Evacuation Care

* The new term “Tactical Evacuation” includes both Casualty Evacuation
(CASEVAC) and Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) as defined in Joint
Publication 4-02.
1. Airway Management
a. Unconscious casualty without airway obstruction: - Place casualty in the recovery position b. Casualty with airway obstruction or impending airway obstruction: - Allow casualty to assume any position that best protects the airway, to include sitting up. - Place unconscious casualty in the recovery position. - Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA)/intubating LMA or - Surgical cricothyroidotomy (with lidocaine if c. Spinal immobilization is not necessary for casualties with a. In a casualty with progressive respiratory distress and
known or suspected torso trauma, consider a tension
pneumothorax and decompress the chest on the side of the injury
with a 14-gauge, 3.25 inch needle/catheter unit inserted in the
second intercostal space at the midclavicular line. Ensure that the
needle entry into the chest is not medial to the nipple line and is
not directed towards the heart.
b. Consider chest tube insertion if no improvement and/or long c. Most combat casualties do not require supplemental oxygen, but administration of oxygen may be of benefit for the following types - Low oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry - Injuries associated with impaired oxygenation - Casualty with TBI (maintain oxygen saturation > 90%) d. All open and/or sucking chest wounds should be treated by

immediately applying an occlusive material to cover the defect
and securing it in place. Monitor the casualty for the potential
development of a subsequent tension pneumothorax.

3. Bleeding

a. Assess for unrecognized hemorrhage and control all sources of
bleeding. If not already done, use a CoTCCC-recommended

tourniquet to control life-threatening external hemorrhage that is
anatomically amenable to tourniquet application or for any
traumatic amputation. Apply directly to the skin 2-3 inches above
wound.

b. For compressible hemorrhage not amenable to tourniquet use or
as an adjunct to tourniquet removal (if evacuation time is
anticipated to be longer than two hours), use Combat Gauze as
the hemostatic agent of choice. Combat Gauze should be applied
with at least 3 minutes of direct pressure. Before releasing any
tourniquet on a casualty who has been resuscitated for
hemorrhagic shock, ensure a positive response to resuscitation
efforts (i.e., a peripheral pulse normal in character and normal
mentation if there is no TBI.)

c. Reassess prior tourniquet application. Expose wound and
determine if tourniquet is needed. If so, move tourniquet from over
uniform and apply directly to skin 2-3 inches above wound. If a
tourniquet is not needed, use other techniques to control
bleeding.

d. When time and the tactical situation permit, a distal pulse check
should be accomplished. If a distal pulse is still present, consider
additional tightening of the tourniquet or the use of a second

tourniquet, side by side and proximal to the first, to eliminate the
distal pulse.
e. Expose and clearly mark all tourniquet sites with the time of
tourniquet application. Use an indelible marker.

- If indicated, start an 18-gauge IV or saline lock - If resuscitation is required and IV access is not obtainable, 5. Fluid resuscitation Reassess for hemorrhagic shock (altered mental status in the absence of brain injury and/or change in pulse character.) - PO fluids permissible if conscious and can swallow. - Repeat once after 30 minutes if still in shock. c. Continue resuscitation with packed red blood cells (PRBCs), Hextend, or Lactated Ringer’s solution (LR) as indicated. d. If a casualty with TBI is unconscious and has a weak or absent peripheral pulse, resuscitate as necessary to maintain a systolic blood pressure of 90 mmHg or above. 6. Prevention of hypothermia a. Minimize casualty’s exposure to the elements. Keep protective gear on or with the casualty if feasible. b. Continue Ready-Heat Blanket, Blizzard Survival Blanket, and Thermo- c. Apply additional interventions as needed. d. Use the Thermal Angel or other portable fluid warmer on all IV e. Protect the casualty from wind if doors must be kept open.
7. Penetrating Eye Trauma
If a penetrating eye injury is noted or suspected:

a) Perform a rapid field test of visual acuity.
b) Cover the eye with a rigid eye shield (NOT a pressure patch).
c) Ensure that the 400 mg moxifloxacin tablet in the combat pill pack
is taken if possible and that IV/IM antibiotics are given as outlined
below if oral moxifloxacin cannot be taken.


8. Monitoring
Institute pulse oximetry and other electronic monitoring of vital signs, if
indicated.
9. Inspect and dress known wounds if not already done.

10. Check for additional wounds.

11. Provide analgesia as necessary.
- Tylenol, 650-mg bilayered caplet, 2 PO every 8 hours Note: Have naloxone readily available whenever administering opiates. - Does not otherwise require IV/IO access: - Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) 800 ug - Recommend taping lozenge-on-a-stick to casualty’s finger as an added safety measure. - Add second lozenge, in other cheek, as - Repeat dose every 10 minutes as necessary to - Promethazine, 25 mg IV/IM/IO every 6 hours as needed for nausea or for synergistic analgesic effect. 12. Reassess fractures and recheck pulses. 13. Antibiotics: recommended for all open combat wounds b. If unable to take PO (shock, unconsciousness): - Cefotetan, 2 g IV (slow push over 3-5 minutes) or IM every 12
14. Burns
a. Facial burns, especially those that occur in closed spaces, may be
associated with inhalation injury. Aggressively monitor airway status and
oxygen saturation in such patients and consider early surgical airway for
respiratory distress or oxygen desaturation.

b. Estimate total body surface area (TBSA) burned to the nearest
10% using the Rule of Nines.

c. Cover the burn area with dry, sterile dressings. For extensive
burns (>20%), consider placing the casualty in the Blizzard Survival Blanket
in the Hypothermia Prevention Kit in order to both cover the burned areas
and prevent hypothermia.

d. Fluid resuscitation (USAISR Rule of Ten)
If burns are greater than 20% of Total Body Surface Area, fluid
resuscitation should be initiated as soon as IV/IO access is
established. Resuscitation should be initiated with Lactated
Ringer’s, normal saline, or Hextend. If Hextend is used, no
more than 1000 ml should be given, followed by Lactated
Ringer’s or normal saline as needed.

Initial IV/IO fluid rate is calculated as %TBSA x 10cc/hr for
adults weighing 40-80 kg.
For every 10 kg ABOVE 80 kg, increase initial rate by 100
If hemorrhagic shock is also present, resuscitation for
hemorrhagic shock takes precedence over resuscitation for
burn shock. Administer IV/IO fluids per the TCCC Guidelines in
Section 5.

e. Analgesia in accordance with TCCC Guidelines in Section 11 may
be administered to treat burn pain.
f. Prehospital antibiotic therapy is not indicated solely for burns, but
antibiotics should be given per TCCC guidelines in Section 13 if indicated
to prevent infection in penetrating wounds.

g. All TCCC interventions can be performed on or through burned
skin in a burn casualty.

h. Burn patients are particularly susceptible to hypothermia. Extra
emphasis should be placed on barrier heat loss prevention methods and IV
fluid warming in this phase.

15. The Pneumatic Antishock Garment (PASG) may be useful for stabilizing
pelvic fractures and controlling pelvic and abdominal bleeding. Application and
extended use must be carefully monitored. The PASG is contraindicated for
casualties with thoracic or brain injuries.
16. Documentation of Care
Document clinical assessments, treatments rendered, and changes in
casualty’s status on a TCCC Casualty Card. Forward this information with the
casualty to the next level of care.


Source: http://www.valorproject.org/uploads/tccc_guidelines_091104.pdf

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