The scoop on poop

The Scoop on Poop
By Charlcie Gill
Rabbits produce two types of droppings: fecal
pellets and cecotropes. The latter are produced
in a region of the rabbit's digestive tract called
the ceacum. The ceacum contains a natural
community of bacteria and fungi that provide
essential nutrients and possibly even protect the
rabbit from harmful pathogens. By consuming the
cecotropes as they exit the anus, the rabbit takes
in nutrient-packed dietary items essential to good
health. Though often referred to as “night
droppings”, cecotropes can be produced at
almost any time of day.
Unlike the small brown “bunny marbles” we know as fecal pellets, normal CECOTROPES
resembles a dark greenish brown mulberry, or tightly bunched grapes. Composed of small, soft,
shiny pellets, each is coated with a layer of rubbery mucus, and pressed into an elongate mass.
Cecotropes have a rather strong odor, as they contain a large mass of beneficial cecal bacteria.
When a rabbit ingests cecotropes, the mucus coat protects the bacteria as they pass through the
stomach, then re-establish in the ceacum.
When things go wrong…

True diarrhea is more common in young kits than older rabbits. One of the most common causes
is coccidia. In a kit, dehydration caused by diarrhea can rapidly result in death. It is wise to
consider incidences of diarrhea a true emergency. Common antibiotics used to treat coccidia
include Albon™ and the potentiated sulfas, such as Trimethoprim Sulfa (TMZ) or Bactrim™.
Another cause of diarrhea in kits is stress at weaning. Very young rabbits have a sterile lower
intestine until they begin to eat solid food at the age of 3-4 weeks. It is during this time that their
intestines are at their most critical phase. Weaning too early or weaning under stressful
conditions, can make kits susceptible to enteritis (inflammation of the intestinal lining), which can
cause fatal diarrhea. When I wean kits, I always offer good grass hay. Adding rolled oats to the
ration at a rate of 20% in relation to pellets for about a week is also a helpful preventative.
Unformed Cecotropes
The ceacum is a delicately balanced ecosystem. If the intestine is moving too slowly, or if the
rabbit is getting a diet too rich in digestible carbohydrates and too low in crude fiber, the complex
population of bacteria in the ceacum can become unbalanced. In this condition, known as CECAL
DYSBIOSIS, beneficial bacteria (e.g., Bacteroides spp. and a variety of others) are outnumbered
by less desirable inhabitants such as yeast or harmful bacteria. A rabbit suffering from cecal
dysbiosis will produce cecotropes that are mushy, pasty or even liquid. They are usually foul-
smelling and often stick to the vent area, causing quite a nasty mess. Methods of treatment
include replacing the concentrate with grass hay for a few days and limiting or eliminating high
protein-type supplements. I have noticed that certain lines of rabbits seem more predisposed to
cecal dysbiosis than others. It is important (especially during the warmer months) to clean dried
cecotropes stuck from the rabbit’s rear end because it is not only smelly and uncomfortable, it is
also a fly attractant which can result in a life-threatening fly strike. Within a 24-hour period an
otherwise stable rabbit can enter a terminal state of shock due to maggot infestation.
Hidden health problems can also result in a loose stool condition. The most common
physiological response when a rabbit is ill or stressed, is a slowing of the normal peristaltic
movements of the intestine, with all the accompanying problems of runny stool, and possible
inflammation of the intestinal lining (enteritis). Common health problems that may be
accompanied by loose stools include: malocclusion, urinary tract disorders, upper respiratory
infections, and torticollis (wry neck).


Editors-in-Chief Editorial Staff Kevin J Tracey, MD Christopher J Czura The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research Anthony Cerami, PhD Margot Gallowitsch-Puerta The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research Mollie Medcast Episode 10 Transcript: Sepsis, Cardiac Proinflammatory StressHello and welcome back to “Mollie Medca

Jamie (current) 5-21-12.pages

JAMIE L. SHELLER SHELLER, P.C. 1528 Walnut Street, Fourth Floor Philadelphia, PA 19102 (215) 790-7300 EDUCATION: Villanova University School of Law Villanova, PAJ.D., May 1989 Contributing writer to “The Docket”New York UniversityNew York, NYB.A. with a double major in political science and communications,January 1986GPA 3.6 Cum LaudeVice-President of Undergraduate Dormitor

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