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Ijccm july 07.indd

IJCCM October-December 2003 Vol 7 Issue 4
Indian J Crit Care Med July-September 2007 Vol 11 Issue 3
Review Article
TNF-alpha inhibitors: Current indications
Rashmi Sharma, Chaman Lal Sharma*
Advances in the DNA hybrid technology led to the development of various biologicals that specifi cally target TNF-α. There are currently three anti- TNF-α drugs available- etanercept, infl iximab and adalimumab. Etanercept is approved by FDA for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in 2000 followed by its approval for ankylosing Abstract spondylitis, psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Infl iximab and adalimumab are approved by FDA in 2002 for
RA. Infl iximab is also approved for ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis and adalimumab for psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Other conditions like bronchial asthma, diabetes mellitus, malignancies, septic shock, behcet’s disease, bullous dermatitis, neutrophilic dermatitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, systemic vasculitis, pyoderma gangrenosum, pustular dermatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, cerebral malaria, hemolytic uremic syndrome, pre-eclampsia, allograft rejection, uveitis, otitis media, snakebite, erythema nodosum, myelodysplastic syndromes, graft versus host disease, dermatomyositis and polymyositis are the potential targets for anti-TNF-α therapy. There are resent reports of serious infections like tuberculosis with the use of anti-TNF therapy. In developing country like India these agents should be used with strict pharmaco-vigilance and chemo-prophylaxis for tuberculosis.
Key words: Adalimumab, ankylosing spondylitis, etanercept, infl iximab, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis,
Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α, a potent cytokine more anti-infl ammatory TH2 cytokine. Anti-infl ammatory is a soluble 17-Kd protein with three identical subunits. cytokines are IL-4, IL-10, IL-11, IL-13, IL-16, transforming TNF is produced by the body and is involved in normal growth factor ß, soluble TNF-receptor and soluble inflammatory and immune responses.[1] It is both autocrine and paracrine inducer of other cytokines like This PDF is available for free download from IL(interleukin)-1, IL-6, IL-8, platelet derived growth factor- With the development of biologicals against TNF-α, B, ecosanoids, platelet activating factors and granulocyte our therapeutic approach to infl ammatory diseases has monocyte colony stimulating factor. Anti TNF-α therapy dramatically changed. Advances in the DNA hybrid down-regulates the monocyte capacity to produce pro- technology led to the development of various biologicals infl ammatory cytokines and induces a shift to produce that specifi cally target TNF-α. There are currently three anti-TNF-α drugs available: - etanercept, infl iximab and adalimumab [Table 1]. Etanercept is a recombinant fusion protein that consists of two soluble TNF-α p75 Postgraduate Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Govt Medical College, Jammu, *Indian-III Hospital, UN Mission Congo (Monuc), Armed receptor moieties linked to the Fc portion of human IgG.[1] It was approved by FDA for rheumatoid arthritis Correspondence:
(RA) in 2000, followed by its approval for ankylosing Dr. Rashmi Sharma, 216-A, Last Morh, Gandhi Nagar, Jammu-Tawi., J and K - 180 004, India. E-mail: rashmichams@yahoo.com spondylitis, psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.[3] Infl iximab Free full text available from www.ijccm.org
Indian J Crit Care Med July-September 2007 Vol 11 Issue 3
IJCCM October-December 2003 Vol 7 Issue 4
Table 1: Comparative features of anti-TNF-α agents[1-4]
Parameters Etanercept

Inß iximab
Adalimumab
Two soluble TNF-α p75 receptor Chimeric (25% mouse and 75% human) Infections, *tuberculosis, SLE - syndrome, nausea, headache, sinusitis, rash and cough effects and certain malignancies RA - Rheumatoid arthritis, AS - Ankylosing spondylitis, PsA - Psoriatic arthritis, TNF - Tumor necrosis factor, S/C - Subcutaneously, *Incidence of tuberculosis more than etanercept and adalimumab [chimeric (25%mouse and 75%human)] and adalimumab the present article we are going to summarize various [human-derived antibody] are the monoclonal antibodies therapeutic indications for novel anti-TNF therapies against TNF-α and are approved by FDA in 2002 for RA.[2] Infliximab is also approved for ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, crohn’s disease Search Methodology
and ulcerative colitis; whereas; adalimumab is approved Prominent rheumatology and general/internal medicine for psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.[3,4] In journals (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PUBMED between 2000 Table 2: Clinical evidences of anti-TNF-α
agent’s use in various clinical conditions
Study Disease
treatment
Either drug alone Combination produced better effect.[2] MTX + Infl iximab better than other DMRDs.[2] >Etanercept patients showed ASAS 50 responses.[9] Infl iximab more effective than placebo. [9] At 24 weeks, etanercept more effective than Infl iximab has effi cacy and rapidity of onset of therapeutic effect similar to cyclosporine.[6,22] Improvement in the PASI was signifi cantly more in This PDF is available for free download from Infl iximab through 24 weeks signifi cantly improved active PsA, including dactylitis and enthesopathy Multicenter, double-blind, RCT PsA with failure Infl iximab ACR20 response at week 16, was higher in Induction therapy with infl iximab signifi cantly Infl iximab was found to be effective both as short- Adalimumab is more effective in reducing disease CytoFab promptly reduced plasma TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations compared with placebo. CytoFab increased mean ventilator-free days and ICU-free RCT - Randomized control trial, RA - Rheumatoid arthritis, AS - Ankylosing spondylitis, CD - Crohn’s disease, PsA - Psoriatic arthritis, AD - Atopic dermatitis, RU - Refractory uveitis, DMRD - Disease modifying drug, MTX - Methotrexate, ASAS - The multicomponent assessments in ankylosing spondylitis, PASI - Psoriasis area and severity index, ACR - American College of Rheumatology preliminary criteria for improvement, SPS - Septic shock, CytoFab - Polyclonal ovine anti-TNF fragment antigen binding (Fab) fragments IJCCM October-December 2003 Vol 7 Issue 4
Indian J Crit Care Med July-September 2007 Vol 11 Issue 3
Table 3: Clinical studies of anti-TNF-α agents in Indian patients
Study Disease

patients
ACR 20% response in 70% of patients at the end of 16 weeks.[2] ACR 20 responses were obtained in all patients of RA; 13% of the Clinically signifi cant improvement was found in all patients without Reactivated TB developed in 10.6% SpA patients treated with standard doses (5 mg/kg) of infl iximab.[41] Infl iximab showed All patients attained PASI 50 by 3.8 weeks. PASI 75 was attained at 9.6 weeks. Relapse occurred at a mean of 18.6 weeks RA - Rheumatoid arthritis, AS - Ankylosing spondylitis, PsA - Psoriatic arthritis, SpA - Spondyloarthropathy, IBD - Infl ammatory bowel disease, JIA - Juvenile idiopathic arthritis, PASI - Psoriasis area and severity index, ACR - American College of Rheumatology preliminary criteria for improvement and 2006) were searched for review papers and clinical (infl iximab = 141; etanercept = 853; and MTX = 1668), trials published on therapeutic uses of anti-TNF therapy. compliance with at least 80% of the expected dosages All the data was collected and important evidences was signifi cantly lower for etanercept and MTX patients regarding use of anti-TNF agents were summarized in than infl iximab patients. Currently, anti-TNF therapy is recommended for patients, who fail to respond or tolerate Therapeutic Indications of Anti-TNF Drugs
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)[2,5]
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS)
The TNF plays an important role in both pathological AS affects about 0.5%-1.0% of the population and infl ammation and joint destruction that are hallmark of typically begins between the ages of 15 and 40 years.[5] It RA. Anti-TNF therapy has revolutionized the approach causes painful stiffness of the spine, progressive disability in management of RA. In phase-III RCTs (randomized and loss of independence during the prime productive control trials) like ASPIRE and ATTRACT infl years. Anti-TNF-α agents have been found to be very (3 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg) regimen was found to be superior effective for the treatment of both peripheral and axial to MTX (methotraxate) alone. In a double blind RCT, on symptoms in patients with AS.[6,7] In a double blind RCT, 686 patients with active RA the combination of etanercept out of 84 patients of AS, 45 received etanercept and 39 25 mg (subcutaneously twice a week) and oral MTX received placebo.[8] Signifi cantly more etanercept patients (up to 20 mg every week) was signifi cantly better in reported ASAS (the multicomponent Assessments in This PDF is available for free download from reducing disease activity, improving functional disability AS) 50 responses at all times and ASAS 70 responses and retarding radiographic progression than MTX or at weeks two, four and eight. Patients in the etanercept group reported lower composite and fatigue BASDAI (Bath AS Disease Activity Index) scores, lower acute phase In a 52-week double blind clinical trial, patients with reactant levels and improvement in spinal fl exion.[8] In a active RA were randomized to receive etanercept 25 mg three-month clinical trial, 18 of 34 patients (53%) treated twice weekly or MTX up to 20 mg weekly or combination with infl iximab met the predefi ned response criterion, therapy. Combination therapy with etanercept and MTX compared with three of 35 (9%) patients receiving improved function, quality of life and satisfaction with placebo.[9] These improvements persisted during the medication signifi cantly better than mono-therapy. In BeSt open-label extension study in which all participants were trial (where questionnaire was fi lled by each patient to given infl iximab for an additional 42 weeks.[10] In another give the responses in relation to different anti-rheumatic RCT, 277 patients with AS received either etanercept drug regimens), MTX and infl iximab combination found or placebo.[11] At 24 weeks, 59% of patients in the to be benefi ting greatly then other DMRDs (disease etanercept group and 28% patients of the placebo group modifying drugs). In a study on total of 2662 patients met the ASAS-20 criteria for response. Data from Phase Indian J Crit Care Med July-September 2007 Vol 11 Issue 3
IJCCM October-December 2003 Vol 7 Issue 4
III adalimumab trial evaluating long-term effi cacy and patients with glucocorticoid resistant ulcerative colitis, safety in AS (ATLAS trial) on 315 patients demonstrated no statistically signifi cant difference was seen between ASAS-20 response in 58% patients receiving adalimumab the infl iximab and placebo groups.[19] Hence, data do at 12 weeks.[4] At week 24, 42% of adalimumab-treated not support the use of infl iximab in the management patients and 16% of those receiving placebo achieved of moderately active glucocorticoid resistant ulcerative a reduction of 50% or more in disease activity.[4] Recent colitis. However, recently in a RCT patients with severe trials have shown that anti-TNF therapy is more effective to moderately severe ulcerative colitis not responding in AS than in RA.[12] However, patient’s benefi ts from to conventional treatment, were randomized to receive long-term treatment, effects on radiological progression infliximab (24) or placebo (21).[20] Seven patients and long-term safety of biologic therapy are still needed in the infl iximab group and 14 in the placebo group had a colectomy (P=0.017) within three months after randomization. Moreover, three patients in the placebo Crohn’s disease and ulcerative collitis
group required operation for septic complications. The Stenoses and fi stulas are frequent complications in study clearly indicated the role of Infl iximab 4-5 mg/kg patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). Infl iximab is effective in patients experiencing an acute severe or moderately in the treatment of patients with moderately to severely severe attack of ulcerative colitis not responding to active Crohn’s disease with an inadequate response to other treatment options or those with fi stulizing disease.[13-15] It is administered intravenously, generally in a schedule Psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA)
with initial infusions at 0, 2 and 6 weeks, followed by TNF-α inhibitors are among the new class of drugs that administration once every eight weeks.[13,14] Clinical offer new options for psoriasis control.[21] TNF-α increases evidence suggested that a single intravenous infusion in the psoriatic skin lesion and in the synovium of the of infl iximab may be effective for induction of remission joint.[21] A double blind trail by Chaudhari et al., in Crohn’s disease.[16] The results of two trials suggested showed a > 75% improvement in psoriasis, area and that CDP571, the genetically engineered human TNF severity index score at week 10 in 82% patients receiving monoclonal antibody, is also effective in reducing disease infl iximab 5 mg/kg at weeks 0, 2 and 6.[22] Etanercept has activity index at two weeks after an infusion.[16] Clinical also been shown to possess good effi cacy in moderate experience suggests that infl iximab is also be effective to severe psoriasis. In a double-blind RCT (12 week when administered as corticosteroid-sparing therapy.[15] study) 60 patients with PsA and psoriasis received either Data from the infl iximab safety database suggest that etanercept (25 mg twice-weekly subcutaneous injections) infliximab exposure during pregnancy (of the 146 or placebo.[23] 26 (87%) of etanercept-treated patients ed pregnancies, 131 involved women exposed met the Psoriatic Arthritis Response Criteria, compared directly to infl iximab and outcome data were available for with seven (23%) of placebo-controlled patients. The 96 of these women) results in outcomes that are similar ACR20 (American College of Rheumatology preliminary This PDF is available for free download from to those in the U.S. population of pregnant women and criteria for improvement) was achieved by 22(73%) of pregnant women with CD not exposed to infl iximab.[17] etanercept-treated patients compared with 4(13%) of However, follow-up of larger numbers of pregnant women placebo-treated patients.[23] Improvement in the psoriasis exposed to infl iximab will be necessary to defi nitively area and severity index (PASI) was signifi cantly more in etanercept group then placebo. In a phase III, double blind trial 200 patients with active PsA unresponsive In a RCT, 20 patients of steroid-dependent ulcerative to previous treatment were randomized to infusions of colitis received either three infusion of infl iximab (5 mg/kg) infl iximab 5 mg/kg or placebo at weeks 0, 2, 6, 14 and at zero, two and six weeks and thereafter every eight 22. At week 14, 58% of patients receiving infl iximab and weeks (group A) or methylprednisolone (0, 7-1 mg/kg) 11% of those receiving placebo achieved an ACR20 daily for one week followed by a tapering regimen up to response (P<0.001).[24] 64% patients receiving infl iximab the minimal dose to maintain a symptom-free condition had at least 75% improvement in PASI compared with (group B).[18] Infl iximab seems to be as effective as steroids 2% patients receiving placebo at week 14 (P<0.001).[24] in the management of the disease. In another RCT on These therapeutic effects were maintained till week 24. IJCCM October-December 2003 Vol 7 Issue 4
Indian J Crit Care Med July-September 2007 Vol 11 Issue 3
In a multicentre RCT, 104 patients with PsA (with prior TNF-α exerts negative inotropic effect, recapitulates failure of at least 1 DMARD therapy) received infusions of cellular and biochemical abnormalities, uncouples ß- infl iximab (5 mg/kg) or placebo at weeks 0, 2, 6 and 14.[25] adrenergic receptors from adenylate cyclase, activates After week 16, all patients received infl iximab 5 mg/kg metalloproteinases and provokes a hypertrophic growth every eight weeks through week 50. 65% of infl iximab- response in cardiac myocytes. Hence, anti-TNF- therapy treated patients and 10% of placebo-treated patients seems to hold promises in treatment of CHF. Two large- achieved an ACR20 response at week 16. Moreover, scale trials of etanercept in more than 2000 patients 46% and 29% of infl iximab-treated patients achieved with heart failure did not indicate any increased risk of ACR50 and ACR70 responses respectively; no placebo- mortality or morbidity. In a clinical trial, 150 patients with treated patient achieved these end points. Hence, clinical stable New York Heart Association class III or IV heart experience so far clearly indicated the role of anti-TNF failure and left ventricular ejection fraction <or=35% were drugs in the management of psoriasis and PsA refractory randomly assigned to receive placebo (n=49), infl iximab 5 mg/kg (n=50) or infl iximab 10 mg/kg (n=51) at zero, two and six weeks. It was found that neither dose of infl iximab Systemic vasculitis[26]
improved clinical status at 14 weeks. However, the There are encouraging uncontrolled data in humans combined risk of death from any cause or hospitalization with infl iximab for anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody for heart failure through 28 weeks was increased in the (ANCA)-associated systemic vasculitis (AASV). TNF- patients randomized to 10 mg/kg infl iximab. Hence, α plays an important role in the pathogenesis of recent evidences clearly indicated adverse effect of anti-experimental autoimmune vasculitis and blockade of this cytokine is effective in treating established vasculitis. The therapeutic action of anti-TNF-α agents may be mediated Refractory uveitis[30]
by suppression of the enhanced leukocyte-endothelial In a study, 23 patients of refractory uveitis received three interactions in this disorder. However, clinical trials are infl iximab infusions at weeks zero, two and six. Clinical needed to establish their role in systemic vasculitis.
success was ascertained at week 10 and patients meeting initial criteria for success received an infusion at week Atopic dermatitis[27]
14 and every eight weeks thereafter (dose escalation Chronic use of standard therapies for atopic dermatitis permitted for breakthrough infl ammation). Infl iximab was found to be effective both as short-term (week 10) and side effects. Targeted therapeutic approaches, such as long term therapy (50 weeks of therapy). However, further the inhibition of TNF-α, may be a novel option. In a pilot studies are required to establish the safety of anti-TNF study, nine patients with moderate or severe AD received infl iximab 5 mg/kg by intravenous infusion at weeks zero, two, six, 14, 22, 30 and 38 and patients were followed for Bronchial asthma and allergic conditions[6,31,32]
This PDF is available for free download from 46 weeks. Induction therapy with infl iximab signifi cantly It has been seen that recruitment of neutrophils and improved all clinical parameters, but this improvement eosinophils associated with allergic condition is mediated was not sustained through maintenance therapy. Only via TNF-α. TNF- α is released in allergic responses, two patients with severe AD achieved an excellent from mast cells and macrophages via IgE dependent clinical response by 46 weeks. Hence, long term RCTs mechanisms. Anti-TNF-α therapy may be useful as a are required to further establish the role of infl iximab and glucocorticoid sparing asthma therapy. Anti-TNF- α other anti- TNF-α agents in atopic dermatitis refractory therapy may also be effective in the treatment of certain allergic conditions including Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. Asthma is regarded as a Th2 type disorder, especially Congestive heart failure (CHF)[22,28,29]
when associated with atopy. However, TNF production Elevated TNF-α levels have also been observed is increased in severe corticosteroid-dependent asthma. in patients with CHF and clinical trials have been Improvements in clinical and physiological measures of performed to examine the effects of TNF- α inhibitors, asthma following 12 weeks treatment with etanercept such as etanercept and infl iximab, in such a population. were observed in an open label uncontrolled clinical study. Indian J Crit Care Med July-September 2007 Vol 11 Issue 3
IJCCM October-December 2003 Vol 7 Issue 4
Etanercept treatment was associated with improvement loss due to severe macular edema on hypoglycemic in asthma symptoms, lung function and bronchial hyper- therapy, two infusions of infl iximab (5 mg/kg) in 1-month responsiveness. However, further long term RCTs are intervals intravenously showed signifi cant regression in required to establish the status of anti-TNF therapy in macular edema. Long term RCTs are needed to establish refractory bronchial asthma and allergic conditions. the role of infl iximab like drugs in preventing diabetic Sepsis and shock
TNF-alpha is involved in virtually all features of septic Neuro-degenerative conditions[37]
shock and multiple organ failure. Anti-TNF-alpha Increased TNF-α levels in the cerebral post-ischemic strategies are thus appealing and have been effective infl ammatory response lead to stimulation of adhesive at reducing infl ammation and morbidity.[33] Evidences molecules expression, neuronal necrosis and neuro- from various RCTs targeting TNF during sepsis, showed degeneration through inhibition of a vital survival signal, a small but signifi cant benefi t with anti-TNF therapeutic 1GF-I. The cytokine TNF- is elevated in Alzheimer’s strategies. Strategies using monoclonal antibodies are disease, Parkinson’s disease, stroke and amyotrophic more effective than are strategies using TNF receptor lateral sclerosis. Its synthesis can be reduced via proteins.[34] A study in 2634 septic patients using a murine posttranscriptional mechanisms with novel analogues of anti-TNF antibody showed a 3.6% signifi cant benefi t in the classic drug, thalidomide. Moreover, there is need to reducing mortality.[34] Afelimomab, the F(ab’)2 fragment of explore the role of anti-TNF agents in neuro-degenerative a murine anti-TNF-alpha antibody has been found to be effi cacious and well tolerated in 7300 patients with septic shock.[33,34] In a Phase II, RCT, 81 septic patients with Other Conditions[6,38]
either shock or two organ dysfunctions were randomized Monoclonal antibodies against TNF-α also have a to receive CytoFab (polyclonal ovine anti-TNF fragment potential in the management of cachexia of cancer, antigen binding (Fab) fragments), infused as a 250- skin tumors such as basal cell carcinoma, colorectal units/kg loading dose, followed by nine doses of 50 cancers and ovarian cancers. In a study on 6 patients units/kg every 12 hours or 5 mg/kg human albumin as of active adult onset Still’s syndrome (AOSD), the placebo.[35] CytoFab promptly reduced plasma TNF-α (P = disease improved remarkably in all patients with and 0.001) and IL-6 concentrations (P= 0.002) compared with after treatment with infl iximab. Conditions like behcet’s placebo. CytoFab also signifi cantly decreased TNF- .medknow α in disease, bullous dermatitis, neutrophilic dermatitis, toxic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fl uid (P <.001). The number epidermal necrolysis, systemic vasculitis, pyoderma of shock-free days did not differ between CytoFab and gangrenosum, pustular dermatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, placebo. CytoFab increased mean ventilator-free days and cerebral malaria, hemolytic uremic syndrome, pre- ICU (intensive care unit)-free days at day 28. However, eclampsia, allograft rejection, otitis media, snakebite, 41% of CytoFab-treated patients developed detectable erythema nodosum, myelodysplastic syndromes, graft This PDF is available for free download from plasma levels of human anti-sheep antibodies.[35] versus host disease, dermatomyositis and polymyositis However, better characterization of patients and a more are other potential targets for anti-TNF-α therapy. multimodal approach by concomitantly targeting other mediators involved in sepsis may be helpful in enlarging Anti TNF-therapies and Indian patients
the clinical benefi t of anti-TNF therapy.
Misra R, et al. in a phase IIIb study involving forty patients of RA over 18 years of age (6 male: 34 females), Diabetes Mellitus[36]
demonstrated ACR 20% response in 25%, 57.5% and TNF-α related apoptosis is involved in ß cell damage in 70% of patients at four, eight and 16 weeks respectively type I diabetes, resulting into insulin resistance, impaired after etanercept 25 mg subcutaneous injection twice insulin signaling and formation of atherosclerotic vascular weekly for 16 weeks (along with concomitant use of lesions in diabetic patients. It has been documented prednisolone, MTX, non-steroidal anti-infl ammatory drug, that anti-TNF-α therapy may be benefi cial in reducing folic or folinic acid as prescribed earlier).[2] The mean the complications of diabetes. In a study on 4 women scores of all aspects of Short Form-36 Health Survey (52-76 years) with type 2 diabetes in danger of vision assessment of patient physical and mental functioning IJCCM October-December 2003 Vol 7 Issue 4
Indian J Crit Care Med July-September 2007 Vol 11 Issue 3
improved signifi cantly from baseline.[2] Moreover, the data SpA patients treated with standard doses (5 mg/kg) of from this study have shown etanercept to be effi cacious infl iximab.[41] This amounted to 56 times increased risk and well tolerated drug in Indian patients with RA. compared to baseline (0.187%). None of the 129 patients treated with 3 mg/kg infusions at eight-weekly intervals In another study from Kolkata during 2002-2005 on with omission of the two-week and six-week doses of patients of RA, AS, PsA and juvenile rheumatic arthritis, infl iximab developed reactivation tuberculosis. Infl iximab ACR 20 responses were obtained in all patients of RA showed expected effi cacy in SpA, RA and JIA. The lone with infl iximab 3mg/kg dose at 0, 2 and 6 weeks; however, study on etanercept showed good effi cacy in 40 patients 13% of the total patients developed TB (tuberculosis).[39] However, an other study on 15 patients of AS treated with infl iximab (3 mg/kg at every eight weeks for 52 weeks) In an open label pilot study among three patients having showed clinically signifi cant improvement in all patients moderate to severe plaque psoriasis, infl iximab was administered in a dose of 5 mg/kg as an intravenous infusion over two hours, diluted into 500 ml of normal Data on infl iximab from 176 patients (147 AS, nine saline at zero, two and six weeks.[42] All patients attained polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, 12 RA, six PASI 50 by 3.8 weeks. PASI 75 was attained at 9.6 undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy, one infl ammatory weeks.[42] The mean improvement in PASI at week 10 bowel disease-related spondyloarthritis and one PsA) stood at 77.2%. Relapse occurred at a mean of 18.6 showed development of reactivated TB in 5/47 (10.6%) weeks after the fi rst infusion. The fi rst patient, who also Table 4: British society for rheumatology guidelines for prescribing TNF-α blockers in adults with rheumatoid
arthritis[5]

Eligibility criteria for biologic therapy: *Fulfi
ll 1987 criteria of American college of Rheumatology for diagnosis of RA. *Active RA (DAS28 score >5.1) at 2 points one month apart. *Failure to respond or tolerate at least 2 DMRDs (disease modifying drugs) including MTX (methotrexate). *When other DMRDs are contraindicated.
Exclusion criteria: Pregnant and lactating mothers, active infection, septic arthritis in last 12 months, sepsis of prosthetic joint within last
12 months or indefi nitely if joint remains in situ, New York Heart Association (NYHA) grade 3or 4 of congestive cardiac failure (CCF) and
Demyelinating disease. *Caution in patients with low immune status.
Conditions for with-drawl of biologic therapy: *Drug related toxicity. *Failure to improve DAS28 score by 1.2 or to reduce it to a score of
<3.2 after 3 months of therapy. However, if there is decrease in dose of DMRDs, continue drug for 6 months and assess. *Severe inter-current infection and pregnancy (temporary with-drawl).
Choice of anti-TNF therapy: *Patient’s preference, practical issues like drug administration and delivery. *Etanercept and adalimumab can
be given in patients intolerant to MTX. *Infl iximab and etanercepts can be interchanged in case of failure to one of the therapy. DMRDs can
be combined. Follow recommended dose.
Potential adverse effects and anti-TNF therapy:
Serious infections including tuberculosis (TB): Stop therapy, restart when infection gets resolved, not recommended in HIV+ve and HBV
infection, use with caution in HCV infection.
This PDF is available for free download from Prior to commencing treatment screen patient according to British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines. Treat active TB before starting anti-TNF therapy. Start prophylactic treatment in patients with evidence of potential latent disease. Monitor patients for TB during anti-TNF therapy and 6 months after discontinuation of infl iximab due to prolonged elimination phase. Treat patients on anti-TNF therapy with active TB symptoms with full anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy and continue anti-TNF therapy if clinically needed. Resume anti-TNF therapy in accordance with BTS guidelines.
Surgical procedures: With held therapy 2-4 weeks before major surgery and restart after complete wound healing.
Vaccination: Live vaccines are to be given 4 weeks before commencing treatment or 6 months after last infusion of infl iximab or 2-3 weeks
after last dose of etanercept.
Malignancy: No evidence of associated malignancy risk. Investigate patient for any potential malignancy and stop therapy if confi rmed.
Caution is required in patients with previous malignancy, no contraindication if no evidence of recurrence of malignancy for 10 years.
SLE-like disease: Stop therapy and treat for SLE.
CCF/cardiovascular disease: No therapy in NYHA grade 3/4CCF. Caution in mild CCF. Monitor for CCF and stop if increases in severity.
Demyelination disease (DD) and neurological complications: Contraindicated in presence of clear history of DD, avoid if possible history
of DD or family history of DD, withdraw therapy if DD occurs and refer patient to neurologist.
Haematological complications: Periodic blood counts to be done and stop therapy if pan-cytopenia occurs.
Pregnancy and lactation: Active contraception during therapy and stop treatment if pregnancy occurs. Discontinue infl iximab 6 months
before female becomes pregnant or male patient fathers. Avoid breast-feeding.
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had PsA, reported partial improvement in spinal stiffness tuberculosis chemotherapy before starting anti-TNF and pain at two weeks and peripheral joint stiffness at six weeks. These improvements did not diminish at 22 2. If anti-TNF therapy has to be initiated earlier, complete weeks, end of the surveillance period.[42] two months anti-tuberculosis treatment or ensure drug susceptibility of the organism before starting the anti- Safety concerns with anti-TNF therapy[2,43-46]
Reactivation of latent TB with TNF blockers is a cause 3. If there is evidence of past history of TB or abnormal of concern. More cases of TB have been reported with chest X-ray with complete treatment carefully monitor infl iximab than with etanercept or adalimumab. This with chest X-ray after every three months. higher incidence of TB with infl iximab could be because 4. If history of inadequate anti-TB therapy or risk of TB of its ability to disrupt granulomas leading to reactivation is more than risk of chemoprophylaxis, a full course of TB and to fi x the complement and lyse the cells of chemoprophylaxis should be given before starting presenting TNF-α. Moreover, infliximab has longer half-life (210h) and can produce continuous blockade of 5. Tuberculin test is considered reliable only if patient TNF-α in irreversible manner in contrast to etanercept. is not taking immunosuppressive drugs or stopped Another point differentiating infl iximab and etanercept is them (one month for steroids and three months for blockade of both TNF-α receptor p55 and p75 mediated events by infl iximab and only p75 blockade is blocked However, in developing countries like India with prevalence rate of TB of about 44%, a negative Mantoux However, considering the risk of serious infections with test does not rule out TB. It is recommended to consider the use of anti-TNF therapy, FDA recommended a black prophylactic anti-TB therapy with Isoniazid 5 mg/kg in box for TB on the product labeling of infl iximab. According patients before starting anti-TNF-α therapy. As there to British Thoracic Society recommendations following is increasing trend towards multidrug resistant TB, hence prophylaxis with two or three antitubercular drugs 1. If there is prior history of TB, chest X-ray and clinical should also be considered. SLE syndrome, demylinating examination positive, fi rst treat the patient with anti- diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, pancytopenia, Table 5: Current therapeutic status of anti-TNF therapy
Diseases

Present status of anti-TNF therapy
Patients, who fail to respond or tolerate at least 2 DMRDs (disease (wwwmodifying drugs) including methotrexate.
Patients refractory to conventional therapy Moderately to severely active Crohn’s disease with an inadequate response This PDF is available for free download from to other treatment options or those with fi stulizing disease.
Patients not responding to conventional and treatment; management of moderate to severe steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis.
Management of psoriasis and PsA refractory to other DMRDs.
Systemic vasculitis, atopic dermatitis, complications Encouraging uncontrolled data in humans with infl iximab. No anti-TNF agent approved by FDA for use in this condition Recent evidences clearly indicated adverse effect of anti-TNF therapy in Strategies using monoclonal antibodies are more effective than are strategies using TNF receptor proteins.
No anti-TNF agent approved by FDA for use in this condition.
Bronchial asthma and allergic conditions Encouraging uncontrolled data in humans with etanercept. No anti-TNF agent approved by FDA for use in this condition.
Neuro-degenerative conditions, cancer, behcet’s disease, bullous dermatitis, neutrophilic dermatitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, systemic vasculitis, pyoderma gangrenosum, pustular dermatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, cerebral malaria, hemolytic uremic syndrome, preeclampsia, allograft rejection, otitis media, snakebite, erythema nodosum, myelodysplastic syndromes, graft versus host disease, dermatomyositis and polymyositis IJCCM October-December 2003 Vol 7 Issue 4
Indian J Crit Care Med July-September 2007 Vol 11 Issue 3
cardiovascular diseases etc. are the other important medicine/primary care MedPulse® release. Available from: http:// adverse effects reported with anti-TNFα therapy. www.medscape_familymed@mp.medscape.com. [Last accessed However, it has been recommended that anti-TNF drugs should not be used in pregnant and lactating mothers, Ledingham J, Deighton C. Update on the British Society for active infection, septic arthritis in last 12 months, sepsis Rheumatology guidelines for prescribing TNF-α blockers in adults of prosthetic joint within last 12 months or indefi nitely with Rheumatoid Arthritis (update of previous guidelines of April if joint remains in situ, NYHA grade 3 or 4 of CCF and Singh J, Suruchi A. Anti-TNF-α strategy: Present status of this therapeutic paradigm. Indian J Pharmacol 2004;36:10-4.
Conclusion
Boulos P, Dougados M, Macleod SM, Hunsche E. Pharmacological Anti- TNF-α agents have been found very effective for treatment of ankylosing spondylitis: A systematic review. Drugs the treatment of various immuno-infl ammatory conditions (table-5). Currently anti-TNF drugs are approved by FDA Calin A, Dijkmans BA, Emery P, Hakala M, Kalden J, Leirisalo- for use in RA, PsA, psoriasis, CD, ulcerative collitis and Repo M, et al. Outcomes of a multicentre randomized clinical AS. Sepsis, bronchial asthma and allergic conditions are trial of etanercept to treat ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis other diseases in pipeline for approval. However, their use is limited by cost and uncertainty over long-term effi cacy Braun J, Brandt J, Listing J, Zink A, Alten R, Golder W, et al. and safety. Etanercept, infl iximab and adalimumab can be Treatment of active ankylosing spondylitis with infl iximab: A given in patients intolerant or refractory to other DMRDs.[5] randomized controlled multicentre trial. Lancet 2002;359:1187- Infl iximab and etanercept can be interchanged in case of failure to one of the therapy.[5] Genetic variability in the 10. Braun J, Brandt J, Listing J, Zink A, Alten R, Burmester G, et al. production and effecter pathways of TNF-α determines Long-term effi cacy and safety of infl iximab in the treatment of the effect of anti-TNF therapy. Meta-analyses have ankylosing spondylitis: An open, observational, extension study suggested that etanercept shows modest superiority over of a three-month, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis infl iximab or adalimumab.[47] Reactivation of latent TB with TNF blockers is a cause of concern. More cases of TB 11. Davis JC Jr, van der Heijde D, Braun J, Dougados M, Cush J, Clegg have been reported with infl iximab than with etanercept DO, et al. Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor receptor or adalimumab. Etanercept [Rs 20800($451.20)/100 (etanercept) for treating ankylosing spondylitis: A randomized, controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 2003;48:3230-6. biologics available in India.[2] It is recommended to 12. Schachna L. The anti-TNF revolution in ankylosing spondylitis. consider prophylactic anti-TB therapy before starting therapy, as India has 44% prevalence rate 13. Holtmann MH, Neurath MF. Anti-TNF strategies in stenosing and of TB. However, extensive post-marketing surveillance is fi stulizing Crohn’s disease. Int J Colorectal Dis 2005;20:1-8.
necessary to re-evaluate the risk-benefi t ratio of these 14. Siddiqui MA, Scott LJ. Spotlight on infl iximab in Crohn disease This PDF is available for free download from biologic therapies. Prescriber should evaluate all the and rheumatoid arthritis. BioDrugs 2006;20:67-70. available evidences before prescribing an anti-TNF-α 15. Sandborn WJ. Transcending conventional therapies: The role of agent for various potential indications. biologic and other novel therapies. Infl amm Bowel Dis 2001;1: References
16. Akobeng AK, Zachos M. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibody for Mahajan A, Sharma R, Khajuria R, et al. Rheumatoid arthritis: induction of remission in Crohn’s disease. Cochrane Database New developments in biologic therapy. J Indian Med Assoc 17. Katz JA, Antoni C, Keenan GF, Smith DE, Jacobs SJ, Lichtenstein Mahajan A, Sharma R, Singh JB. Biological therapy in Rheumatoid GR. Outcome of pregnancy in women receiving infl iximab for Arthritis: Current status. Indian J Rheumatol 2006;1:13-9.
the treatment of Crohn’s disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Arya V. Food and drug administration (FDA) approval status of biologicals used in Rheumatology. Indian J Rheumatol 18. Armuzzi A, De Pascalis B, Lupascu A, Fedeli P, Leo D, Mentella MC, et al. Infliximab in the treatment of steroid-dependent Waknine Y. FDA approvals: Duetact and humira. Medscape family ulcerative colitis. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2004;8:231-3. Indian J Crit Care Med July-September 2007 Vol 11 Issue 3
IJCCM October-December 2003 Vol 7 Issue 4
19. Probert CS, Hearing SD, Schreiber S, Kühbacher T, Ghosh S, 2005 doi:10.1136/thx.2005.045260 2005 by BMJ Publishing Arnott ID, et al. Infl iximab in moderately severe glucocorticoid Group Ltd and British Thoracic Society: [Last accessed on 2006 resistant ulcerative colitis: A randomized controlled trial. Gut 33. Vincent JL. Afelimomab. Int J Clin Pract 2000;54:190-3.
G, Hertervig E, Friis-Liby I, Blomquist L, Karlén P, Grännö 34. Reinhart K, Karzai W. Anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in sepsis: C, et al. Infl iximab as rescue therapy in severe to moderately Update on clinical trials and lessons learned. Crit Care Med severe ulcerative colitis: A randomized, placebo-controlled study. 35. Rice TW, Wheeler AP, Morris PE, et al. Safety and effi cacy of affi nity- 21. Antoni C, Manger B. Treatment of psoriatic arthritis with TNF purifi ed, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha, ovine fab for injection alpha-antagonists. J Rheumatol 2003;62:235-9.
(CytoFab) in severe sepsis. Crit Care Med 2006;34:2484-5. 22. Behnam SM, Behnam SE, Koo JY. TNF-alpha inhibitors and 36. Sfi kakis PP, Markomichelakis N, Theodossiadis GP, Grigoropoulos congestive heart failure. Skinmed 2005;4:363-8.
V, Katsilambros N, Theodossiadis PG. Regression of sight- 23. Mease PJ, Goffe BS, Metz J, VanderStoep A, Finck B, Burge DJ. threatening macular edema in type 2 diabetes following treatment Etanercept in the treatment of psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis: A with the anti-tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody Infl iximab. randomized trial. Lancet 2000;356:385-90.
24. Antoni C, Krueger GG, de Vlam K, Birbara C, Beutler A, Guzzo C, 37. Greig NH, Mattson MP, Perry T, Chan SL, Giordano T, Sambamurti et al. Infl iximab improves signs and symptoms of psoriatic arthritis: K, et al. New therapeutic strategies and drug candidates for results of the IMPACT 2 trial. Ann Rheum Dis 2005;64:1150-7.
neurodegenerative diseases: p53 and TNF- Inhibitors and GLP-1 25. Antoni CE, Kavanaugh A, Kirkham B, Tutuncu Z, Burmester GR, Receptor agonists. Ann NY Acad Sci 2004;1035:290-315.
Schneider U, et al. Sustained benefi ts of infl iximab therapy for 38. Kraetsch HG, Antoni C, Kalden JR, Manger B. Successful treatment dermatologic and articular manifestations of psoriatic arthritis: of a small cohort of patients with adult onset of Still’s disease with Results from the infliximab multinational psoriatic arthritis infl iximab: First experiences. Ann Rheum Dis 2001;60:iii55-7.
controlled trial (IMPACT). Arthritis Rheum 2005;52:1227-36.
39. Narayanan K, Anand KP. Two year follow up of infl iximab therapy in MA, Bhangal G, Smyth CL, Nakada MT, Cook HT, Nourshargh ammatory arthritis. J Indian Rheumatol Assoc 2005;13:7-8.
S, et al. Therapeutic effect of anti-TNF-alpha antibodies in an 40. Singh S, Sinal VK, Chaturvedi V. Strategy to prevent tuberculosis experimental model of anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody- during anti TNF therapy in juvenile ankylosing- spondylitis with low associated systemic vasculitis. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006;17:160-9.
dose infl iximab without loading schedule: A one year open label 27. Jacobi A, Antoni C, Manger B, Schuler G, Hertl M. Infl iximab in study of toxicity and effi cacy in 15 patients. J Indian Rheumatol the treatment of moderate to severe atopic dermatitis. J Am Acad 41. Kumar A. Experience with anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy in 28. Henriksen PA, Newby DE. Therapeutic inhibition of tumor necrosis India. APLAR J Rheumatol 2006;9:136.
42. Sridhar J, Desylva P, Singh YD. Chimeric monoclonal antibody factor- in patients with heart failure: Cooling an infl amed heart. to tumor necrosis factor alpha (infl iximab) in psoriasis. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2006;72:133-5.
29. Chung ES, Packer M, Lo KH, et al. Anti-TNF Therapy Against This PDF is available for free download from 43. Ledingham J, Wilkinson C, Deighton C. British Thoracic Society Congestive Heart Failure Investigators. Randomized, double- (BTS) recommendations for assessing risk and managing blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial of infliximab, a chimeric tuberculosis in patients due to start anti-TNF-{alpha} treatments. monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor-alpha, in patients with moderate-to-severe heart failure: Results of the anti-TNF 44. Attri SK. Infl iximab in spondyloarthropathy. Indian J Rheumatol Therapy against Congestive Heart Failure (ATTACH) trial. 45. Grover R, Kapoor S, Marwaha V. Authors’ reply. Indian J 30. Suhler EB, Smith JR, Wertheim MS, Lauer AK, Kurz DE, Pickard TD, et al. A prospective trial of infl iximab therapy for 46. Tandon VR, Mahajan A, Khajuria V. TNF blockers and tuberculosis: refractory uveitis, preliminary safety and effi cacy outcomes. Arch An Indian concern. Indian J Rheumatol 2006;1:66-71.
47. Mpofu S, Fatima F, Moots RJ. Anti-TNF-α therapies: They are all 31. Vincent JL. Afelimomab. Int J Clin Pract 2000;54:190-3. the same (aren’t they?) Rheumatol 2005;44:271-3.
32. Howarth PH, Babu KS, Arshad HS, et al. Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) as a novel therapeutic target in symptomatic corticosteroid- Source of Support: Nil, Confl ict of Interest: None declared.
dependent asthma. Thorax. Published Online First: 15 September

Source: https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/37167/1/cm07025.pdf

Ejp_endmatter_vol_

Page numbers may refer to music as well as text. Page references in bold type indicate the main appearance of a tune, a photograph of a pianist, based on four-note chords in key of F 140or an entry in Appendix I, ‘Suggested Listening’. dominant sevenths/ninths 103, 112, 187in left hand 214–217in right-hand improvisation ‘A’ Train Improvisation 66, 68, 69 in walking basslines

Loss of situational awareness

CMPA Good Practices Guide – TEXT CASE AND TRIGGER QUESTIONS TITLE: Loss of situational awareness DOMAIN AND TOPIC: Human factors > Situational awareness KEYWORDS situational awareness, emergency medicine, seizure, medication, infusion pump, CanMEDS Medical Expert, CanMEDS-FM Medical Expert ACTIVITY SUMMARY This text case describes an adverse event ( accident in Québec)

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