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North carolina department of correction

HEALTH SERVICES POLICY & PROCEDURE MANUAL

To assure that DOP inmates with Soft Tissue Infections are receiving high quality Primary Care for their
infections and that the risk of infecting other inmates or staff is minimized.

All DOP Primary Care Providers are expected to follow this guideline and/or will document in the
medical record any deviations from this guideline and the reasoning behind the need for deviation.
PROCEDURE
THE MANAGEMENT OF SOFT TISSUE INFECTION/MRSA
(See Table 1 for algorithm)

I. Initial Assessment:
A. Whenever possible obtain material for culture and sensitivity
B. Minor infection: treat with incision and drainage and warm compresses without antibiotics
C. Serious or persistent infections treat empirically with antibiotics pending results of culture
II. Empiric Treatment:
A. Evaluate for MRSA – Risk Factors:
1. Known MRSA outbreak 2. Recent hospitalization 3. Previous anti-staphylococcal antibiotic usage 4. Indwelling catheter 5. Chronic wound drainage 6. Repeated soft tissue infections B. No Risk Factors treat with standard anti-staphylococcal antibiotics:
1. First generation cephalosporins 2. Amoxicillin/clavulanate 3. Erythromycin C. Risk Factors present use:
1. TMP-SMX: 2 DS tab b.i.d. (1 b.i.d. if impaired renal function) +/- Rifampin*
300 mg b.i.d.
2. Sulfa allergic or intolerant - Use one of the following: a) Clindamycin 300-450 milligrams q6h +/- rifampin* 300 b.i.d. 3. Doxycycline 100 mg b.i.d. +/- Rifampin* 300 mg b.i.d.
4. *Rifampin may be used in combination for recurrent MRSA infection despite
appropriate therapy
HEALTH SERVICES POLICY & PROCEDURE MANUAL

III. Hospitalize if any of the following is clinically evident:
A. Sepsis B. Fasciitis C. Evolving skin or soft tissue infection despite oral antibiotics D. Toxic shock syndrome IV. Culture positive for staphylococcal infection:
A. Sensitive to first-line antibiotics:
1. If treating with MRSA agents change to first-line antibiotic 2. If treating with first-line antibiotic and is sensitive continue until clinically cured 3. If not sensitive and not clinically responding change to first-line antibiotic which is sensitive B. Positive for Community Associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) (outpatient setting, no prior medical
history of MRSA, no history of the past year of hospitalization, nursing home, dialysis, for surgery, no permanent indwelling catheters or medical devices that passed through the skin, usually sensitive to several p.o. antibiotics) 1. If susceptible: treat with TMP-SMX 2 DS tab b.i.d. (1 b.i.d. if impaired renal
function). +/- rifampin* 300 mg b.i.d.
2. If not, use one of the following based on susceptibility results: a) Clindamycin (if resistant to erythromycin and sensitive to clindamycin must evaluate for inducible resistance using “D test”) 300 – 450 mg q6h +/- rifampin* 300 mg b.i.d. or b) Doxycycline 100 b.i.d. +/- rifampin* 300 mg b.i.d. Topical mupirocin +/- systemic therapy 3. DO NOT USE CIPRO OR OTHER FLUOROQUINOLONES EVEN IF
SENSTIVE
4. If Group A streptococcus also present a) Add therapy (beta-lactam, macrolide, or clindamycin) to cover it also b) Tetracyclines and TMP-SMX are not adequate therapy for GAS 5. Consider directly observed therapy 6. Monitor closely for clinical improvement 7. *Rifampin may be used in combination for recurrent MRSA infection despite C. Positive for Highly Resistant MRSA** (does not meet one or more of the above criteria, usually
1. If susceptible: treat with IV Vancomycin 2. If not use another IV antibiotic based on susceptibility results 3. Follow closely clinically for response to therapy V. Infection control
A. Inmates with potentially contagious infections: wound with uncontained drainage, weeping cellulitis, purulent catheter site infections, nonhealing abscesses, draining skin sinuses, HEALTH SERVICES POLICY & PROCEDURE MANUAL
infected surgical wounds, multiple furuncles, infected burn sites, and MRSA pneumonia should be assigned to single cell housing and a separate toilet & shower or if not feasible shower/toilet must be decontaminated prior to use by others B. Inmates with non draining MRSA skin infections or easily contained draining skin lesions may be housed with other inmates if the infected inmate adheres to infection control instructions and cellmates are not at increased risk of acquiring a MRSA infection. C. The patient should be rechecked for reoccurrence one week after completing therapy D. The patient should be on medical hold until he completes treatment and recheck VI. Surveillance For MRSA Outbreaks
A. Interview all MRSA positive patients for potential sources of infection and close contacts; recent hospitalizations; sharing a personal hygiene items; recent injection drug use, tattooing or sexual contact; close contact sports; and exposures to other inmates with draining wounds or skin infections. B. Examine all identified contacts for signs/symptoms of infection C. Have all MRSA positive cultures held for at least 30 days by laboratory D. Compare susceptibility of all positive MRSA cultures, similar susceptibilities among two or more MRSA isolates from epidemiological-linked patients suggest the possibility of an outbreak and should be reported immediately to Health Services ___________________________________________________

Paula Y. Smith, MD, Director of Health Services
SOR: Deputy Medical Director


SOFT TISSUE INFECTION/MRSA
staphylococcal disease
Whenever possible obtain material for
culture and sensitivity
Minor infection: treat with incision and
Serious or persistent infections treat
empirically with antibiotics pending results Treat with standard anti-staphylococcal
Risk factors for MRSA present:
antibiotics:
3. Previous anti-staphylococcal antibiotic usage 4. Indwelling catheter 5. Chronic wound drainage 6. Repeated soft tissue infections TMP-SMX: 2* DS tab b.i.d. +/-
Rifampin 300 mg b.i.d.
(*1 b.i.d. if renal impairment)
Hospitalize if any of the following is clinically evident:
1. Sepsis
2. Fasciitis
3. Evolving skin or soft tissue infection despite oral
DO NOT USE CIPRO OR OTHER
1. Clindamycin 300-450 milligrams q6h +/- FLUOROQUINOLONES EVEN IF SENSTIVE
suspected or known MRSA due to high risk of
2. Doxycycline 100 mg b.i.d. +/- rifampin developing resistance during treatment
3. Topical mupirocin +/- systemic therapy Culture positive for
staphylococcal infection
Sensitive to first-line antibiotics:
1. If treating with MRSA agents change to first-line antibiotic 2. If treating with first-line antibiotic and is sensitive continue until clinically cured 3. If not sensitive and not clinically responding change to first-line antibiotic which is MRSA infection
Community Associated MRSA (CA-MRSA)*
Highly Resistant MRSA **
1. If minor infection and responding to non pharmacologic therapy 1. If susceptible and clinically indicated: DO NOT START ANTIBIOTICS
2. If on antibiotics and responding even if not sensitive continue present 2. If not use another IV antibiotic based 3. If on antibiotics and/or not responding, if sensitive start on TMP-
3. Follow closely clinically for response SMX + Rifampin,
4. If sulpha allergic, use one of the following based on susceptibility results: Clindamycin (300 – 450 mg q6h +/- rifampin* 300 mg b.i.d. or Doxycycline 100 b.i.d. +/- rifampin* 300 mg b.i.d 5. Consider directly observed therapy 6. Monitor closely for clinical improvement Infection control
1. REPORT ALL POSITIVE MRSA CULTURES TO INFECTION CONTROL
2. Inmates with potentially contagious infections: wound with uncontained drainage, weeping cellulitis, purulent catheter
site infections, nonhealing abscesses, draining skin sinuses, infected surgical wounds, multiple furuncles, infected burn sites, and MRSA pneumonia should be assigned to single cell housing and a separate toilet & shower or if not feasible shower/toilet must be decontaminated prior to use by others 3. Inmates with non draining MRSA skin infections or easily contained draining skin lesions may be housed with other inmates if the infected inmate adheres to infection control instructions and cellmates are not at increased risk of acquiring a MRSA infection. 4. The patient should be rechecked for reoccurrence one week after completing therapy 5. The patient should be on medical hold until he completes treatment and recheck Surveillance For MRSA Outbreaks
1. Interview all MRSA positive patients for potential sources of infection and close contacts; recent hospitalizations; sharing a personal hygiene items; recent injection drug use, tattooing or sexual contact; close contact sports; and exposures to other inmates with draining wounds or skin infections. 2. Examine all identified contacts for signs/symptoms of infection 3. Have all MRSA positive cultures held for at least 30 days by laboratory 4. Compare susceptibility of all positive MRSA cultures, similar susceptibilities among two or more MRSA isolates from epidemiological-linked patients suggest the possibility of an outbreak and should be reported immediately to Health Services
* CA-MRSA: outpatient setting, no prior medical history of MRSA, no history of the past year of hospitalization, nursing home, dialysis, for
surgery, no permanent indwelling catheters or medical devices that passed through the skin, usually sensitive to several p.o. antibiotics
** Highly Resistant MRSA: does not meet one or more of the above criteria, usually resistant to all p.o. antibiotics

Source: https://www.nccrimecontrol.org/div/Prisons/HealthServices/CP_ClinicalPracticeGuidelines/cp20.pdf

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