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Development of standards for sinhala computing
1st Regional Conference on ICT and E-Paradigms24th – 26th June 2004, Colombo, Sri Lanka
Development of Standards for Sinhala Computing
and Aruni Goonetilleke
Sinhala speakers. A similar initiative, not covered in thispaper, is being carried out both in Sri Lanka and abroad,
Information technology has been used in Sri Lanka for
about 20 years, but to a great extent, its use has beenlimited to those with a knowledge of English. And as theseare a minority of the population, the larger proportion of
2. Local Language Support
Sri Lanka’s citizens has not been able to make use of theinformation revolution.
A number of initiatives to introduce Sinhala computing
A number of inter-related elements are required to support
have been made from the 1980s. We outline the progress
a given language in a computer system. These are:
of this work, and describe the work done by CINTEC and
how letters and words are
represented in a system. Each letter or other symbol is
The encoding of Sinhala in a standard manner to facilitate
represented by a code. For documents to be portable across
information interchange, the development of Sinhala fonts,
systems, they must be encoded in a standard format. For
and Sinhala keyboards are described. We present the
example, the ASCII code is one (but not the only) method
rationale of the design, and not simply the final standard.
how text is represented on a screen or printer. The
same character may be written in several ways, with scope
Currently most computer operating systems, databases and
from a keyboard, pen, voice recognition
applications in Sri Lanka work only in English. However,
system, etc. The most common text input method is the
the majority of Lankans are more familiar with Sinhala or
keyboard. Both the keyboard layout, i.e., the assignment of
Tamil, and prefer to use IT in their own language. This has
keys to letters, and key sequences, i.e., what sequence of
resulted in a gap between how people want to use
keys yields a given character, should be defined.
computers, and what today's computers can do.
for the language. In addition to text
Although the corporate sector in this country operates
handling, each application may have local language menus,
mainly in English, small businesses and the government
work mostly in Sinhala or Tamil. Individuals usecomputers for personal work, such as e-mail, at home or in
such as spelling checkers.
telecentres. Lankans working abroad need to communicatewith their relatives in Sri Lanka. The dispersion andeffective use of IT in these sectors require that they support
3. Review of Current Sinhala Technology
A number of Sinhala fonts and applications are currently
Countries such as Japan, Korea and Thailand, among
others, had similar problems when they started usingcomputers. However, Japanese, Korean or Thai language is
– which may be used with any application and
now standard on computers used in those countries, and it
which bundle an application (e.g. a word
is common for people in those countries to use computers
and applications in their own language.
Although these systems are disparate, many of them share
Why then didn't local-language computing become
common in Sri Lanka? One reason is that unlike in theabove countries, a number of Lankans, including many
8-bit character set:
Almost all current fonts are based on
decision and opinion makers, are
proficient in English.
an 8-bit character encoding, which limits them to less than
Also, people assume that using IT requires a knowledge of
English, and have not demanded a change. Another reasonis the small size of the Lankan market.
Character codes based on keyboard layout:
current fonts map Sinhala symbols to the codes used by
This situation is now changing. A significant number of
Roman letters in ASCII. The two most common mapping
non-English-speaking persons want to use Information
schemes are based on the Wijesekera keyboard layout and
Technology (IT). This is not limited to the use of
the “phonetic” layout (i.e., where Sinhala letters are placed
computers, but devices such as phones, game consoles etc.
on the same keys as their English sound-alikes, e.g. ක is onthe 'k' key and
This paper documents the initiatives, by a number of
persons and organisations, to make IT readily available to
Consequently, the codes allocated to Sinhala letters are
based on the codes of the corresponding English letters. In
4. Review of the Development of
a “phonetic” mapping the letter ක has the code Hex 6B,
Computing in Sinhala
which is the ASCII code for the letter k. In a Wijesekeramapping, on the other hand, ක is on the key for 'l' (el), and
A number of efforts were made to introduce Sinhala
is therefore assigned the code Hex 6C (ASCII for l).
language computing in Sri Lanka. Two pioneering efforts
In addition to the vowels (අ, ඉ etc.) and consonants (ස, ජ
by DMS and Metropolitan in the 1980s did not gain
etc.), the kombuva
( )and other symbols ( , , etc.) are
widespread use. A patent dispute between these two
each allocated a key and a code. Symbols such as the al-
companies threatened the development of Sinhala language
are displayed above or below the
computing, but was eventually settled out of court. It
previous character. A Sinhala letter is represented by one
should be noted that bit-mapped displays and printers were
or more codes; e.g., ( ක = + ක, ක = + ක + ,
not in widespread use at that time, and both these systems
As Sinhala letters are of differing widths (and heights),
Thereafter, Wijeya Graphics produced a Sinhala font for
some systems provide two or more pili
of differing widths,
Macintosh, which was widely used in publishing. The
to be used with various letters, e.g., ප and න. Also, some
University of Colombo developed a Sinhala screen output
for television displays that was used to provide election
ක, ර and ළ, take non-standard forms, and are
thus represented by individual codes.
result displays in the three languages Sinhala, Tamil andEnglish.
Use of an 8-bit character code, especially one using the
same codes as English letters for Sinhala symbols,
4.1 The Sinhala Alphabet and Alphabetical
simplifies usage as applications need no modification touse Sinhala. As far as an application is concerned, it deals
with the same codes in Sinhala as in English.
The requirement for a standard code was identified in the
mid-eighties and the Computer and Information
3.1 Issues with existing Sinhala packages
Technology Council of Sri Lanka (CINTEC) together withthe Natural Resources, Energy and Science Authority of
Although existing Sinhala packages serve their intended
Sri Lanka (NARESA) formed the Committee on
purpose, i.e., allowing Sinhala documents to be produced,
Adaptation of National Languages in IT (CANLIT), which
and to use applications in Sinhala, they face a number of
agreed on a unique Sinhala alphabet and alphabetical
order. No immediate action was taken on Tamil, due to the
Lack of needed letters:
Due to the constraints of the 8-bit
encoding, some existing systems do not support all Sinhalaletters, e.g.
CANLIT defined the Sinhala alphabet as having 16
ඍ (iru-yanna). In addition, due to keyboard
limitations, some letters need to be entered using function
vowels, 2 semi consonants and 41 consonants as shown in
keys, keycodes, or the “insert symbol” feature.
the CINTEC publication of 1990 . 13 consonantmodifiers were also identified. A new character to denote
Problems with Pili:
some systems provide only one keti-
“fa” (ෆ) was introduced. CANLIT also agreed on the
, for example, which is used for both tall letters (e.g.,
alphabetical order with a slight modification. This exercise
ව) and short ones (e.g., ග). Such fonts are not visually
took a representative group of language and technology
attractive. A similar problem arises with the length of the
experts several months to arrive at a consensus solution
. Another problem is the separation of letters andassociated pili
when intra-word spacing is increased for
A standard Sinhala encoding, known as SLASCII, was
approved by the Sri Lanka Standards Institute as SLS 1134in1996 . SLASCII was the basis for, but differs in many
Collation and Searching
do not work properly, as the
aspects with, the Unicode for Sinhala approved later in
encoding of letters is not based on their collation sequence.
Also, the use of separate codes for the kombuva
complicates the collation algorithm.
4.2 Unicode Compatible Sinhala Code
A standard encoding known as Unicode has been
developed to handle all the world's scripts. Unicode
The most significant problem with existing systems,
includes provision for many languages, including Sinhala
however, is not any of the above, but the lack of a
and Tamil, among other Indic languages. Most modern
standard. Text entered using one system must be read using
computer systems, including Windows XP and Unixes,
the same system. Even though most Wijesekera-based
systems use similar encodings, they differ in certaincharacters. It has therefore become mandatory to send a
The existence of a draft code for Sinhala proposed to the
copy of the font together with a Sinhala document, unless
ISO 10646 / Unicode Working Group, by researchers
one knows that the recipient already has the font. This has
based in Europe was first brought to our notice in the late
made Sinhala e-mail impracticable, and slowed the use of
eighties. This distorted the Sinhala character set with
several glaring errors and omissions. For example, theletters ඇ and ඈ (which do not appear in other Indic
The lack of a standard Sinhala keyboard not only causes
languages), had been moved to the end of the character set.
difficulties for typists, but has made it impractical formanufacturers to provide Sinhala keyboards. This in turn
In 1997, Sri Lanka submitted a proposal for the Sinhala
has created a further roadblock for Sinhala computing.
character code at the Unicode working group meeting inCrete, Greece This proposal competed with proposals fromUK, Ireland and the USA. The Sri Lankan draft was finally
accepted with slight modifications. This was ratified at the
Sinhala implementations, which are all symbol-based, and
1998 meeting of the working group held at Seattle, USA
decided that none of them met the above requirements. It
and the Sinhala Code Chart was included in Unicode 
was therefore decided to follow the Unicode standard,
Version 3.0. SLS 1134 was also accordingly revised in
which is identical to SLS 1134 and ISO 10646.
However, it was observed that the Unicode encoding
suffered from a number of shortcomings, which
4.3 Sinhala Computer Keyboard
nevertheless can be rectified without modifying the
As a large number of Sinhala typists were using the
government approved Wijesekera Keyboard, CINTEC first
• lack of encodings for bandi akuru
such as ක,
developed and obtained government approval for the“Extended Wijesekera Keyboard for Electronic
• lack of encodings for the yansaya
”, the intention being the introduction of
Daisywheel and Golf-ball electronic typewriters then usedas an interface for microcomputer output. This included the
• lack of guidance on the use of multiple vowel
new character fa (ෆ) and 3 other additional key positions.
This layout was again modified for use with a standard
• lack of guidance on the encoding of non-standard
4.4 Recent initiatives
It was decided to document these as a revision of the SLS
1134 standard . In addition, the sections of the standard
In December 2002, CINTEC formed a committee on
on definitions and the description of the Sinhala language
The committee decided that work should be carried out in
When doing so, the committee decided to avoid any
four major areas in order to enable computing in Sinhala.
changes to the encodings specified in Unicode, and also to
follow Unicode conventions whenever feasible.
• A standard encoding of Sinhala characters
5.1 Conjunct letters (
බ ඳ අකර)
Unicode does not encode any conjunct letters, such as න.
Such letters are a shorthand for writing a pure consonant(i.e., a consonant with the intrinsic vowel removed)
• Availability of standards-based applications and
followed by another consonant. E.g. නද = න. Both
representations may be used interchangably. It was
The functions of this committee were incorporated into the
therefore decided to use the Unicode zero width joiner
ICTA Language Requirements working Group in January
(ZWJ) code to indicate when a conjunct letter is to be used.
2004. The standardisation work has been carried out by the
E.g., න + + ද = නද, න + + zwj + ද = න. The zero-width
SLSI Sinhala Working Group since August 2003.
joiner is a special Unicode code which is used to indicatethat the two adjacent letters are joined.
The first three are described in the following sections.
Work on the fourth is still on-going.
The committee compiled a list of conjunct Sinhala letters
5.2 Yansaya and Rakaransaya
An encoding is a standard for representing letters and
A frequent critisism of Unicode is the lack of codes for the
words as binary data. The committee agreed on the
. The Unicode documents fail to
following requirements of the character encoding.
mention these two symbols. However, we realised that thisomission was deliberate, as neither of these symbols are
• It must be able to represent all contemporary and
Sinhala letters. Rather, they are abreviations for the letters
ය and ර respectively, when they follow a pure consonant.
E.g., සත' is the conventional way of writing සතය and මත
• It should facilitate collation and searching.
As such words are generally spelled using the yansaya
A language such as Sinhala may be encoded in several
, it was initially proposed to represent a ය or a
ways. For example, each symbol may be assigned a code;
ර following a pure consonant using the relevant symbol.
e.g., ක may be represented as + ක + . Alternatively,
However, some words, such as මලර ජ and පසය ල, do not
each letter, such as ක , may be assigned a single code.
use the constructs. We were thus faced with twoalternatives:
Unicode represents each vowel or consonant by a code,
and uses another code for each vowel sign, which modifies
• encode the common case without any special codes;
a consonant; e.g., ක is represented by two codes, ක +
e.g., ත + + ර = ත and use the code zero-width non-
. This approach follows the linguistic structure of Indic
(zwnj) to indicate when the construct should not
languages such as Sinhala, whose basic unit is a syllable
be formed; e.g., ත+ + zwnj + ර = තර
formed by following a consonant with a vowel.
• use the code zero-width joiner
(zwj) to indicate when
The committee considered the encodings used in existing
should be formed;e.g., ත + + zwj + ර = ත, ත + + ර = තර.
The first alternative yields a shorter code sequence for the
6. Fonts and Font Display
more common case, and also follows the Unicodeconvention that the common case is encoded without
A font is a representation of the symbols in a script, for
special codes. However, the committee selected the second
display on a screen or on a printer. Legacy fonts comprise a
one-to-one mapping between codes and glyphs
, i.e., theshapes displayed. However, the Unicode encoding for
Keying the sequence ත + + ර would otherwise have
Sinhala (and other Indic languages) use a sequence
automatically produced a ත, even if not desired by the
codes to represent each glyph. Therefore, a Unicode
user. As the recommended keyboard has specific keys for
Sinhala font must be able to handle such mappings,
the ' and 1, users would use these keys to generate the
e.g., න + + zwj + ද + + zwj + ර = න.
, and the above key sequence forproducing තර.
Newer font technologies can handle such many-to-one
mappings. One such technology, which is supported by
Using the zwj to produce the yansaya
both the Windows XP and Linux platforms, is OpenType
which are forms of conjunct letters, allows us to use the
. As this technology is widely used, we decided to
same representation for all conjunct letters.
concentrate our font development efforts on OpenType.
One method of implementing a Sinhala font is to produce
a glyph for each letter, such as ක , ක9 or
, though less common today, is used to
number of such glyphs, if every possible letter is to be
represent the letter ර preceding another letter. For example
represented, will exceed 6000. The Lake House has
the word කරම may also be written as කර . This construct
implemented such a font, as it allows them to have full
represents a pure consonant (ර) followed by a letter, and
control over the appearance of each letter. However, such
may be encoded similarly to a conjunct letter using a zero-
width joiner; e.g., ක + ර + + zwj + ම = කර .
Another approach is to have a glyph for each base letter,
The sequence රය presents an interesting case. It may be
and to position the pili
around it. This yields a very small
written as රය, ර or යර ; e.g., ආරය, ආර or ආයර. The
font. However, in letters such as ට or ද, the pili
second form is represented by ර + + zwj + ය. The
simply placed above or below the letter, but form an
sequence for the third form was not obvious, but was
integral part of the letter. Other letters such as ර and ර,
finally defined as ර + + zwj + ය + + zwj + ය.
have the pili
in non-standard positions. Additionally, sinceletters are of differing widths, the widths of the associated
5.4 A Model of Sinhala text
should also differ. For these reasons, although pili
positioning may be suitable for applications such as mobile
When considering the above cases, it was seen that
devices, it does not provide the quality required for print
conjunct letters, yansaya
represent combinations of two or three letters, where the
Therefore, most general-purpose Sinhala fonts take a
initial letter or letters are pure consonants. Such
hybrid approach, and include some glyphs with in-built
combinations may also be written as separate letters. We
, and some, e.g., the kombuva
constructed the following model for the encoding of all
separate glyphs. This aproach leads to another problem,
namely, that the kombuva
visually precedes the consonant,
• A base Sinhala letter; i.e., a vowel or a consonant, is
but is logically stored following it, and that some vowel
signs, e.g., in ක , surround the consonant on two sides.
OpenType cannot handle such cases, which need operating
• A pure consonant, or a consonant with a vowel, is
represented by two codes, one for the consonant, andone for the associated sign (vowel sign or al-lakuna
6.1 Operating System Support
• All conjuncts are represented by a sequence of letters
Older operating systems such as Windows 95 only
joined by zero-width-joiner codes. All letters other
supported 8-bit fonts. Newer systems, such as Windows
2000, support Unicode, but do not handle “complexscripts” such as Sinhala properly. Although Windows XP
5.5 Non-Standard Letters
does support complex scripts, it does not correctly handleSinhala.
Some Sinhala letters are written in non-standard forms,
and are represented by separate codes in current fonts, e.g.,
Unicode support on Windows is provided by a module
ළ. However, ළ is not a different letter, but simply the form
called the Uniscribe Unicode Script Processor. We
of the letter murthaja-la
with a paapilla
. Therefore, it is
collaborated with Microsoft to ensure that this
incoprorated the features needed for Sinhala. The versionof Uniscribe released with Office 2003 supports Sinhala,
take special forms when combining with some
and correctly positions the kombuva
before its base letter.
characters. For example: ක + = ක, ර + = ර. In thesecases too, we took the position that the encoding should be
Linux systems employ a number of text handling
based on the logical
vowel sign, and not the shape
mechanisms. The Pango library provides Unicode support
in Linux, and is expected to support Sinhala.
Microsoft produced an OpenType Sinhala font named
“Iskoola Pota”. We worked with Microsoft to ensure thatthis font incorporated the features specified in the SLS1134 standard. This font is currently in Beta release.
keyboard model, and allow efficient typing.
Although text may be input to a computer in many ways,
7.2 Design Principles
such as OCR, handwriting and speech, the most commonmethod of text entry remains the keyboard. The 101-key
After considering several options, the committee decided
computer keyboard has, with minor variations, become the
on the following principles in the design of the Wijesekera-
standard keyboard which is used for many languages. Thus
our objective in the keyboard area was to specify standardsfor Sinhala text entry on such keyboards.
1. Retain all common letters in the same places as the
We identified four types of keyboards for further
2. The 1st-row (number-row) keys (except the left-most)
to be mapped to the same numbers and symbols as in
• The Wijesekera keyboard, which is used with both
3. Have only one form of the al-lakuna
and each pilla
• “Phonetic” keyboards, in which key assignment is
the keyboard (the typewriter keyboard has separate
keys for the different forms of the al-lakuna
• Transliteration schemes, in which text is typed as a
4. Do not have any “half letters” on the keyboard (as the
first part of a bandi akura
). Bandi akuru
• Consonant-vowel sequence keyboards, in which the
constucted pressing a join
key between the two
consonant is typed first, followed by the vowel
5. The sequence of keys to be typed to produce a
India has defined a keyboard layout, called Inscript, which
character be the same sequence as in writing;
provides a standard way to type all Indian scripts.
e.g., + ක + + = ක9; ක + 1 + = = ක.
Microsoft had developed a modification of Inscript forSinhala as well. This was a consonant-vowel sequence
Although this requires more keystrokes than in a
consonant-modifier method (e.g., ක + ඕ-modifier =
ක9), It was adopted to retain compatibility with
The committee considered this keyboard, and was of the
opinion that it did not meet our needs. This position wasvalidated at the Sinhala Language in IT seminar held in
The keyboard layout was designed based on the above .
June 2003, where it was unanimously decided to use the
Most letters were retained on the same key as on the
Wijesekera keyboard. Therefore, the committee decided to
typewriter keyboard, but the symbols which were on the 1st
initially standardise the Wijesekera keyboard.
row were moved to other keys. Although we would have
Nevertheless, it was recognised that the Wijesekera
liked to have used only the unshifted and shifted keys, as
keyboard had several shortcomings, and that we should
there are more letters and pili
than the available
design a more optimal Sinhala keyboard. Such a keyboard
(unshifted+shifted) keys, we needed to place some symbols
may well be a consonant-vowel sequence type.
It was also realised that the sequence of keys used to
Possible alternatives were to place these symbols on
produce a given letter was independent of the keyboard
control- keys or alt- keys. The standard followed by most
layout, and that several layouts (e.g., a Wijesekera-based
European etc. keyboards, is to use the right-hand alt- (also
one and a phonetic one) may use the same key sequence.
known as ctrl-alt or alt-gr) key to enter additionalcharacters, leaving the left-hand alt- key for applications. We decided to follow the same convention.
7.1 The Wijesekera Keyboard
Infrequently used letters such as ඏ (ilu) and kundaliya,
This form of keyboard was originally designed for manual
typewriters. It has the feature that all of the dead keys
, i.e.,where the carriage does not move when the key is struck,
In the typewriter keyboard, sagngnaka
letters, such as ඟ
are one the extreme left of the keyboard, due to design
and ඳ, were produced by pressing a special key before the
requirements of manual typewriters. Therefore, the al-
corresponding “ordinary” letter. In order to make it easier
, etc. are all on the leftmost keys.
to remember, it was decided to assign each sagngnaka
Also, as manual typewriters only support one language, no
letter to the alt-gr state of the same key as its “ordinary”
consideration was given for compatibilty with English
letter; e.g., alt-gr-ග = ඟ. The total number of keystrokes to
keyboard. For example, the number keys were shited to the
type a sagngnaka letter is thus the same as in the typewriter
right by two places, and the puncuation marks appeared in
Keys were also assigned to the yansaya
, ' rakaransaya
We had two conflicting objectives in standardising the
, ර and punctuation marks. We attempted to keep
punctuation either in the same position as on either the US-ASCII keyboard, or the Sinhala typewriter keyboard, but
1. Retain compatibility with the Wijesekera typewriter
were not completely successful. In particular, the single
and double quotes are placed on the “Z” key, which is not
2. Retain compatibility with the English (US-ASCII)
In addition, we needed to be compliant with the Windows
7.3 Other Keyboards
When designing the Wijesekera-based keyboard, it was
Our initial objective in this subject was to increase the use
accepted that better keyboard layouts and key sequences
of Sinhala on the Internet, and thereby make the Internet
exist, just as the DVORAK keyboard layout is better than
more useful to non-English speakers. However, whilst
the QWERTY layout. However, it was recognised that
undertaking this work, we realised that our task was
attemting to design a new keyboard layout at this stage
broader. Our present objective is to make using computers,
would not only consume more time, but also hinder
and other devices such as mobile phones, in Sinhala as
acceptance among current typists who are familiar with the
convenient and obvious
as it is in English.
Wijesekera keyboard. Therefore, the design of an“optimal” keyboard for Sinhala was left for a later stage.
We believe that our work in the standardisation of the
Such a keyboard may well use a consonant-modifier
character encoding and the keyboard will assist in this task,
keying sequence, as used in the Tamil99 keyboard.
Some current fonts, e.g. Kaputa, use a “phonetic”
The next step is to disseminate the language support,
keyboard layout, in which each Sinhala symbol is mapped
keyboards, etc. througout the country, and to build
to the key of a similar-sounding English letter. This
awareness among users, potential users, web developers
approach has the drawback that some Sinhala letters, such
and application developers, that this technology exists, and
as ත, ද and ෂ, have no English equivalents. Also, the
is advantageous. We have embarked on this process, and
assignment of the pili
is somewhat arbitrary.
have started training and awareness programmes, as well asapproaching hardware and software vendors.
Another approach is to use transliteration, in which a
string of English characters (with or without capitals) is
We have also initiated a parallel programme to identify,
mapped to each Sinhala letter, e.g., chi = ච, bhoo = භ.
and address, issues of using IT in Tamil.
Samanala is one such scheme which has been used for
The authors wish to thank the members of the CINTEC,
many years. Many people use such schemes informally to
Sinhala Fonts Committee, the ICTA Language
send Sinhala e-mail, SMS, etc. to friends using Roman
Requirements Working Group, and the SLSI Sinhala
Working Group, as well as all others who provided
We recognised that many casual Sinhala users, who do not
use a pre-printed Sinhala keyboard, need either a phoneticor transliteration-based keyboard. We did not, however,attempt to standardise is such a keyboard at this time.
 V.K. Samaranayake, S.T. Nandasara, J.B. Disanayaka,
8. Application Support
A.R. Weerasinghe, H. Wijayawardhana, AnIntroduction to UNICODE for Sinhala Characters,
To use Sinhala effectively, applications should support the
UCSC Technical Report 03/01, University of
language. At the base level, applications should correctly
input, store and display Sinhala text, possibly in
 Sri Lanka Standards Institute, Draft Sri Lanka
conjunction with other languages. Conformance with
Standard Sinhala Character Code for Information
Unicode simplifies this task, as any Unicode-compliant
application will handle Sinhala without modification.
http://www.fonts.lk/doc/sls1134.pdf , 2004.
We tested a number of common applications such as web
 Sri Lanka Standards Institute, Sri Lanka Standard SLS
browsers, e-mail, etc. with the current system, and found
1134:1996 – Sinhala Character Code for Information
that they handle Sinhala properly. However other
applications, such as Microsoft Word, exhibited strangebehaviour. Also, we observed that although Microsoft
 The Unicode Consortium, The Unicode Standard 4.0,
Access and Excel can handle Sinhala text, they had
problems with sorting, etc. This is attributed to the
incompleteness of the current Sinhala support, and isexpected to be rectified soon.
 S.T. Nandasara, J.B. Dissanayake, V.K.
Samaranayake, E.K. Seneviratne and T.
The next stage is the localisation of applications, so that
Koannantakool Draft Standard for the Use of Sinhala
they display menus, help, etc. in Sinhala. A large amount
in Computer Technology, CINTEC, March 1990.
of work needs to be done in this area.
 J. B. Disanayaka, අකර හ පල (Letters and Strokes)
The third level is Sinhala-aware applications and utilities,
which “understand” Sinhala, such as spelling checkers,optical character recognition (OCR), etc. The development
 Adobe Corp., An Introduction to OpenType, available
of such applications is expected to be accelerated by the
at http://www.adobe.com/type/opentype/main.html .
 Michael S. Kaplan and Cathy Wissink, “Unicode and
Keyboards on Windows”, 23rd Inter-nationalizationand Unicode Conference, March 2003.
“[…] the appropriateness or ‘goodness’ of a method dependson the research aims, and the choice is always a compromisebetween a number of factors, including validity, reliability, andthe availability of subjects and resources”Susanne Göpferich & Riitta Jäaskeläinen (2009, 171)© artesis 2011 | 2 • Impact of translation revision procedures on revision
MEDICAL EXAMINATION REPORT For Commerical Driver Fitness Determination DRIVER’S INFORMATION HEALTH HISTORY Driver completes this section, but medical examiner is encouraged to discuss with driver. Any illness or injury in last five years?Diabetes or elevated blood sugar controlled by:Head/Brain injuries, disorders or illnessesEye disorders or impaired vision (except corrective le