Atomic Structure, Bonding and Related Properties
Energetics of Chemical and Physical Processes
Assessment Schedule for Practical Investigation
Research Report Generic Assessment Schedule
Quantities, Units, Symbols and Nomenclature
Topics for Extended Practical Investigation
South Pacific Form Seven Certificate Chemistry Summary
Teacher Guidelines for Extended Practical Investigation
Preamble This prescription defines the requirements for the South Pacific Form Seven Certificate Chemistry examination.
Each of the student outcomes for the course is to be read in conjunction with the Explanatory Notes given for each outcome in this prescription.
Students also require knowledge and understanding of outcomes from the Pacific Senior Secondary Certificate or an equivalent certificate, which are related to the specific outcomes of this prescription. This prescription is derived from the New Zealand University Entrance, Bursaries and Scholarships Chemistry as well as the NCEA Level 3 Chemistry Achievement Standards as published by NZQA.
Candidates will complete a course of study that follows the aims and objectives of a comparable Form 7 course in chemistry such as the NCEA Level 3 Chemistry, USP Foundation Chemistry, etc. Candidates undertaking this course are strongly recommended to have completed the PSSC chemistry course or any other chemistry course of comparable standard. They will also require knowledge and understanding of the central concepts and patterns of chemical behaviour described in the content areas of a typical Form 6 Chemistry course. It is recommended that candidates carry out an extended practical investigation during a previous year of study because of the extensive coverage and practical work already demanded by the course of study in Form 7. The course is designed for students who may undertake further studies in a tertiary institution as well as for those students who will complete their formal education at the end of Form 7. Aims
Chemistry is the study of the composition and properties of matter, and the changes it undergoes. Chemistry is a science that develops through people investigating matter in both living and non- living systems. Study in chemistry enables students to: •
investigate, and develop their understanding of the nature and behaviour of matter
learn about the development of the major ideas in chemistry and about the people involved in their development
become aware of the ways that chemists today use their knowledge to meet particular needs of society
develop an understanding of the interactions between chemistry and technology
realise that an understanding of chemistry is fundamental in such diverse fields as medicine, agriculture, manufacturing and engineering, as well as in many other aspects of the lives of Pacific Islanders
raise questions and debate issues related to chemistry, society and the environment
develop scientific skills and attitudes.
On completing this course students should be able to:
demonstrate an understanding of the central concepts and patterns appropriate to the study of chemistry at this level
interpret and use a range of chemical information from qualitative and quantitative investigation
analyse the interaction of chemical processes with people and the environment
use the language of chemistry to describe, understand and predict chemical behaviour at the molecular level.
Outcome 1: Atomic Structure, Bonding and Related Properties
Describe and relate structure and selected properties of atoms, ions and compounds to
(ii) Analyse and interpret information about selected properties of atoms, ions and
• nuclear transformations resulting in alpha, beta and gamma emission • comparison of fission and fusion • simple quantitative treatment of half life (simple numerical calculations only) • ground state electron configurations using s, p and d notation and their ions of the first 36
(Hund’s rule and the additional stability of half -filled sublevels are expected to be taught but will not be examined)
• periodic trends in atomic and ionic radii, ionisation energy and electronegativity • Lewis structures (up to 6 electron pairs about the central atom, including multiple-bonded
• shapes and polarity of simple molecules up to 6 valence electron pairs (includes
determining geometry and shapes of molecules using vsepr)
• weak intermolecular forces arising from instantaneous and permanent dipoles including
• shapes of simple polyatomic ions (with up to 6 valence electron pairs)
(The concept of resonance is expected to be taught but will not be
• reaction of Group 17 (F, Cl, Br, I) elements with water and consequences on extraction
methods of the comparative strength of the elements as oxidising agents
• variable oxidation state of the transition metals, their use as catalysts and colour of
transition metal ions (Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu). (Transition metals are restricted to iron, vanadium, chromium, manganese, and copper and their ions)
• Formation of complex ions and acid-base behaviour of selected species.
formation of complex ions are restricted to [CuCl4]2 − , [Ag(NH3)2] + , [Cu(NH3)4]2+, [Zn(NH3)4]2+, [Zn(OH)4]2-, [FeSCN]2+, aquo complexes of iron(III), chromium(III), and copper(II).
acid-base behaviour is limited to reaction with water, H3O + (aq) and OH − (aq).
selected species are limited to oxides and hydroxides of Zinc(II), chromium(II), chromium(III), and chromium(VI), chromate and dichromate ions, and aquo complexes of iron (III) and chromium(III)
Biological effects and uses of radioactivity are expected. This includes a comparison of the risks and benefits of radioactivity
A knowledge is expected of the solubility and colour of the halides, hydroxides, nitrates, carbonates, sulfates, sulfides of sodium, magnesium, calcium, iron (II), iron(III), zinc, copper(II), silver and ammonium ions.
Outcome 2: Energetics of Chemical and Physical Processes
(i) Describe and use thermo-chemical principles and apply such principles to selected
(ii) Interpret and explain information in terms of thermo–chemical principles.
absolute temperature as a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles.
relationship of the weak and strong attractive forces be tween particles and values of melting point, boiling point, ? fus H and ? vap H
enthalpy change for any process is the sum of the enthalpy changes for the steps into which the process can be divided.
relationship between endothermic and exothermic reactions and bond making and bond breaking processes.
definition of the following terms; ? fH°, ? cH°, ? rH°, ?
Calculations involving thermo-chemical principles may include:
relating enthalpy changes to heat and mass.
application of ? rH° = ∑ ? fH° (products) - ∑ ? fH° (reactants).
use of average bond energies in enthalpy change calculations.
Thermo-chemical principles could be applied to systems involving either chemical change or phase changes. This may involve a comparison of the relative strength of inter-molecular (restricted to those due to temporary dipoles, permanent dipoles and hydrogen bonding) and intra-molecular forces. This includes relationship to melting and boiling points.
Outcome 3: Equilibrium
(i) Describe and use information about aqueous equilibrium systems.
Apply information about aqueous equilibrium systems.
(iii) Analyse and interpret information about aqueous equilibrium systems.
Aqueous equilibrium systems are limited to those involving proton transfer and dissolving of sparingly soluble ionic solids.
Equilibrium constant expressions are limited to Ka, (pKa) K w and K .
Description, application, analysis or interpretation of equilibrium systems may be qualitative or quantitative.
correlation between acid and base strength, pKa or Ka and pH.
relative equilibrium concentrations of dissolved species: NaCl, NaOH, Ca(OH)2 , NH4Cl, CH3COONa, CaSO4 , CaCl2 , HCl, CH3COOH, NH3.
titration curves including buffer region, equivalence point and selection of indicator.
nature of buffer solutions i.e. treatment of the composition, mode of action and importance of buffers.
solutions of bases, monoprotic acids and buffers.
those species in which it is acceptable to make approximations in concentrations, such as the assumption that [HA] = C
AB, A B and AB type solids where neither the ions A or B react further
calculating the concentration of one ion given the other.
solubility in water and in solutions containing one of the ions A or B.
predicting precipitation or dissolution.
[Calculations that require a change in the pH of a buffer solution will not be examined. Values of K or pK will not be provided but may be derived and used in calculations] Outcome 4: Oxidation – Reduction Reactions
Identify and describe oxidation-reduction reactions.
(iii) Analyse and interpret information about oxidation-reduction processes.
Oxidants will be limited to: O
2, Cl2, Fe + , dilute acids (with metals), H 2O 2, I2,
,Cu2+,Cr2O7 /H+, OCl− , concentrated HNO3, IO3 ,BrO3 , MnO 2.
Reductants will be limited to: Zn, Mg, Fe, Cu, C, CO, CH4, H2, Fe2+, Br− , I − , H2S, SO , SO 2-, S
Information will include standard reduction potentials. This includes electrode potentials as a measure of relative oxidising and reducing strength and their use in predicting the preferred direction of an oxidation-reduction reaction
Applications will include galvanic cells and spontaneity of oxidation-reduction reactions selected from the oxidizing and reducing agents listed above. Principles of galvanic cells (details of particular examples such as dry cell will be provided as required).
Outcome 5: Organic Chemistry
(i) Describe the structure and characteristic reactions of organic compounds containing
(ii) Apply principles of the organic chemistry of selected functional groups. (iii)
Analyse information and apply principles of organic chemistry to problems that require integration of ideas.
The organic compounds described are limited to those containing no more than eight carbons.
In drawing structural formulae, students may use either the condensed or expanded forms.
Selected functional groups will be alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, ester, carboxylic acid, acyl chloride, primary amide, haloalkane and amine. i)
- action of oxidising agents on primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols - reaction with PCl5 , HCl or SOCl2 to form chloroalkanes.
- substitution and elimination reactions with OH- [Mechanistic details are expected to be taught but will not be examined]. ii)
- those where primary amines behave as bases.
- the use of Tollens’ or Benedict’s reagents to distinguish between aldehydes and
- preparation of acid chlorides and their reaction with water, ammonia, alcohols and amines - preparation and hydrolysis of esters including triesters of glycerol as examples of fats - glycine and alanine as examples of amino acids.
Structures of both constitutional isomers and stereo isomers (cis-trans and enantiomers).
Names of constitutional (structural) isomers and cis-trans isomers.
The different physical, chemical and biological behaviour of isomers.
Characteristic reactions include oxidations, eliminations and substitution reactions.
Reagents for oxidation reactions will be limited to:
Reagents for elimination reactions will be limited to: KOH in alcohol and concentrated H 2SO .
Problems requiring integration of ideas may include multi-step reaction schemes. The schemes may include reactions covered in earlier years (Form 6 or PSSC Chemistry).
Outcome 6: Extended Practical Investigation
Carry out an extended practical investigation into variations in the amount of a substance.
The extended practical investigation is carried out with teacher guidance. This means the teacher is supporting the student throughout the investigation but the whole process is student driven. The teacher’s support gives general information only eg broad questions, resource suggestions or possible new directions. The student report must be produced individually.
The extended practical investigation must include; a literature research on the role of the subject and impact of the aspect being varied, collection of quantitative data about some chemical substance or process and should involve either titration (acid-base, oxidation-reduction, or precipitation), colorimetry or other analytical techniques. It is not expected that pre-calibrated measuring equipment such as water test kits or dissolved oxygen meters will be used for these investigations.
Aspects of chemistry suitable for investigation include: environmental chemistry, consumer chemistry, food chemistry, kinetics, electrochemistry, and thermo-chemistry.
The investigation should only require equipment and/or chemicals that are easily obtainable to schools.
Teachers must use the marking schedule in the Appendix to assess students in this activity.
Outcome7: Practical Skills
Determine, using titration method, the concentration and composition of an oxidant or reductant with unknown concentration in an oxidation-reduction reaction.
Explanatory Notes 1.
Students must carry out the oxidation-reduction titration individually.
The concentration of the solution used and the composition of the original sample is determined by students working individually.
The oxidants or reductant used for this titration are restricted to those specified in Section 4.1 of this prescription.
Students will be assessed by a three-hour written examination worth 80% of the final mark and an internally assessed component worth 20% of the final mark. The principal, or his/her nominee, will certify that the prescription requirements have been fulfilled. External Assessment This prescription will be examined by a three-hour written paper. The weightings given to each topic within the examination will be approximately:
Atomic structure, bonding and related properties
Energetics of chemical and physical processes
Candidates may be required to apply knowledge, understanding and acquired skills to unfamiliar situations. Where required information lies outside the prescribed content areas, this information will be provided as resource material in the examination paper. This applies particularly to questions that address the third objective in this prescription. A copy of the periodic table giving element symbols, atomic numbers and molar masses will be included with the examination paper. Symbols, nomenclature, spelling and formatting will follow current IUPAC conventions as detailed in the Appendix. Internal Assessment (20%)
For the internal assessment, candidates will be required to carry out two assessment activities; an extended practical investigation and a practical skills task. The extended practical investigation will contribute to 15% of the overall assessment and the practical skills task will contribute 5% of the overall assessment. Extended Practical Investigation (15%) •
For the extended practical investigation, candidates are required to carry out an investigation into the variations in the amount of a substance. The investigation must include collection of quantitative data about some chemical substance or process, and should involve titration (acid-base, oxidation-reduction, or precipitation), colorimeter or other analytical techniques.
It is expected that students will spend about 12 hours of class time on this investigation.
A list of suggested topics is included in the Advisory Section. Students are not restricted to these topics.
Teachers must use the marking schedule in the Appendix to assess students in this activity.
The activity is an oxidation/reduction titration.
It is expected that this activity will be completed in about 2 hrs of class time.
Course work requirements, the assessment tasks and weightings given to each task should be clearly explained to students at the beginning of the year’s course. Results must be clearly recorded and maintained by teachers so that accurate information on each student’s progress is readily available.
At the beginning of each year, each school presenting students for the South Pacific Form Seven Certificate Chemistry assessment must complete an Internal Assessment Summary Form (CHEM-IA) and forward to SPBEA by the date set down by the Director.
At the start of the year students should be given a copy of the assessment statement to be used. The assessment statement and copies of all assessment tasks and assessment schedules used, as well as a sample of student responses to all internal assessment work undertaken, must be available for verification on request until 30 November of the year of the examination.
The moderation of Internal Assessment will be done in accordance with SPBEA policy as specified from time to time.
Assessment Schedule for Chemistry: Practical Investigation Acceptable Excellent PLANNING & DESIGN (14 marks)
Statement/prediction/question based on a
relationship or variable relevant to the
Varaible testing / Evidence of trialling of at least one
• Testing to determine the range of the
• Testing to determine the range of the
• Testing to determine the best way to
• Testing to determine the best way to
prediction but lacks the details needed for
• all key procedures stated in detail.
INFORMATION GATHERING (10 marks)
Wide range of information relevant to the
Some quantitative data collected which is
Quantitative data collected and based on
Sufficient quantitative data collected to
enable a valid, reliable conclusion to be
Data lies within typical limits of accuracy
Raw data can be accessed for processing.
PROCESSING (7 marks)
data. Analysis not completed to the point
trend/relationship/pattern (linear or non-
linear) to be accurately determined. All
graphical/table conventions are accurately
INTERPRETING (13 marks)
Links background information or the
results to the context of the investigation.
results and the context of the investigation.
Conclusion drawn from data and linked to
Describes errors or problems relevant to
Critically evaluates the method in terms of
accuracy, reliability and validity of the
findings, sources of error and limitations
of the investigation. Justifies the improvements/ modifications for further research.
REPORTING (6 marks)
Report is complete and references listed.
references in the approved format is given.
Can be read but spelling and grammatical
Report clear, concise and well organised in
all sections. No repetition or irrelevant
Notes: 1) Failure to reach acceptable level gains a zero mark. Assessment judgement is to the best performance standard. No marks other than those given in each section of the assessment schedule should be awarded.(Total: 50 marks / 55 marks if Calculations included) Assessment Schedule for Practical Skills Task Assessment Criteria Excellence
At least 3 titre values are recorded At least 3 titre values are recorded and At least 3 titre values are recorded and
and any 2 values fall within a any 2 values fall within a range of any 2 values fall within a range of 0.3mL.
Carry out Oxidation Reduction titration
The average titre value used in the The average titre values used in the calculation is within 0.4mL of the
calculation is within 1mL of the calculation is within 0.5mL of the expected answer, as determined by the
expected answer, as determined by expected answer, as determined by the assessor. the assessor.
Only titre values within 0.5mL of Only titre values within a range of Only titre values within a range of 0.3mL
the average are used in the 0.4mL of the average are used in the of the average are used in the calculation.
calculation. The concentration is calculation. The concentration of the The concentration of the original bleach is
concentration of the determined using the correct original bleach solution is determined. correctly determined and given to 3 oxidant or reductant procedure. Answers must have The answer is given with units of mol significant figures. in a solution of unknown concentration
One minor error can be accepted One minor error can be accepted
provided it does not change the provided it does not change the order
order of magnitude of the actual of magnitude of the actual answer. answer.
APPENDIX 2 SOUTH PACIFIC FORM SEVEN CERTIFICATE CHEMISTRY PRESCRIPTION – Internal Assessment RESEARCH REPORT GENERIC ASSESSMENT SCHEDULE Research LEVEL OF ACHIEVEMENT MINIMAL* EXCELLENT
consulted/used, and referenced accurately
Background Information (content)
Uses chemistry to fully explain the cause
Discussion includes variations which may
change the nature and/or intensity in the
(uses chemistry to explain cause and effect, with variations considered)
Relationships Identified and (* Note: Any level of achievement lower than minimal receives zero marks) APPENDIX 3 Quantities, Units, Symbols and Nomenclature to be used in University Entrance, Bursaries and Scholarships Chemistry Examination Papers
South Pacific Form Seven Certificate Chemistry examinations will use the following information, which has been based on International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) recommendations. Candidates should be encouraged to use this IUPAC terminology, but those who use other terminology will not be penalised if their answers indicate a clear understanding of the chemistry involved. Detailed information may be obtained from Packer (1996) and Mills et al (1988). General Chemistry
Symbols for the physical quantities, M, V, H, s, K, are written in italics (sloping letters). Any following subscripts will be in upright type. Symbols / Expressions common use M, molar mass, is the mass of one mole of a defined
substance and will be used for elements and compounds. Mr , relative molecular mass and A r , relative atomic mass, will not be used.
A looped l is not used in these abbreviations.
n, amount of substance, expressed in moles.
It is incorrect to use the term “number of moles”. (See details under “Amount of Substance” below.)
c, amount concentration, is expressed as moles per litre, also denoted by the format [ ].
Concentrations may also be written as mass concentration, expressed as grams per litre.
Composition of a mixture, commonly expressed as % w/V, %w/w and % V/V, will be used only after giving a clear definition of their meaning (eg grams per 100 mL, grams per 100 grams, mL per 100 mL respectively).
s (italic s), solubility, units as for concentration. Amount of Substance This is a physical quantity, symbol n (italic n), measured in a unit called the mole, which has the abbreviation mol. The term “number of moles” is to be avoided in favour of the “amount of substance”. In the same manner, the size of an object can be described in terms of its “length”, rather than its “number of metres”.
Enthalpy changes, ?H. kJ mol - 1
? r H0 , standard enthalpy of reaction. For example: 2H2 (g) + O2(g) ——> 2H 2O(I) ? rH0 (H2O, 298 K) = -570 kJ mol-1
The term mol-1 means one mole of reaction, which is determined by the chemical equation; ie 2 mol of H2 reacting with 1 mol of O2 to give 2 mol of H2O. ? f H0 , standard enthalpy of formation, per mole of product. For example, the standard enthalpy of formation of liquid water: H2(g) + ½O2(g) ——> H2O(I) ? rH0 (H2O I, 298 K) = -285 kJ mol-1 ? c H0 , standard enthalpy of combustion, per mole of substance burnt. For example, the standard enthalpy of combustion of hydrogen gas to give liquid water: H2 (g) + ½O2 (g) ——> 2H2 O(l) ? cH0 (H2 , g,298 K) = -285 kJ mol -1
The superscript 0 denotes a defined standard state.
The alternative superscript 0 (plimsol) will be acceptable.
A space is always left between any value and its unit, as well as between units for composite units.
? fus H, enthalpy of fusion (melting) ? vap H, enthalpy of vaporisation Standard Electrode Potential
Electrode potentials are defined as standard electrode potentials, E0 . Units are Volts, symbol V. eg Redox couple E0 / V not E0 ( V ) Zn2+ / Zn
–0.76 oxidant and reductant in different phases
+0.77 oxidant and reductant in same phase
Constants will be dimensionless, ie have no units, and will include:
Acid dissociation constant or acidity constant
From 1997, equilibrium constants will be written as pure numbers without units, in keeping with current IUPAC conventions. An explanation for this convention may be found in Packer (1996).
Kb , the base hydrolysis constant, will not be provided. pKa for -log 10 Ka -log10 ([H + ] / mol L -1 ) Chemical Formulae
These denote entities composed of more than one atom (molecules, simple and complex ions, groups of atoms etc). Eg
one mole of zinc phosphate comprising zinc and phosphate ions in a 3:2 ratio
one-fifth of a mole of potassium manganate VII (permanganate)
Indicates examples that are artificial and are used as a convenient way of calculating amounts of substance (moles).
Equations for Chemical Reactions H2(g) + Br2(g)
In the examination, only the first two styles will be used and expected to be employed by candidates. States of Aggregation
These are written in parentheses printed in italic type, immediately after the formula or substance and on the same line as chemical formula symbols. Eg s solid, l liquid (preferably serif font l, not looped l ), g gas or vapour aq aqueous solution (dissolved in water) HCl (g) hydrogen chloride in the gaseous state
Symbols for Particles and Nuclear Reactions Temperature
Symbol p. Units are Pascals (Pa) , or more commonly kPa. Standard pressure, p0 , = 105 Pa
IUPAC Approved Spelling
Spelling of the element with atomic number 16 is the original English spelling of sulfur. Derived ions have consistent spelling:
Graph Axes and Table Headings
Labelled as quantity/unit eg c / mol L-1 and not c (mol L-1 ). Only values will then be written on the axes or in a table. Organic Chemical Formulae
Information conveyed Example: lactic acid empirical molecular formula structural
l l // H – C – C – C l l \ H O–H OH
The structural formulae in (b) are referred to as condens ed structural formulae. Organic chemical nomenclature
IUPAC conventions will be followed. There is ongoing discussion on some of the following naming. Candidates will be given full credit for alternative naming if an unambiguous structure is implied. Some examples are: Structure IUPAC name
CH3 – CH – CH2 – C – OH
Br – CH2– CH – CH2 – C – CH3 l Cl
Mills I, Cvitas T, Homann K, Kallay N and Kutchitsu K. Quantities, Units and Symbols in Physical Chemistry. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Melbourne, 1988. Packer, JE The Basic Vocabulary and Language of Chemistry. Copies available from the author c/- Chemistry Department, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1996. CHEM– IA
SOUTH PACIFIC FORM SEVEN CERTIFICATE Internal Assessment Summary Form CHEMISTRY Country: ____________________School: ____________________________________
Brief Description Weighting Note:
Be specific about dates, not just Week 3 Term 1, etc.
Assessment Schedules are provided in the prescription. Teachers must use these.
SOUTH PACIFIC FORM SEVEN CERTIFICATE CHEMISTRY CHEM – 1 IA MARK CAPTURE FORM Country: ____________________School: ____________________________________
Surname First Name /50 or /55 SOUTH PACIFIC FORM SEVEN CERTIFICATE CHEMISTRY CHEM – 2 IA MARK CAPTURE FORM Country: ____________________School: ____________________________________
Surname First Name /50 or /55 ADVISORY SECTION
Topics for Extended Practical Investigation
South Pacific Form Seven Certificate Chemistry Summary
Teacher Guidelines for Extended Practical Investigation
TIMELINE FOR FORM 7 CHEMISTRY Week
Textbooks and Workbooks:
13 Chemistry Student Notes (Wales and Wig nall)
Year 13 Chemistry - Practical Workbook – ABA Books
Core Practicals for Year 13 Howarth, Rendel and Wooff – Longman
University Bursary Chemistry DR Barnes-Graham ESA Publications
Chemistry - A Senior Course Woof, Howarth, Oughton and Rendle
Year 13 Chemistry Croucher – Pathfinder Series
Chemistry Videos – Classroom videos in Australia (e.g. I came I saw I redoxed, Atom Bond – the atom with goldent e-, Atoms and their e-s) – on Water from VEA in Australia
Fundamental Concepts in Chemistry – Brady/Hollumn
Suitable Topics for Investigation
Recovery of silver (exposed film) Sulphite in cement
Chloride in cheese Calcium/magnesium in water/milk
Vitamic C content of tablets/drinks/food
Hypochlorite in bleach/pool water Sulphur dioxide content in dried fruits/wine/processed meat Ethanol content in wine/perfume etc (see ChemNZ 1998) Iodide content of brass Oxygen content of water Iron in iron tablets, steel wool etc
Acid -Base Titrations :
Acidity in wine Citric acid in drinks/fruit Lactic acid in sour cream/milk Ammonium sulphate in fertilizer Calcium carbonate in egg shells/sea shells/rocks/coral/water (tap) Stability of aspirin solution Antacid effectiveness Ammonia in cleaners Carbon dioxide in breath Free fatty acids in cooking oils
Glucose content of tablets/food/drinks/wine (3 methods) Iron content of foods Phosphate content of washing powder/soil Fluoride in water
Not considered suitable for Level 3 investigation:
Extraction of oils/caffeine Analysis of aspirin for acid in various tablets Analysis of carbon dioxide or preservative in soft drinks
SOUTH PACIFIC FORM SEVEN CERTIFICATE CHEMISTRY - SUMMARY STRUCTURE, BONDING and RADIOACTIVITY
* describe kinetic theory as it applies to solids, liquids and gases
* compare and contrast fission and fusion reactions
* recognise the relationship between temperature and kinetic energy
* describe diffusion in terms of particles and particle size
* summarise changes of state on heating a solid from zero K including
* discuss typical uses of radioactivity
* write electron configurations for the first 36 elements using s, p, d
* describe reactions as endothermic and exothermic
* define ? fH, ? cH, ? rH and write the relevant equations
* describe trends across a period and down a group for I.E., atomic
* calculate ? rH from given data including ? fH, ? cH
and ionic radii, electronegativity and give reasons for these trends
* review of year 12 ideas – ionic, metallic and covalent bonds
* draw Lewis diagrams for simple covalent molecules of 2-6 valence
* review of year 12 ideas for equilibrium including Kc calculations
* define Ks and use it to calculate solubility
* use the shape to predict the polarity of molecules
* use ionic product to predict precipitation
* describe weak intermolecular arising from instantaneous and
* predict the effect of a common ion on solubility
permanent dipoles including hydrogen bonding
* define acids, bases, conjugate acid, conjugate base, amphiprotic,
* relate the bonding to the physical properties of substances
* calculate the pH of strong acids and bases
* calculate the pH of weak acids, weak bases, acidic and basic salts
* describe the properties of group 17 elements
* discuss the relative oxidising strength of chlorine, bromine and
* define buffers and write equations for buffer action
* describe how the halogens are produced commercially
* calculate the pH of buffer solutions and the acid/base ratio at given
* describe the occurrence of group 17 elements in nature
* describe the reactions of the halogens with water
* state the relative concentrations of species in given aqueous
* describe the characteristic properties of transition metals and their
* discuss the properties of aqueous solutions in relation to the species
* give examples of transition metals with variable oxidation state,
present i.e. conductance, f.p./b.p. change, Ph
coloured ions, catalysts, and complex ions.
* write balanced ionic equations for a range of precipitation reactions * list common precipitation rules * identify common ions in solution by simple chemical tests
* give the general formula for amino acids and the structures of
* recognise and identify all the Bursary functional groups
* apply naming rules to draw structures and vice versa
* discuss the reason for optical isomerism in most amino acids
* recognise structural, geometrical and optical isomers
* know how amino acids combine to form proteins
* recognise substitution, elimination addition and condensation
* give general formula for fats and oils
* recall year 12 properties and reactions of alkanes, alkenes and
* know how to write equations for the formation of a fat from glycerol
* know how to hydrolyse a fat and describe the saponification process
* name and classify 1°, 2° and 3° alcohols
* know the structural differences between fats and oils
* describe the physical properties of alcohols (solubility and b.p.)
* know the difference between condensation polymers and addition
* write equations for combustion, substitution (by Cl), elimination and
* write equations for the formation of polyesters and polyamides and
* describe condensation reactions of alcohols with carboxylic acids.
the hydrolysis of polyesters and polyamides
* discuss polymerisation in proteins and bonding between the strands
* use reactions with mild oxidising agents to identify aldehydes
* use oxidation numbers to recognise redox reactions
* write half equations for a range of oxidising and reducing agents
* write balanced equations for redox reactions
* describe the substitution and elimination reactions of alkyl halides
* identify the species involved in a redox reaction by observation
* recognise common oxidising and reducing agents
* recall titration technique from year 12
* carry out titrations and calculations for redox reactions – simple
* describe amine reactions as bases and as ligands (with Cu2+)
with one equation or more complex with two equations
* name and give examples of carboxylic acids
* construct simple electrochemical cells from cell diagrams
* recall physical properties of carboxylic acids
* identify the anode and cathode reactions
* calculate the electrode potential of a cell
* recall reactions of carboxylic acids to make esters, acid chlorides
* use E° values to predict the spontaneity of a reaction
* relate electrochemical cells to every day use of batteries
* name and give examples of acid chlorides, amides, esters
* describe physical properties of acid chlorides, amides, esters
* describe the common reactions of acid chlorides, amides, esters
* summarise methods of preparation of acid chlorides, amides, esters
Teacher Guidelines for Extended Practical Investigation: The following guidelines are supplied to enable teachers to carry out valid and consistent assessment for the extended practical investigation. Context/setting: Students will carry out an individual extended practical investigation and present their findings. The method of presentation will be determined by negotiation with the teacher before the start of the investigation. E.g as a booklet, on a computer disc, as a seminar, as a Science Fair display. It is recommended that the investigation be relevant to the application of chemistry to people and/or the environment. Conditions: Students will need a significant period of time to carry out the work for this assessment. It is recommended that students have 10 – 12 hours of class time to complete the practical work. All students must keep a logbook that records their progress, raw data and calculations. The logbook will be submitted with the final report. Students should research their topic using a variety of methods e.g. searching the internet, reading reference books, consulting a scientist. Background information could include reports on scientific work related to the topic, experimental procedure and/or information about the substances involved. The students are expected to carry out preliminary trials to establish suitable concentrations, quantities and a range of variables. These trials may be “small-scale”. Data from any preliminary work should be recorded in the logbook. It is expected that students will make up their own solutions apart from bench reagents. Primary quantitative data must be collected by an analytical technique – acid/base, oxidation- reduction or precipitation titrations, gravimetric, colorimetric. (Pre-calibrated measuring equipment such as commercial water test kits or dissolved oxygen meters are not to be used for the collection of raw data). The work must be authenticated, by the teacher, as the original work of the student. This can achieved by checking the logbook at regular intervals during the investigation. This encourages students to use a scientific, organized approach to their calculations leading to their conclusion. At a later date an independent person, who is not in a position to interview the student, should be able to use the logbook and the report to assess the work against the achievement standard criteria. Any calculation procedures should be described so that the independent assessor could use the data to obtain the same answers. The student planning should be checked before students do their investigation. The plan may be marked at this stage. Resource requirements Teachers must ensure that the investigation can be carried out safely without the need for special equipment or chemicals that are not readily available or reasonably priced.
Analytical procedures used by students may be the same but each student investigation must have a different purpose. Students will need access to suitable materials and equipment over the period of the investigation., Students must have access to the marking schedule. Additional information The purpose (aim) is to investigate variations in the amount of a substance. a)
Amount – quantities expressed in moles
across a range of different products e.g. sulphate in 5 different soluble fertilizers: calcium in 5 different types of milk.
with respect to one other variable e.g. lactic acid in sour cream over time: dissolved oxygen in water at different temperatures:
The major focus for this investigation is that the student can plan and carry out a complete investigation with very little input from the teacher or another qualified person. Teachers should note that students are expected to have done some formative work before attempting this investigation. Where a consultant is used, details of the advice they have provided must be documented in the log book and their contribution acknowledged in the final report. Student must not use data collected for Practical skills (the oxidation-reduction titration) for this investigation.
Teacher Guidelines for Practical Skills:
The following guidelines are supplied to enable teachers to carry out valid and consistent assessment for the titration. Context/setting: The teacher selects and makes the unknown solution for the titration. The teacher must determine the oxidation reduction reaction and hence the titration to be carried out to determine the concentration of the unknown oxidant or reductant. Conditions: This is to be an individual practical activity. If it is necessary, students may share equipment and/or solution, but they must collect and process only their own data. The suggeste d time is 1- 2 hours, which need not be continuous, provided both the practical work and the processing of data are carried out under supervised conditions. Resource requirements: Students should be familiar with the titration techniques prior to the assessment. Standard titration equipment. Standard solutions and required reagents and the unknown solution. Additional information: Teachers should carry out the given procedure prior to the student practical assessment to determine the expected outcome for the solution used. Students must not use the data collected for this activity for the extended practical investigation.
Recognising and managing mental health issues at work The rationale for training and evidence of effectiveness Introduction This paper develops some of the rationale for the effectiveness of trainingemployees in the recognition and management of mental health issues andthen explores available evidence in this area. This is not an academic paper, although references and further reading are
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE PRODUCT DESCRIPTION Aquamid® is a non-absorbable, injectable transparent, hydrophilic gel for soft tissue augmentation. Aquamid® consists of approximately 2.5% cross-linked polyacrylamide and 97.5% non pyrogenic water. Aquamid® is a biocompatible, non-biodegradable polyacrylamide hydrogel. The hydrogel is supplied in a sterile, pre-filled 1 mL syringe sealed with