There are many potential causes for nose bleeds in dogs. Bleeding from the nose (aka Epistaxis) is NOT normal for any dog at any time. Epistaxis can occur in one or both nostrils and can range from a few droplets or large discharges. Some cases start with sneezing and traces of blood in nasal discharges, while others have profuse bleeding as the first sign. Causes of Nasal Bleeding
Direct Trauma To The Nostril
Either caused by “doggy disagreements” with other dogs, cats, and wild critters, thorn, etc. Note that this type of bleeding is generally noticed by pet parents as it may involve scratches, punctures on the outside of the nostril or directly surrounding the nostril and exhibit signs of “battle” trauma rather than nasal discharge per se. Other direct traumas may involve car accidents (being hit by a vehicle) and falls in which case the nostril bleed becomes a mere reflection of internal injury. The signs are nasal Whenever your dog is hit by a car or suffers as a result of a fall, take dog to veterinarian ACTIONS FOR SURVIVAL
1) You need to remain calm and composed. Dogs pick up on your emotions and will react 2) Keep the pet calm. You do NOT want to excite the pet as it will increase its blood pressure 3) Apply an Ice Pak –wrapped in cloth - to the bridge of the nose. NEVER APPLY ice pak directly onto nostril. Obviously, be sure your pet can breathe around the ice pack. Use a clean cloth or gauze. The cloth provides a barrier to allow for steady cooling and helps prevent early signs of hypothermia and frostbite. Apply steady pressure on the bleeding nostril using clean cloth or gauze. The cold will constrict small blood vessels which will slow 4) Take a look at the gums under the lips to see if there is blood in the mouth, or if the gums seem pale. If either is present it would suggest a serious loss of blood. This is an emergency! Transport to the veterinarian immediately. 5) Transport to the veterinarian immediately. A pet with a bloody nose will likely swallow a great deal of the draining blood. This may lead to an especially black stool or even vomit with blood clots in it. After a bloody nose, such findings are usually just a reflection of the bloody nose and do not necessarily indicate Foreign Body In Nasal Passage
What Makes Foxtails Dangerous?
In addition to causing pain and localized infections, foxtail seeds can migrate and lodge in the spine, in the lungs and in other internal organs. They enter through the nose, ears, paws, eyes, urethra or just through the skin and travel through the body The seeds are very small, making locating them a painful, difficult and expensive procedure. Depending on where a foxtail seed has traveled to inside a dog, it can even be life threatening and will What You Can Do To Keep Your Pet Safe
* Keep your pets away from foxtails. Avoid planting them or letting them grow on your * Examine your pet daily. Carefully brush its hair, while feeling for any raised areas on its skin. Check inside and under its ears; check between the toes, under the armpits and in the groin area. Keep long haired and thick coated breeds especially well-groomed. * If you see a foxtail seed sticking in the dog’s skin, carefully pull it straight out, making sure * If you think a seed might already embedded in the skin, in a paw, in an eye or an ear, or if a dog who has been eating grass seems to have a throat problem, get the dog to a veterinarian as soon as possible! Waiting can only make it harder to find, allow it to migrate and become more dangerous, and make treatment more difficult. In normal animals, tears are constantly produced and drain out through small ducts in the eyelids. The ducts empty into the nose. If a foxtail seed makes it way into the eyelid is may cause to either block the tear duct and/or enter the tear duct and effects can be reflected in Indicators That Your Pet Has a Foxtail
A foxtail seed can cause an inflamed, painful, infected lump anywhere on an animal’s body. A dog with a foxtail seed in its ear might rub its head on the ground or shake its head violently from side to side. If a dog gets a foxtail seed in its eye, it might squint. The eye will water and the dog will paw at it. Even if you can clearly see the seed beneath the eyelid, do not attempt to remove it. Get the dog to a veterinarian immediately. An inhaled foxtail seed which has lodged in the nasal cavity may cause violent sneezing, sometimes with a bloody discharge from the nostrils. To remove it, a veterinarian may need to sedate the animal, locate the seed with a scope, and remove it with a forceps. Rodenticide Poisoning
Rodenticide poisoning is the accidental ingestion of products used to kill "rodents" such as mice, rats and gophers. These products are common and accidental exposure is frequent. Poisoning is most commonly caused by ingestion of a product containing one of the * Anticoagulant (Warfarin, fumarin, chlorophacinone, diphacinone, difethialone, pindone, Many anti-rodent poisons contain Warfarin which reduces the pets ability to clot properly (much like hemophilia) which may lead to death. If you suspect your pet has ingested rat poison contact your veterianrian immediately Although Activated charcoal is recommended if poisoning is recent remember that you need to determine ahead of time how much activated charcoal you will need per dog pound, how to administer and that it may take up to 30 minutes to work! Therefore your best. Nosebleed
A nosebleed is bleeding or haemorrhage from the nose. What to Do
x Notice if the blood is coming from one nostril (note which one) or both nostrils. x If the pet is sneezing, note how often. x Attempt to keep the pet calm. Encourage the pet to lie down and relax. x Place an ice pack (covered by one or more layers of cloth) or compress to the side of x If the nose is bleeding profusely or the bleeding lasts more than 10 minutes, seek What NOT to Do
x Do not put anything up the nose. This will likely cause the pet to sneeze. Sneezing will dislodge a clot if one has formed and the bleeding will resume. A bloody nose in a cat or dog may be associated with foreign bodies polyps, infections, It is a sign whose significance should not be underestimated.
Internal Bleeding
Internal bleeding is a life-threatening condition, but it is not obvious like external bleeding. Any bleeding which is visible is external. Internal bleeding occurs inside the body and will not be seen. There are, however, external signs of internal bleeding: x The pet is pale (check the gums or eyelids). x The pet is cool on the legs, ears, or tail. x The pet is extremely excited or unusually subdued. x Bleeding from the nose or mouth. If any of these signs are evident, the pet should be immediately transported to a veterinary facility for professional help. Remember: internal bleeding is not visible on the outside.



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A Primal-Dual Bicriteria Distributed Algorithm for Capacitated Abstract In this paper we consider the capacitated vertex cover problem which is the variant of vertex coverwhere each node is allowed to cover a limited number of edges. We present an efficient, deterministic,distributed approximation algorithm for the problem. Our algorithm computes a (2 + ǫ)-approximatesolution which violates th

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