Microsoft word - curriculum vitae jck 06-08-09 no abstracts.doc
CURRICULUM VITAE Dr J. C. KINGSWOOD FRCP CURRICULUM VITAE
Telephone number: Home 01273 - 813674 Work 01273 - 696955 ext 4036 Marital status:
Nationality: British Education: Rutlish Grammar University: 1972 - 1977 Guy's Hospital Medical School Degrees: 1977 MB BS London University
1977 MRCS LRCP Conjoint Board of Examiners
UK 1994 FRCP Royal College of Physicians, UK Distinctions: 1976 Golding-Bird Gold Medal in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Accreditation: June 1989 In General Medicine and Nephrology GMC & Full Registration: 03.07.78 (no 2358152) Defence Union: MDU Member of: BMA, Medical Research Society, Renal Association, EDTA. International
June 1977 to HS General Surgery to December 1977
January 1978 to HP General Medicine to July 1978 Dr. T. M. L. Price, Lewisham Hospital. August 1978 to Locum Registrar in Geriatric Medicine September 1978
Carshalton, Surrey. October 1978 to Locum in General Practice to November 1978
July 1980 to SHO Renal Medicine,, Department of June 1981 Nephrology, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, to Drs J. C. Mackenzie and P. R. Harrison. July 1981 to Research Registrar, Renal Unit, July 1982 Southmead Hospital, Bristol. August 1982 to Registrar General Medicine & March 1984 Endocrinology, at Llandough Hospital, Penarth & University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff to Dr. J. H. Lazarus. March 1984 to Research Fellow/Honorary Registrar, May 1987 Institute of Urology & St. Peter's Hospitals, London WC2 to Dr. F. D. Thompson. June 1987 to Lecturer in Nephrology & General August 1989 Medicine, University College London, London, WC1. Rotating between the professorial medical unit at University College Hospital (Professor 0. Wrong, Dr. D. P. Brenton and Dr. S.
F. D. Thompson, Dr. M. A. Mansell and Prof. G. H. Neild).
Commenced August 1989 Consultant Physician Brighton & Sussex University Hospitals Trust My current post is as Consultant physician in Nephrology and General Medicine employed by Brighton & Sussex University Hospitals Trust. It is based at the Renal Unit in Brighton, but covers the East Sussex area, Mid-Downs, Worthing and the adjoining localities with a catchment population of approximately 1 million. The job involves supervision of all modalities of renal services for patients in this area including dialysis, transplantation, the investigation and treatment of acute and chronic renal failure, general nephrology, hypertension and general medical take. We have been able to undertake a number of new clinical initiatives. These included new clinics, at Bexhill Hospital, Eastbourne District General Hospital, Crawley Hospital, and joint diabetic/nephrology clinics at the Royal Sussex County Hospital and Eastbourne District General Hospital. We have set up satellite dialysis units in Bexhill, Worthing & Crawley. We have also been able to initiate modern measures of adequacy of dialysis, such as in peritoneal dialysis (the measurement of creatinine clearance, urea kinetic modelling and peritoneal equilibration test) and in haemodialysis (urea kinetic modelling). The automated peritoneal dialysis programme has been improved and extended. Over the last few years we have supervised and then taught ITU to carryout haemofiltration and haemo-diafiltration as a means of renal replacement therapy on the ITU. We designed a new renal unit, which opened in November 2003.
I was Royal College District Tutor for Medicine for 3 years up until April 1999, which involves overseeing and teaching junior medical staff, publicising teaching opportunities within the Medical Directorate, organising SHO Protected Teaching Time and helping the Postgraduate Tutor draw up educational contracts for the SHOs. I take part in the usual lecture programmes for GPs and Ancillary colleagues. I am co-author of the renal chapter of a standard undergraduate textbook. ((Medicine, Blackwell Science. I am an examiner for MRCP and regularly participate in teaching to prepare candidates for this exam. I am course leader of the Nephrology MSc based at BSMS.
SUPERVISION OF POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS
Martin Jones, Research Registrar - MD Thesis "The Assessment and Control of Blood Pressure in Patients with Renal Disease" awarded by Bristol University 1996. Graham Davies, Senior Lecturer in School of Pharmacy - PhD "Factors Affecting Drug Clearance in Haemodiafiltration" awarded by the University of Brighton 1997. Ian Rifkin, Lecturer/Research Registrar between Addenbrooke's, Cambridge and Trafford Research Centre, Brighton - MD "Pathogenicity of ANCA" (he is mainly being supervised by Professor Simpson at Cambridge). In addition I have co-supervised three BSc projects carried out by nurses within the Department. The have all been successfully completed. NATIONAL REGISTRY OF RENAL COMPLICATIONS IN TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS I have set up this project. It has an expanding number of participants (300 currently). Its aims are to investigate the prevalence, natural history and treatment of renal complications. It also acts as an information resource for doctors, healthcare professionals, patients and families. It has been very useful in fostering co-operative research. I see an increasing number of patients with renal complications of Tuberous Sclerosis in Brighton. In combination with my radiological and urological colleagues Brighton has built up a unique (In the UK) experience in treating these problems. In spring 1997 I spent a 3-month sabbatical at the Trafford Centre for Medical Research in the University of Sussex. This was to undergo some training in molecular genetics and help further a major research project in the molecular genetics of Tuberous Sclerosis. I set up this research project in collaboration with colleagues at the Trafford Centre for Medical Research and was instrumental in raising funding for it. I have helped set-up the multidisciplinary Tuberous Sclerosis Clinic at St George's Hospital (One of 6 in the UK). I participate in this clinic one morning a month. I have organised a national consensus conference to draw up clinical guidelines for the care of patients with Tuberous Sclerosis. We organised the International TSC research conference in Brighton in September 2009.
MANAGEMENT EXPERIENCE Throughout my medical career I have had to polish and use the skills of managing and motivating a team of health care professionals. As I have progressed to more senior positions the team has become larger and more varied. In addition I have developed the skills of effective communication, analysis of my and others performance and career counselling/professional development. The challenges the Renal Unit has faced in the past 10 years (Due to quadrupling of the workload.) have given me a good understanding of the need to objectively analyse a problem in order to develop feasible options for solving it. From this I have gained a clear appreciation of the value of good management. I have enjoyed being Consultant Manager of the Renal Unit from 1995 to May 2002. I was Clinical Director of Specialised Services in the trust until April 2006. The remit of this post was to; 1/ Supervise adherence to budgets & contracts 2/ Lead on strategic initiatives & 3/ Lead on implementation of clinical governance In renal, cardiac, neurosciences & GUM specialities. In addition to the expertise I have gleaned from my work within the NHS and as an independent private practitioner, I have gained useful management experience from some unlikely sources. I have been a member of the Management Committee of a national charity – The Tuberous Sclerosis Association - for the past 10 years. The charity is dedicated to helping sufferers with Tuberous Sclerosis and their families and funding research into the condition. It has 1200 members and capital assets of approximately £3 million, and is very active in fund-raising. Being a member of the 10 - 12 person Management Committee has given me valuable experience in modern management and business techniques. I have been on the Board of Trustees of a local charity - The Brighton Oasis Project, which runs a drop in centre for narcotic addicts, particularly woman with children. Lastly I am a keen sailor. Living in cramped conditions and coping with tricky situations spiced with danger quickly teaches the value of teamwork. CONTACT DETAILS
Dr Kingswood works at the following NHS practices and may be contacted by any of the means listed below.
Dr Kingswood also works in private practice and may be contacted by any of the means listed below.
Long-term effects of endralazine (BQ-22-708) in patients with renal impairment and hypertension. J. C. Kingswood, R. A. Banks, P. R. Harrison, E. Higgs, J. C. Mackenzie. Postgraduate Med. J. 1983, 59 (suppl. 3), 173 - 176. Fracture osteomalacia, CAPD and aluminium (letter). J. C. Kingswood, R. A. Banks, T. Bunker, P. Harrison, C. Mackenzie. Lancet 1983, i, 70 - 71. Endralazine in patients with severe hypertension and renal insufficiency. E. R. Higgs, P. R. Harrison, R. A. Banks, J. C. Kingswood. Postgraduate Med. J. 1982, 58, 767 - 770. Renal involvement in systemic amyloidosis. Browning M; Banks R; Tribe C; Bacon P Hollingsworth P; Kingswood C; Poulding J; Harrison P; Mackenzie JC Proc Euro Dial Transplant Assoc 1983;20:595-602 Peritonitis in CAPD: relapse or reinfection? [letter] Will EJ; Read DJ; Kingswood JC. Lancet 1983 Jan 29;1(8318):238-9 Glomerulonephritis, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and leucocytoclastic vasculitis. R. A. Banks, J. C. Kingswood, R. Slade, C. R. Tribe, P. R. Harrison, J. C. Mackenzie. Am. J. Neph. 1984, 4, 114 - 117. Renal biopsy in the elderly. Clinicopathological correlations in 144 patients. J. C. Kingswood, R. A. Banks, C. R. Tribe, J. Owen-Jones, P. R. Harrison, J. C. Mackenzie. Clin. Neph. 1984 22(4), 183 - 187. 10 years experience of an amyloid clinic. A clinicopathological survey. M. Browning, R. A. Banks, C. R. Tribe, P. Hollingsworth, J. C. Kingswood, P. A. Bacon. Quart. J. Med. 1985, new series 54(215), 213 - 227. A receptor assay for the measurement of TSH receptor antibodies in unextracted serum. K. Southgate, F. Creagh, M. Teece, J. C. Kingswood, B. Rees-Smith. Clin. Endo. 1984 20, 539 – 548. How soon after myocardial infarction should plasma lipid values be assessed?
R. E. J. Ryder, T. M. Hayes, I. P. Mulligan, J. C. Kingswood, S. Williams, D. R. Owens. Br. Med. J. 1984, 289, 1651 - 1653. A report of overdose with astemizole. Kingswood JC; Routledge PA; Lazarus JH Hum Toxicol 1986 Jan; 5(1):43-4 The value of home blood pressure monitoring in the assessment of the efficacy of timolol in the management of hypertension. Lazarus JH; Creagh FM; Kingswood JC Clin Exp Hypertens [A] 1985;7(2-3):407-11 Tremor: an alternative approach for investigating adrenergic mechanisms in thyrotoxicosis? Abila B; Lazarus JH; Kingswood JC; Marshall RW Clin Sci 1985 Oct;69(4):459-63 Lithium therapy induces autoimmune thyroid disease. J. Lazarus, M. Ludgate, A. McGregor, R. Hassman, F. Creagh, J. C. Kingswood, P. S. Walfish, J. R. Wall, R. Colpe. Auto-immunity and the Thyroid. Ed. Academic Press. 1985, 319 - 320. Effect of lithium carbonate therapy on thyroid immune status in manic-depressive patients: A prospective study. J. H. Lazarus, A. M. McGregor, M. Ludgate, C. Darke, F. M.Creagh, J. C. Kingswood. J. Affect. Dis. 1986, 11, 155 - 160. The effect of nadolol on heart rate in hyperthyroidism. A controlled trial. J. H. Lazarus, J. C. Kingswood, R. John. Acta Endocrin. (Copenh.) 1987, 114, 102 - 106. Iodine and lithium - a tale of two ions. J. H. Lazarus, M. Ludgate, R. Hassman, A. M. McGregor, F. M.Creagh, J. C. Kingswood. In: Thyroid Disorders Associated with Iodine Deficiency and Excess. (Eds. R. Hall, J. Kobberling.) Serono Symposium Publications, Raven Press, New York, 1985, 223 - 226. Head-up tilt test for unexplained syncope (letter) C. H. Kong, J. C. Kingswood, F. D. Thompson. Lancet 1986, ii, 170. Sodium, blood pressure and calcium antagonists (letter). J. C. Kingswood, F. D. Thompson.
Lancet 1986, i, 1102. Determinants of cyclosporin nephrotoxicity following cardiac transplantation. M. Martin, D. Packham, J. C. Kingswood, H. Cairns, A. Khagani, F. D. Thompson, M. Yacoub. Transplantation Proc. 1987, 19(1), 2516 - 2517. Monotherapy with felodipine, a new calcium antagonist, in mild and moderate hypertension. D. V. Hamilton, P.C. Barnes, R. M. L. Bowles, D. V. Rajaratnam, M. B. Comerford, W. R. Ginks, S. E. Ginks, J. R. Groves, W. J. Grabau, J. P. Malcolm, R. J. Hadley, R. J. Hopkins, D. M. Lawrie, J. B. Stoker, C. A. Morley, N. C. Taylor, F. D. Thompson, J. C. Kingswood, R. A. Elton, E. A. Forret. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. Vol 10 (suppl.10) (ppS111-S113), 1987. Felodipine, a new calcium antagonist, as monotherapy in mild or moderate hypertension. P. C. Barnes, R. M. L. Bowles, D. V. Rajaratnam, M. B. Comerford, W. R. Ginks, S. E. Ginks, J. R. Goves, W. J. Grabau, J. P. Malcolm, R. J. Hadley, D. V. Hamilton, R. J. Hopkins, D. M. Lawrie, J. B. Stoker, C. A. Morley, N. C. Taylor, F. D. Thompson, J. C. Kingswood, A. A. Elton, E. A. Forret. Drugs. Vol 35 (1) (pp 139-148), 1988. Monotherapy with felodipine, a new calcium antagonist, in mild tomoderate hypertension. Multicentre study. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 1987, 10 (suppl. 10), S111 - S113. Effect of nadolol on plasma lipids in hyperthyroidism. M. D. Littley. J. C. Kingswood, R. John, J. H. Lazarus. Hormone and Metabolic Research 1989, 6(21), 331 - 333. Practical Problems of haemofiltration in an ITU. S. Wilson, R. Armstrong, S. L. Cohen, F. Shealy, J. C. Kingswood. Aspects of Renal Care, 3 1988. Cyanide and fire victims (letter). R. N. Stevenson, C. Kingswood, S. L. Cohen, C. J. Vesey. Lancet 1988, ii, 1145. Encephalopathy in-patient taking aluminium-containing agents, including sucralfate [letter; comment] Withers DJ; Woolf AS; Kingswood JC; Tsang WN Mansell MA Lancet 1989 Sep 16;2(8664):674 Plasma levels of atrial natriuretic factor in chronic renal disease. A. S. Wolf, J. C. Kingswood, M. A. Mansell, P. J. A. Moult. European Journal of Internal Medicine. 1989 i 121 - 126.
Renal replacement therapy in the ICU: the role of continuous arteriovenous haemodialysis. R. F. Miller, J. C. Kingswood, C. Bullen, S. L. Cohen. Br. J. Hosp. Med. 1990, 43, 355 - 362. Comparison of the efficacy cost and complication rate of APD and CAPD as long-term outpatient treatments for renal failure. King L., Kingswood J.C., Sharpstone P. Advances in Peritoneal Dialysis 8 1992, 123 - 126 (Pub PD Bulletin Inc. 1992) How can peritoneal dialysis be improved? McGuigan W., Kingswood J.C. EDTNA-ERCA Journal 18 (4) 1992, 31 - 35 Audit of use and effectiveness of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) in a regional renal unit. Jones M.A., Dallyn P.E., Kingswood J.C., Sharpstone P. Current Therapy in Nephrology. Ed. Andreucci, D.C. 1992, 403 - 405 Reduced rejection rate following prophylactic anti-lymphocyte globulin in renal transplantation of sensitised patients. Jones M.A., Nelson S.R., Young M., Bewick M., Sharpstone P., Kingswood J.C. Current Therapy in Nephrology. Ed. Andreucci, D.C. 1992, 613 - 615 Does dialysis associated amyloidosis resolve after transplantation? Nelson S.R., Sharpstone P., Kingswood J.C. Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation 1993, Vol 8 No 4 369-370 Measurement of creatinine in peritoneal dialysis fluid. Farrell S.C., Bailey M.P. Ann Clinical Biochemistry 1991, 28, 624 - 625. Resolution of cyclosporin-induced gingival hypertrophy with metronidazole.(Letter) W Wong., M G Hodge., A Lewis., P Sharpstone., J C Kingswood. The Lancet, 1994, Vol 343, 986. Reduced nocturnal blood pressure fall is similar in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis to that haemodialysis and undialysed end-stage renal disease. M. A. Jones., P. Sharpstone., P. E. Dallyn., J. C. Kingswood Clinical Nephrology. Vol 42 No 4 1994. 273-275 Clinic and 24 hour ambulatory blood pressure in dialysis patients compared with measures of end organ hypertensive damage. M N Pond., P. Dallyn., J C Kingswood., P Sharpstone., EUR. J. Int. Med. 1995 6 37 - 41 A 4-year audit of interventional treatment for atheromatous renal artery stenosis.
P Donohoe., D de Takats., N Bishop., R Burwood., T Doyle., D Goldsmith., G Hamilton., I Kenney., J C Kingswood., P Sharpstone,. Contrib. Nephrol. Basel Karger. 1996 118 78 - 82. Co-author chapter on Kidney Biopsy Published in Procedures in Practice. 3rd Ed. Ed. N Scott. BMJ Publishing 1994 pp 183 - 189. Drug removal in continuous haemofiltation and haemodialysis. J G Davies., J C Kingswood., P Sharpstone., M K Street. Brit. J Hospital Med. 1995. 54 (10) 524 - 528. Thrombo-embolic disease after splenectomy for hereditary stomatocytosis. G W Stewart., J A L Ames., S.W. Eber., J C Kingswood., P A Lane., B D Smith., W C Mentzer. British J Haematol. 1996 93 303 - 310. Changes in diurnal blood pressure variation and red cell and plasma volumes in patients with renal failure who develop erythropoietin induced hypertension. M.A. Jones., J. C. Kingswood., P.E. Dallyn., M. Andrew., A Cheetham., R. Burwood., P. Sharpstone. Clinical Nephrology. 1995 44 (3) 193 - 200. Pharmacokinetics of opioids in renal dysfunction. G Davies., J C Kingswood., M K Street. Invited review Clinical Phamcokinetics. 1996 6 410 - 422. Quinine clearance in continuous venous haemofiltration. Davies. J.G., Greenwood. E.F., Kingswood. J.C., Sharpstone P., Street M.K. Ann Pharmacother 1996 30 487 - 490. Haemodynamic changes measured by transthoracic bio impedance during treatment with recombinant human Erythropoietin. Jones M.A., Kingswood J.C., Dallyn P.E., Sharpstone P. Clin & Exper Hypertension 1996 18 (1) 51 - 64 Reversible acute renal failure induced by losartan in a renal transplant recipient. Ostermann M; Goldsmith DJ; Doyle T; Kingswood JC Sharpstone P Postgrad Med J 1997 Feb;73(856):105-7 Endoluminal brushing of blocked permanent indwelling haemodialysis catheters saves money.(Letter) C.K.T. Farmer., E. Greenwood., D.J.A. Goldsmith., J. C. Kingswood., P. Sharpstone. Nephrol. Dial. Trans. 1997 12 2040.
Chapter on renal disease. J.C. Kingswood., D. K.Packham. In Medicine. Ed. J. Axford 1996 Blackwell Science Ltd. ISBN 0-632-02707-X. An investigation of the effect of advancing uraemia, renal replacement therapy and renal transplantation on blood pressure diurnal variability. CKT Farmer, DJA Goldsmith, J Cox, P Dallyn, JC Kingswood and P Sharpstone Nephrol Dial Transplant 1997 Sep;12(9):2040 Maintenance of adequate dialysis in a patient with peritoneal calcification using tidal peritoneal dialysis. Farmer CK; Goldsmith DJ; Sharpstone P; Kingswood JC Clin Nephrol 1998 Jan;49(1):55-8 Progression of diabetic nephropathy--is diurnal blood pressure rhythm as important as absolute blood pressure level? Farmer CK; Goldsmith DJ; Quinn JD; Dallyn P; Cox J Kingswood JC; Sharpstone P Nephrol Dial Transplant 1998 Mar;13(3):635-9 Use of in vitro models of haemofiltration and haemodiafiltration to estimate dosage regimens for critically ill patients prescribed cefpirome. Phillips GJ; Davies JG; Olliff CJ; Kingswood C Street M J Clin Pharm Ther 1998 Oct;23(5):353-9 Tesla cine-magnetic resonance angiography is a poor screening test for atheromatous renal artery stenosis in chronic renal failure. D. Goldsmith, P. Donohoe, T. Doyle, J. C. Kingswood, P. Sharpstone. Nephrology. Vol 4 (5-6) (pp 347-351), 1998. End-stage renal failure in adults with the tuberous sclerosis complex. Clarke A; Hancock E; Kingswood C; Osborne JP Nephrol Dial Transplant 1999 Apr;14(4):988-91 Hypotensive ischemic optic neuropathy and peritoneal dialysis. Jackson TL; Farmer CK; Kingswood C; Vickers S Am J Ophthalmol 1999 Jul;128(1):109-11 Hypertension in the hemodialysis patient [letter; comment] Bandyopadhyay D; Cox J; Harman W; Iggo N Kingswood C; Sharpstone P Am J Kidney Dis 2000 Mar;35(3):563 How reproducible is diurnal blood pressure rhythm in patients with secondary (renal) hypertension? Covic A; Goldsmith DJ; Farmer CK; Cox J; Dallyn P Sharpstone P; Kingswood JC Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 1999 Jan-Jun;103(1-2):88-93
Hypertension in the hemodialysis patient [letter; comment] Bandyopadhyay D; Cox J; Harman W; Iggo N Kingswood C; Sharpstone P Am J Kidney Dis 2000 Mar;35(3):563 Low-sodium haemodialysis without fluid removal improves blood pressure control in chronic haemodialysis patients Farmer CKT; Donohoe P; Dallyn P; Cox J; Kingswood JC; Goldsmith DJA Nephrology 2000; 5, 237-241 Possible cross-infection with hepatitis C virus of an unusual genotype on a haemodialysis unit McElborough D; Paul J; Hargreaves R; Kingswood JC; Harris K; Teo CG Journal of Hospital Infection 47 (4) 335-336 2001 Co-author Chapter on renal disease. J.C. Kingswood., D. K.Packham. & C. O’Callaghan. In Medicine 2nd Ed. Eds Axford & O'Callaghan. Blackwell Sciecne 2004 ISBN; 0-632-05162-0 Renal angiomyolipomata. [Review] [113 refs] Bissler JJ. Kingswood JC. Kidney International. 66(3):924-34, 2004 Sep. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: analysis of growth rates aids differentiation of renal cell carcinoma from atypical or minimal-fat-containing angiomyolipoma. Patel U. Simpson E. Kingswood JC. Saggar-Malik AK. Clinical Radiology. 60(6):665-73; discussion 663-4, 2005 Jun. Joint Diabetes renal Clinics are Best Practice (Letter) Bending, J., & Kingswood, C. Br J Diabetes Vasc Dis 2007; 7: 202 . Sirolimus therapy in tuberous sclerosis or sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis. [Letter.] Davies DM. Johnson SR. Tattersfield AE. Kingswood JC. Cox JA. McCartney DL. Doyle T. Elmslie F. Saggar A. de Vries PJ. Sampson JR New England Journal of Medicine. 358(2):200-3, 2008 Jan 10
Angiomyolipomata: Challenges, solutions, and future propects based on over 100 cases treated. Sooriakumaran P, Gibbs P, Coughlin G, Attard V, Elmslie F, Kingswood C, Taylor J, Corbishley C, Patel U, Anderson C. BJU Int. 2009 Jun 2. [Epub ahead of print] European Respiratory Society Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM).
INCARICHI PROFESSIONALI ANNI 2006 - 2007 -2008 - 2009 INCARICATO INCARICO - DURATA - COMPENSO DELIBERA Fondazione G.Cini - Istituto Studio ricerca per la catalogazione Affreschi delle di Storia dell'rte di Venezia Ville Venete dal Cinquecento all'Ottocento e della Villa Contarini Fondazione Ghirardi - Piazzola sul 40/CS 07.03.2006 Brenta (PD) Progetto di messa a norma impianti scuder
CURRICULUM VITAE NUNO MARIA REIS DE MATOS SILVA Setembro de 2002 Pessoais 2 Habilitações Académicas Actividade Profissional em Arquitectura Por conta de outros. 3.1.1 No atelier do Arq. Michel Nazarenko. Em Limoges, França. 3.1.2 No atelier dos Arq. os João de Almeida e Pedro Ferreira Pinto. 3.1.3 Com o Arq. Manuel Vicente. 1974/1982 3.1.4 Com o A