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Uzma Yaqub***, Shazia Akbar*, Amran Waheed*, M. Saleem****, and Nasir-ud- ABSTRACT
Egyptians papyrus, Mesopotamian clay tabletscontained Aloe as an active ingredient used in curing This research shows the vital significance and infections, treating skin problems and as a laxative importance of Aloe Vera. It is a descriptive research. Aloe Vera is a vitally important plant that has been The word Aloe vera appears to be derived from Arabic used for different oilments i.e. geotron testinal, gont word “Alloeh”, which means “a shining bitter boils, etc. It has several other properties or substance.” We still refer to “bitter Aloes” describing charactertics incluidng antibacterial, anti-inflamatory the laxative drug still listed in U.S. pharmacopoeia and antiseptic attributes. Easy growth, maintenance today. There are many romantic tales about Aloe, and multiple uses of aloe plant’s constituents have suggesting that Egyptian queens, Nerfertiti and promoted several elaborated investigations in public Cleopatra, used it as part of their regular beauty regimen [5]. Supposedly Alexander the Great in 333 B.Coccupied the island of Socotra in the Indian ocean for Key words: Aloe vera, Glycoproteins, Aloein, Aloe-
its famed Aloe supplies, needed to treat his wounded soldiers [3,6]. Aloe was used by Hippocrates and Arabphysicians, and was introduced to Western INTRODUCTION
Herbs have been used for different remedies in all Aloe is also common in both traditional Chinese and cultures. In Asia, plant products and plant-derived drugs Ayurvedic medicine. The Chinese describe Aloe’s skin have been used therapeutically for centuries. More and the inner lining of its leaves as a cold, bitter remedy recently, people have become more interested and which is downward draining and used to cure better informed about the use of herbs [1]. The use of constipation due to accumulation of heat [7], the gel herbal remedies reached its zenith in late 1800s and is considered cool and moist. In Ayurvedic medicine, early 1900s [2]. In early part of 20th century a dramatic the traditional medicine of India, Aloe has multiple uses decline in use of herbal remedies began in USA, due inclusive of laxative, antihelminthic, hemorrhoid to isolation and chemical synthesis of structural remedy, and uterine stimulant. It is used topically, often analogs and so herbal remedies disappeared from in combination with licorice root, to treat eczema or pharmacy shelves. Fifty years later, trend towards psoriasis. In Arabian medicine, the fresh gel is used herbal remedies reverted and pharmacy shelves started on the forehead as a headache remedy or rubbed on to fill again. A survey in 1997 showed that nearly sixty the body to cool it in case of fever, as well as being million people were using herbs and a 75% increase used for wound-healing, conjunctivitis, and as a in sales occurred over the past years [2]. In fact, herbal disinfectant and laxative [4]. The aloe gel has been medicines played an important role in treating and extensively used in gastrointestinal disorders, preventing people from debilitating diseases since including peptic ulcer, and its clinical efficacy has been long. The role of plant-derived medicine in treating diseases will ever increase. Thousands of plants havebeen claimed to possess medicinal properties.
In recent times, Aloe vera gel has been used as an Throughout the world, today, extensive investments active ingredient in hundreds of skin lotions, sun have occurred for the therapeutic applications of herbal blocks and cosmetics [13]. The gel’s use in cosmetics plant-resources, which are of unlimited abundance has been increased by claims that it has anti-aging around us, to improve the quality of life. Aloe vera is a effects similar to vitamin A derivatives [13]. Aloe gained vitally important plant that has been used in folklore popularity in the United States in the 1930’s with reports for different purposes, such as for healing boils, wounds, of its success in treating X-ray burns [14]. Recently, burns and treatment of different ailments. Ancient Aloe extracts have been used to treat canker sores * PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Lahore. **IMMBS, The University of Lahore, Lahore. *** Lady Willingdon Hospital, Lahore.
**** Department of Botany, Govt. College, Lahore.
Quarterly SCIENCE VISION Vol.9 No.1-2 (Jul - Dec, 2003) & 3-4 (Jan - Jun, 2004)
Aloe Vera: A Plant of Vital Significance
Table - 1: Significant Clinical Developments in the Use of Aloe vera
Clinical Applications
50 B.C. Celsius, a Greek physician introduced Aloe Sap as laxative [20].
41-68 A.D. Aloe vera plant described in the book
Sap as healing agent. Additionally, induces sleep, "Greek Herbal" of Dioscorides. cleanses stomach, treatment for boils, ulcerated genitals, stops hair loss, heals tonsil, diseases of mouth and eyes [20]. 200 A.D. Galen, Antyllus, Aretaces, and many other
For different clinical purposes [20].
Southern European physicians used Aloe as medicine.
700-800 A.D. For the first time Chinese used Aloe vera.
For the of treatment of sinus, fever and Convulsions in children by Aloe [20].
Aloe (dried sap) was introduced to English For the treatment of external wounds and diseases 1700-1900
Carl Von Linne, 1720, described the plant As purgative and skin protectant [20]. For the treatment as Aloe Vera. In 1820 Aloe vera was officially for radiation injuries, ulcers, burns, dermatitis and listed in United States pharmacopoeia other skin injuries and diseases [20].
(U.S.P.) [20]. Aloin, The sap prepared as a purified product for commercial use. 1950 A.D.
A Russian scientist discovered the utility of For the treatment of parasitic diseases and several Aloe vera juice for various diseases.
1975 A.D.
Robert discovered that the plant has other For ringworm, skin allergies, abscess, hot spots, multiple applications in animals [20].
Suzuki et al., (1979) isolated two lectins from Hemagglutinating and mitogenic activity [21].
leaves. of Aloe arborescence Miller [21].
Bland discovered Aloe vera juice as a Helps digestive processes, controls infections and 1987 A.D. Burn described that the disease shingles
Aloe vera as remedy for shingles [20].
(Herpes Zoster) is caused by the same virus that also causes chicken pox and common herpes.
1991 A.D.
The Aloe extract acts as modulator-system towards wounds, inflammation and is valuable for managing Davis et al., described mannose 6- It improves wound healing and inhibits inflammation A glycoprotein was isolated from Aloe The glycoprotein promoted cell growth [25] and proliferation of human normal dermal cells and baby hamster kidney cells. 2000 A.D.
Pecere and co-workers [27] reported Aloe Emodin (hydroxyanthraquinones) from Aloe vera leaves has antineuroectodermal tumor activity both in vitro and vivo.
Wound-healing via cell proliferation and migration Choi et al. [29] isolated beta- sitosterol from Beta-sitosterol has an angiogenic effect in Aloe Vera. Quarterly SCIENCE VISION Vol.9 No.1-2 (Jul - Dec, 2003) & 3-4 (Jan - Jun, 2004)
M.A. Saeed, Ishtiaq Ahmad, Uzma Yaqub, Shazia Akbar, Amran Waheed, M. Saleem, and Nasir-ud-Din [15,16], stomach ulcers [10] etc. Many homes keep is genus of shrubby, scattered, succulent plant of the a plant handy in the kitchen where it readily thrives in Lily family (Liliaceae). There are over 250 species of bright sunlight with little care. In case of a minor burn, Aloe grown around the world and are native to Africa.
a fresh leaf can be cut and the gel of the inner leaf Most of them have rosette of leaves at the stem, but applied directly to the burn immediately after the injury.
no stem. Several species are cultivated as ornamentals The inner leaf lining of the plant is often used as a due to their sharp pointed spiny leaves and colorful natural laxative. In a quite recent survey (1990) of clusters of yellow or red flowers. Today two species members of a health-maintenance organization, Aloe are grown commercially, namely Aloe barbadensis vera was used by 64%; of these, 91% believed it had Miller, also called Aloe vera, and Aloe arborescence been helpful [17]. Aloe is also an ingredient in [51]. Tubular yellow flowers are produced annually in the spring. The Aloe plant is grown in warm tropicalareas and cannot survive freezing temperature. Mature Although, Aloe has remained stalwart over the aeons plant grows as tall as two and a half inches to four of time since the Biblical era to the 20th century, but it feet, with the average being around 28-36 inches in has never achieved a true notoriety as other products length. Each plant has 12-16 leaves that, when mature, i.e. foxglove, digitalis, cinchona (quinine), or willow bark may weigh up to 3 pounds. The plant can be harvested (acetyl salicylic acid). This position of “poor relative” every 6 to 8 weeks by removing 3 to 4 leaves per plant.
across the tracks has been the fate of Aloe, partially The Aloe barbadensis and Aloe arborescence are grown because of the failure of industry to fund scientific in the United States in the Rio Grande valley of South investigations and because of the slow progress of Texas, Florida and Southern California. Internationally science in developing models to test Aloe. The first the plants can be found in Mexico, the Pacific rim real investigation, which provided scientific countries, India, South America, the Caribbean, enlightenment concerning Aloe’s therapeutic efficacy started early in twentieth century [19]. That was theage when the medicinal chemists traveled extensively Chemistry of Aloe
and bought back plants, reputed for medicalapplications including cathartics, in order to isolate There are more than 200 compounds found in Aloe and characterize active substances using the barbadensis, about 75 of which have biological activity chemistry of the day. The significant clinical [46, 47, 50, 52-58]. The prominent components are developments in the applications of Aloe vera are listed anthraquinones [35-38], Aloin [44], Aloe emodine polysaccharides [48-53], enzymes [46,47], reducingsugars [39], organic acids, metallic cations [34]. The The precise and comprehensive isolation and analytical Aloe gel or fillet, which is stored in the inner portion of techniques have made it relatively easier to provide the leave, contains 99.5% water and 0.5% solid matter.
more information about the active principles of this Table-2 shows the chemical constituents of Aloe vera wondrous and magical Aloe plant [30,31]. Thus a large number of chemical substances have been identified, Biochemistry
which act as cathartic, emollients, accelerator ofwound-healing [28] and modulator of immune response The solid ingredients in Aloe gel are divided into large [32,33]. These include inorganic ions ( Na, K, Ca, Mg, molecules (0.1 %) and small molecules (0.4 %). Large Zn, etc.) [34] and small and large organic chemicals molecules are polysaccharides and the minor of quinone family [35-38], free sugars [39], constituents include a mixture of proteins carbohydrates (polysaccharides) [40-45], enzymes (glycoproteins), and compounds of lower molecular [46,47], lectins [48,49], proteins and the products of weights, such as sterols, terpenes and other their breakdowns i.e. peptides and amino acids), Aloe vera: Potentially Active Chemical
Aloe (urdu name ghigwar, local name kawar gandal), • High molecular-weight constituents e.g.
Quarterly SCIENCE VISION Vol.9 No.1-2 (Jul - Dec, 2003) & 3-4 (Jan - Jun, 2004)
Aloe Vera: A Plant of Vital Significance
Table 2: Constituents of Aloe vera and their Activity
Number Identified
Twenty amino acids required by humans have Component of proteins that are required for the been found, including 7 of the 8 essential functional proteins, such as muscle tissues, Anthraquinones Aloe vera provides 12 Anthraquinones, In small quantities, anthraquinones act as potent including aloe emodin, aloetic acid, aloin, antimicrobial [59] and antiviral 60 ] agents. In high concentration, these compounds exert a chrysophanic acid, emodin, ethereal oil, ester powerful purgative effect. Topically they can of cinnemonic acid, isobarbaloin, and absorb ultraviolet light, inhibit tyronase activity, reduce the formation of melanin [57, 61].
There are 8 Enzymes isolated from Aloe vera, Most of the enzymes help in the break-down of including aliiase, alkaline phosphotase, food-sugars and fats. Some of the enzymes may carboxypeptidase, inactivates bradykinins, produces anti-inflammatory effect [46, 47].
Two Hormones are known from Aloe vera , Both of these play an important role in wound- healing and anti-inflammatory effect.
This woody substance provides penetrating power in Aloe vera skin-penetrations, so having the ability to carry other active ingredients deep into the skin to nourish the dermis [62].
These are essential for good health and known to work in certain combination with each other, Manganese, Potasium, Sodium and Zinc.
vitamins and other trace-elements. Magnesium lactate inhibits histidine decarboxylase and prevents the formation of histamine from amino acid, histadine [47]. Histamine is released in many allergic conditions and causes intense itching and pain.
These soapy substances form 3% of the gel and are general cleansers, having antiseptic properties [63].
The plant provides 4 main plant-steroids: Sterols are anti-inflammatory agents, whereas lupeol also possesses antiseptic and analgesic Aloe vera provides both monosaccharides, Monosaccharides have anti-inflammatory action (glucose and fructose) and polysaccharides and polysaccharides posses antiviral, immune-
(glucomannans and polymanose).
modulating activity [64-67, 68] such as Acemannan [66-68].
Aloe vera contains many vitamins, except Vitamin B’s and Choline are involved in amino- acid metabolism, B12 plays an important role in production of RBCs, Folic acid is involved in the Riboflavin, B12), F, Choline and Folic acid.
Quarterly SCIENCE VISION Vol.9 No.1-2 (Jul - Dec, 2003) & 3-4 (Jan - Jun, 2004)
M.A. Saeed, Ishtiaq Ahmad, Uzma Yaqub, Shazia Akbar, Amran Waheed, M. Saleem, and Nasir-ud-Din a) Polysaccharides: glucomannan [42,45] and found to have a proliferation-promoting activity on human (d) Lectins: Lectins [48,49,70,71] with different
haemagglutinating activities have been isolated. Aloctin
Low molecular weight constituents e.g.
I and Aloctin II were isolated from leaf pulp [70]. The anthaquinones, vitamins, saponins, sterols, etc.
Aloctin II activity was inhibited by N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, whereas the Aloctin I was not inhibited (a) Polysaccharides: The polysaccharides make up
by different sugars (twenty) tested for specificity. Two approximately 20 percent of the solid content and lectins [48] had also been isolated from leaves of Aloe comprise mostly a mixture of polysaccharides of a arborescence, the P-2 with molecular weight 18000 linear, highly acetylated β 1-4 Mannan, branched and S-1 with molecular weight 24 kDa. The P-2 and dextrans, pectic acids and other polysaccharides with S-1 contain more than 18% and 50% neutral negative charge. Polysaccharides hexose makes up carbohydrates by weight, respectively. Both of these 5 to < 10 % of the total solids. Associated closely exhibit haemagglutinating activity, whereas P-2 also with these polysaccharides are small molecules, exhibits mitogenic activity on lymphocytes.
primary charged ions. The gel or mucilage obtained Interestingly, both of them contain a high proportion of from the leaf flesh contains quite different compounds acidic amino acids (i.e. Asp and Glu), and low from the bitter latex extracted from the leaf-lining. Aloe proportion of Met and His. A lectin with a molecular gel is 99% water with a pH of 4.5 and is a common weight 35 kDa was isolated from leaf-skin of Kidachi ingredient in many non-prescriptional skin conditioners.
Aloe [71] that showed Haemagglunating and The gel contains an emollient polysaccharide, mitogenic activity. The sequence of this protein is highly glucomannan [42,45]. It is a good moisturizer, which homologous to that of mannose-binding lectin from accounts for its use in many cosmetics. Acemannan [44], the main carbohydrate in the gel, is a water-soluble long-chain mannose polymer, which (e) Anthraquinones: The leaf lining (latex, resin or
accelerates wound-healing, modulates immune sap) contains anthraquinone glycosides [35-38] (aloin, function (particularly macrophage activation and Aloe-emodin and barbaloin) that are potent stimulant production of cytokines) and demonstrates laxatives. These water-soluble glycosides are split by antineoplastic and antiviral effects.
intestinal bacteria into a glycones which effect thelaxative action. The laxative effect from Aloe is stronger (b) Proteins: Proteins in the gel, on the other hand,
than from any other herb, including senna, cascara or make up 1 % of the solid content of the gel extract.
rhubarb root; it also has more severe side-effects, such The predominant proteins in gel-extracts are lower as cramping, diarrhea, and nausea [72]. For medicinal molecular-weight (11,000 and 14,000 kDa respectively, use, the leaf-lining is dried and the residue is used as for the two peptide chains). They are probably herbal laxative. The products are usually taken at associated with lectin and may account for the bedtime. They are poorly absorbed after oral administration, but moderately well-absorbed afterbacterial hydrolysis. They are eliminated in the urine, (c) Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins have been isolated
bile, feces and breast milk. They turn alkaline urine from Aloe. The homogeneous glycoprotein [69] having red. Most of herbalists recommend that they should 34% carbohydrates, of molecular weight 40 kDa, be avoided during pregnancy, due to the risk of stimulates DNA synthesis in baby hamster kidney- stimulating uterine contractions and also avoided cells and exhibits lectin properties by reacting with during lactation, due to the risk of excretion in breast sheep cells. The glycopreotein fraction from Aloe vera milk. Aloe is seldom recommended as a first choice gel exhibits proliferation-promoting activity in human among laxative preparations, due to the severe and hamster cells and enhances wound-healing with cramping and nausea associated with its use.
significant cell- proliferation and migration. Anotherglycoprotein fraction (protein 82%, carbohydrate 11%)with a molecular weight 29 kD from Aloe vera gel was Quarterly SCIENCE VISION Vol.9 No.1-2 (Jul - Dec, 2003) & 3-4 (Jan - Jun, 2004)
Aloe Vera: A Plant of Vital Significance
values were completely restored after six month. It isalso suggested that the mucopolysaccharides, one The Aloe had been used for the treatment of many of the ingredients in Aloe, play an important role, by ailments i.e. gastrointestinal, gout boils, etc. by folks acting as a growth factor. This growth-factor contributes of many nations since long. However, real scientific to wound-healing by stimulating fibroblasts (connective- research into Aloe vera resulted in the isolation of Aloin tissue cells) to produce more collagen, which in turn in 1900s, which was used as laxative until World War increases the remodeling of the wound and fills in the II. In the 1930s research began focusing in Aloe’s wound area. Acting synergestically, Aloe may keep benefits. Aloe has been used to cure X-ray dermatitis the wound moist and at the same time allow oxygen [73]. It was concluded that results as a whole had to penetrate the wound, adding to regeneration.
been satisfactory when the treatment of Aloe vera leaf Grindlay and Reynolds [81] revealed that Aloe seems was given to more than 50 cases of X-Ray dermatitis.
to promote healthy-cell growth: if a cell is cancerous, Further research confirmed these findings for Aloe, growth is not stimulated. Winters [82] found that fresh helping to relieve eczema, thermal burns, scalding, Aloe vera leaves contained lectin-like compound, which sunburn, minor injuries, and certain allergies, including enhanced the growth of normal human cells in tissue- culture, but not tumor cells. This was further confirmedin case-reports of El Zawarhy et al., [83] in which it is Detailed studies explored Aloe’s several other pointed out that Aloe vera gel promotes the characteristics, including that of antibacterial, anti- regeneration of normal tissue but does not have the inflammatory, and antiseptic properties of Aloe vera.
similar growth-patterns in carcinogenic tissue. Jeffrey Aloe may penetrate injured tissue, relieve pain, dilate Bland [7] studied the effects of Aloe vera juice- capillaries, and work as an anti-inflammatory agent.
consumption on urinary indican, stool specific-gravity, It has also been shown by Davis and co-workers gastric and bowel motility. Urinary indican values [22,23,74-76] that certain amino acids, vitamins, RNA decreased, indicating lowered conversion of tryptophan act as anti-inflammatory. These and other compounds by bowel bacteria, an improved protein-digestion and are grouped together to form the inhibitory systems absorption, as well as reduced bowel putrefaction. This [22,74]. Glycoproteins (enzymes) form a part of this change, by itself, could help in preventing colon cancer.
system [5]. Immune stimulators, growth-factors andmuco-polysaccharides heal wounds and are grouped The biological and biochemical research has delineated together to form stimulatory system [23,75,76]. Many various properties and mechanisms leading to clinical active components in both systems synergize, so that implications of Aloe. Attributes, such as moisturizing the final total activity in each system is greater than and penetrating properties, are well known, but its healing abilities and analgesic action as well asbacterial activity need to be further elaborated.
Diabetics exhibit poor wound-healing, due to poorcollagen formation and reduced wound-healing and The research conducted during the last two decades reduced wound-tensile strength. The diabetic fibroblast contributes further to the useful effects of Aloe suffers from premature aging. Aloe vera reduced biochemicals that are miraculously effective and a inflammation and improved wound-healing in both the summary of clinical applications of Aloe vera is normal and diabetic states, in a dose dependent- response fashion [77]. Aloe vera activates enzymesfound in the pancreas; it helps the blood sugar-content COMMERCIAL SIGNIFICANCE OF ALOE
in individuals suffering from hypoglycemia and diabetes[78,79].
The original commercial use of the plant was to growit for the production of a latex substance called Aloin A mixture of Aloe vera and Aloe arborescence was [30], which is yellow and, possess bitter and lingering studied for its therapeutic effects on the cirrhosis taste. The latex of Aloe contains the laxative patients by a Japanese research team [80]. The liver- anthraquinones that have been shown to possess function tests have shown that AST, ALT and total substantial antimicrobial activity against a wide variety bilirubine values were significantly reduced and normal Quarterly SCIENCE VISION Vol.9 No.1-2 (Jul - Dec, 2003) & 3-4 (Jan - Jun, 2004)
M.A. Saeed, Ishtiaq Ahmad, Uzma Yaqub, Shazia Akbar, Amran Waheed, M. Saleem, and Nasir-ud-Din Table 3: Clinical Applications of Aloe vera
1. Antimicrobial
Aleo gel is bacteriostatic or bactericidal against a variety of common wound-infecting bacteria in vitro:Staphylococcus auerus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella pheumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Salmonella typhosa and Mycobaterium tuberculosis[4,59].Aloe-emodin also inhitbits the growth of Helicobacter pylori in a dose- Acemannan acts alone and synergistically with azidothymidine(AZT) [64,65,85] and acemannan hydrogel is used as treatment for persons infected with HIV relevant to CD44 Aloe vera extract (0.5%) in a hydrophilic cream had a significantly enhanced healed lesions Aloe extract treatment of guinea pig feet that had been infected with Trichophyton mentagrophytes resulted in a 70% growth inhibition compared with untreated animals [87]. 2. Antineoplastic
Aloin A and B, aloesin and aloeresin were devoid of antitumor activity effects on human K562 leukemia cell lines [66]. Acemannan has demonstrated activity against feline leukemia virus and solid [88-93], and maligrant tumors 28 and inhibits hepatic tumor induction [94,95]. In preliminary studies it has been significantly enhanced neatly a year survival [96] 3. Endocrine
Aloe gel has been shown to lower blood sugar in diabetic mice [97,98], as well as normal mice [99]. Nearly half of diabetic patients surveyed in Texas reported using Aloe vera or other herbal remedies as complementary therapies for their diabetes [100]. Aloe gel to enhance the hypoglycemic effect of glibenclamide when given orally to diabetic patients [99,101]. 4.Gastrointestinal
Stimulant laxative (leaf lining), gastric and duodenal ulcers (gel), inflammatory bowel disease. Barbaloin, or loin, derived from inner sheath cells of the leaves, is a bitter, yellow laxative. Affects the sodium/potassium pump and chloride channels at colonic membrane [102,103]. Aloe’s Anthraquinones enhance intestinal propultion and water secretion in mice [104]. The Anthraquinones present in latex stimulate chloride and water secretion in large intestine, inhibits its reabsorption and stimulate peristalsis [105,106], and acts as a cathartic in Aloe-emodim inhibits growth Helicobactor pylori in a dose –dependent fasion [84]. Aloe vera inhibits gastric acid secretion in mice and rats and has protective effects against gastric mucosal demage in rats [108], Aloe vera extract reduced asprin-induced gastric mucosal injury in experimental rats [109], and extracts also suppressed the ulcerogenic effects of stress in Acemannan is under consideration as an experimental remedy for inflammatory bowel disease 5.Immune
Acemannan acts as immune stimulant and anti-inflammatory [113,114], increases monocyte modulation
and macrophage activity and cytotoxicity, stimulates killer T-cells and enhances macrophage candidacidal activity in vitro [115-117]. Acemannan enhances macrophage release of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interferon gama (INF-γ) in a dose dependent fasion [115,118]. Aloe extracts also blocks prostaglandin and thromboxane production from arachidonic acid , reducing inflammation [4,119,120]. Acetylated mannans from Aloe in mice stimulated an increase in white blood counts, splenic cellularity, and absolute numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes [121-126]. Aloe reduced the production of interleukin-10 following exposure to ultraviolet radiation, reduces the suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity [127-129]. and blocked mast cell inflammatory responses to antigen-antibody complexes [130,131]. Quarterly SCIENCE VISION Vol.9 No.1-2 (Jul - Dec, 2003) & 3-4 (Jan - Jun, 2004)
Aloe Vera: A Plant of Vital Significance
The other main ingredient of Aloe is called gel, whichcovers inner portion of the leaves. It is clear, colourless, J.L. Vogelzang, “What You Need to Know About Dietry and tasteless. Aloe Vera gel, like most natural juices Supplements”, Home Health Nurse, 19, 50-52 in both fruits and vegetables, is unstable and subject to discoloration and spoilage from contamination by J.S. Williamson and C.M. Wyadat, “The Herbal microorganisms. It is, therefore, most important to Generation: Legal and Regulatory Considerations”, stabilize and concentrate the gel in powder natural Trends in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Care, 19, form, for commercial use in nutritional foods and P. Atherton, “Aloe vera: Magic or Medicine”, Nurs. Stand.
M.C. Robson, J.P. Heggers and W.J. Hagstrom, “Myth, Today the Aloe industry in USA and Mexico has established high ethical standards for businesses and Journal of Burn Cure and Rehabilitation, 3, 157-163 Aloe products. Through the International Aloe Science Council of America (IASC), the Aloe Industry in America I.E. Dandhof, “Remarkable Aloe”, Omnimedicus and Mexico solidified its dedication to providing the Press, Grand Prairie, Texas, (1987).
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A. Kandil and W. Gobran, “Protection of Gastric Mucosa by Aloe vera”, J. Drug Res.(Egypt), 11, 191- CONCLUSIONS
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14. T. Rowe, “Further Observation on the Use of Aloe vera Leaf in the Treatment of Third Degree X-RayReactions”, J. Am. Pharm. Assoc. 30, 266 (1941).
Quarterly SCIENCE VISION Vol.9 No.1-2 (Jul - Dec, 2003) & 3-4 (Jan - Jun, 2004)
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Publications Dr. Jan Zeidler Full Publications in Peer-Reviewed Journals Braun S / Russo L / Zeidler J / Linder R / Hodgkins P Descriptive Comparison of Drug Treatment–Persistent, –Nonpersistent, and Nondrug Treatment Patients With Newly Diagnosed Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Germany. Clinical Therapeutics 2013; DOI 10.1016/j.clinthera.2013.03.017 Zeidler J

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For immediate release Media Release HONG KONG, 9 June 2011 Tricor, Equiniti and Link Market Services Form Global Share Alliance Tricor Investor Services Limited, Hong Kong’s leading share registration and investor services provider and part of the Tricor Group (“Tricor”), announced today that they have formed a strategic alliance with Equiniti, a UK company, and Link

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