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The Burnham Review
Diabetes and Manual Therapy Approaches
Consider Manual Therapy and Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Optimal Health Kimberly Burnham, PhD Editor
vertebral subluxations, therapies include vitamin E, which affec t t he glutathione, folate, pyridoxine, relationship between biotin, myo-inositol, omega-3 and -6 the nervous system and fatty acids, L-arginine, L-glutamine, organs. After one taurine, N-acetylcysteine, zinc, month of being on the magnesium, chromium, and St.
7-24: Attention Deficit Disorder and ADHD program, the patient's John's wort. glucose blood and urine levels had acupuncture, magnetic therapy, and Manual Therapy and Diabetes
normalized and remained stable. His yoga have been found to provide There are a number of manual medical doctor, who monitored his benefit.”2 (Head,2006).
therapies, including massage, progress, said the patient would not Massage and Diabetes
reflexology, Integrative Manual need insulin if the condition Therapy, Osteopathic Manual remained stable."1 (WCA 2007).
Treatment and imagery, which have Peripheral Neuropathy and or relaxation therapy group. The
been shown clinically to improve the Alternative Therapies
Peripheral neuropathy (PN), the other therapy and were asked to issue of The Burnham Review looks associated with diabetes, neurotoxic provide them for 20 minutes before chemotherapy, HIV /antiretroviral bedtime each night for 30 days. Diabetes and Chiropractics
Diabetes is the fifth deadliest deficiencies, heavy metal toxicity, touch therapy were reduced parent disease in the United States and a and other etiologies, results in anxiety and depressed mood andgrowing epidemic worldwide. Now, significant morbidity. A widening body of research and depressed affect. Over the 30 chiropractic adjustments might be indicates alternative medicine may day period compliance on insulin andable to make a valuable contribution offer significant benefit to this food regulation improved and bloodto an overall program of wellness patient population. Alpha-lipoic acid, glucose levels decreased from 159 tocare to help diabetes sufferers.
A study published in the Journal of b e n f o t i a m i n e , Vertebral Subluxation Research, methylcobalamin, The Burnham Review
focused on the positive response to a n d t o p i c a l Kim berly Burnham , PhD Editor
chiropractic when used as part of an c a p s a i c i n a r e integrative treatment in the care of a among the most Along with chiropractic care, the alternative options For clients, practitioners and all people interested patient also received nutritional and for the treatment exercise guidance. The chiropractic of PN. Other care was directed toward correcting potential nutrient 24 e-Newsletters per year $100
misalignments in the spine, called o r b o t a n i c a l 24 Issues per Year 1 (c) 2007 Kimberly Burnham 8-19 Diabetes
within the normal range.” activation and pulmonary function, diseases, or a chance observation3(Field,1997).
as well as improvement in specific unrelated to type 2 diabetesclinical outcomes. Aromatherapy,Massage, and
Reflexology’s Positive Influence
The Role of Relaxation, Hypnosis,
and Imagery
generalized improvements in health, Palpability of Type II Diabetes
Although type 2 diabetes mellitus 9 (Surwit,2002).
or specific physical benefits, such as is often managed by osteopathic physicians, osteopathic palpatory relaxation, hypnosis, biofeedback, Practitioners of reflexology claim findings in this disease have not been and guided imagery appear to stem that, in addition to the relaxation and adequately studied. “A case-control study was used to although there is some evidence of a can bring about more specific measure the association between direct effect 10(McGrady,1990) and11changes in health. One classic type 2 diabetes mellitus and a series (Ratner,1990). reflexology text, for example, of 30 osteopathic palpatory findings.
includes case histories of ataxia, The latter included skin changes, depression and anxiety worsenosteoarthritis, and epilepsy. trophic changes, tissue changes, glycemic control both directly, andSimilarly, some aromatherapists tenderness, and immobility at spinal indirectly through behavior12report benefits in conditions as segmental levels T5-T7, T8-T10, and (McGrady,1999). Depression anddiverse as infertility, acne, diabetes, T11-L2 bilaterally. A total of 92 subjects were through relaxation and self-hypnosis included in the study. After (guided imagery) 13(Davidson,1978) Yoga and Diabetes
c o n t r o l l i n g f o r a g e , s e x , and (Stetter,1994) “Studies in a systematic search hypertension, and clinical yielded 32 articles published depression, the only significant several areas of diabetes self-care between 1980 and April 2007 and finding was an association between behavior improved in a group of found “yoga interventions are type 2 diabetes mellitus and tissue patients who listened to guided generally effective in reducing body changes at T11-L2 on the right side imagery tapes 15(Wichowski,1999). and high cholesterol, but only a few type 2 diabetes mellitus and significantly lowered blood glucose, studies examined long-term hypertension demonstrated A1C, muscle tension, depression, significant associations with tissue and anxiety in subjects (McGinnis, In another study researchers said, changes at T11-L2 bilaterally for the McGrady et al, 2005). Thermal “there is growing evidence that yoga left side and for the right side.
The only consistent finding in this combination with other mind-body intervention for Type 2 Diabetes study was an association between techniques, can improve quality of type 2 diabetes mellitus and tissue life and the level of activity by We identified 25 eligible studies, changes at T11-L2 on the right side. improving blood flow, pain, overall, these studies suggest Potential explanations for this neuropathy, healing ulcers.16 beneficial changes in several risk finding include reflex viscerosomatic (Galper,2003). indices, including glucose tolerance changes directly related to the and insulin sensitivity, lipid profiles, progression of type 2 diabetes program can improve compliance in anthropometric characteristics, blood mellitus, a spurious association diabetics of both types and improve p r e s s u r e , o x i d a t i v e s t r e s s , attributable to confounding visceral glycemic control in Type II 24 Issues per Year 2 (c) 2007 Kimberly Burnham 8-19 Diabetes
estimates, the number of people tentatively dubbed “type 3 diabetes” Diabetes Herbal Therapy NIH worldwide with diabetes climbed in early 2005 when researchers
Says Gymnema Sylvestre Lowers from 30 million in 1985 to 171 learned that your pancreas is not your
Serum Glucose Levels
million in 2000. Some 4 percent to 6 only organ that produces insulin.
Going to the gym and working out percent of adults aged 20 and over Your brain also produces insulin, and supports people managing the signs are now affected. In a 2007 study by Dr. David W. survival of your brain cells. cholesterol as well as other liver and Dunstan, of the International blood sugar imbalances. Taking an Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, levels are typically associated with herb called Gymnema has also been Australia, investigators found that improved health, the opposite found effective in managing blood “the more time women spent appears to be true for your brain.
sugar levels in Type 1 diabetics as television viewing, the higher their blood glucose levels two hours after your brain contributes to the Like working out at the gym, they took the glucose test-drink.” degeneration of your brain cells, and taking the herbal supplement, This study linked time spent doing studies have found that people with Gymnema it is not a quick fix, but sedentary activities such as watching lower levels of insulin and insulin according to the National Health TV to over all higher blood sugar receptors in their brain often have Institute 18 (NIH,2008) can be used as levels. by diabetics and adults wanting to a health care professional if the University has found that a toxic balance out blood sugar and person is also taking blood sugar protein may be rendering your lowering drugs or medications for neurons insulin resistant and Traditionally, Gymnema has been lowering cholesterol. The NIH notes blocking your memory function.
u se d a s a n a n t i m i c r o b ial , that “increased effects may occur if aphrodisiac, cancer, cardiovascular taken in combination with herbs or between Alzheimer’s disease and disease, constipation, cough, supplements that lower cholesterol diabetes came out in 2004, when it digestive stimulant, gout, high blood such as fish oil, garlic, guggul, or was revealed that people with pressure, laxative, liver disease, liver niacin.“19(Anathan,2003), 20 diabetes might have a 65 percent protection, malaria, obesity, (Cicero,2004),21(Khare,1983), higher risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis, snake venom 2 2 ( M e i s e l m a n , 1 9 7 0 ) , 2 3 Alzheimer’s disease.” antidote, stomach ailments, uterine (Shanmugasundaram,1990), and24 because taking Gymnema affects the Is Alzheimer's a Form of Diabetes?
More evidence has been uncovered brain just as it protects the rest of At this point researchers are that Alzheimer’s disease may your body from diabetes.
looking at exercises, herbal actually be a third form of diabetes, medicine, manual therapies, massage according to researchers from your nutritional type.
therapy, Yoga, Integrative Manual Northwestern University. “Insulin and insulin receptors in in your diet, such as by taking a krill and medications to find ways to stem your brain are crucial for learning oil supplement. A diet rich in the rise in death and significant and memory, and it’s known that omega-3 fats has been found to ward quality of life problems secondary to these components are lower in off both Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes. The health care costs and people with Alzheimer’s disease. In diabetes.”25 (Mercola,2007), loss of work place productivity due your brain, insulin binds to an insulin 26(Pilcher,2006) and 27 (MLA,2007).
to diabetes is also driving the receptor at a synapse, which triggersresearch.
a mechanism that allows nerve cells Freidreich’s Ataxia
According to the latest World to survive and memories to form.
24 Issues per Year 3 (c) 2007 Kimberly Burnham 8-19 Diabetes
system disorder causing loss of 50-micron range, with the best was shut away from the actions ofbalance and coordination. Sufferers absorption occurring at 9.4 the immune system, shielded fromof this condition may also have heart microns.30 (TheraSauna,2008).
Conditions That Have Been that's not how it is at all. In fact, techniques may have therapeutic Successfully Treated with an Infrared thanks to the scientific detectivebenefit to this condition."28 (Touch of Sauna, include Diabetes, TMJ work of Kevin Tracey, MD, it turnsHealth,2008).
Arthritis, Cancer Pain, Traumatic out that the brain talks directly to theArthritis, Duodenal Ulcers, Bursitis, immune system, sending commands Measuring Diabetes Results
In s o m n i a , a n d R h eum at oi d that control the body's inflammatory In a study “to determine the Arthritis31. (Naturopath,2008) and32 response to infection and correlation between strength and (Aetna,2008).
intercorrelation between the Diabetes, Collagen and Green Tea a novel way to treat diseases
"Diabetes leads to modification of triggered by a dangerous group of subjects with diabetes collagen such as advanced glycation inflammatory response.
mellitus (DM) and transmetatarsal and cross-linking which play an amputation (TMA), researchers important role in the pathogenesis of executive of The Feinstein Institute looked at “30 subjects with DM and diabetes mellitus. The present study reveals that “stimulation of the vagus nerve could were studied. Function was measured green tea is effective in reducing the block a rogue inflammatory response using Functional Reach Test (FR), modification of tail tendon collagen and treat a number of diseases, Physical Performance Test (PPT), in diabetic rats. Thus green tea may including life-threatening sepsis.
Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), and have a therapeutic effect in the walking speed for 15.24 m. Strength treatment of glycation induced brainstem and snakes down from the measurements were taken using a complications of diabetes."33 brain to the heart and on through to Iso and colleagues reported that are now studying ways of altering the of hip and knee muscle strength and consumption of green tea and coffee brain's response or targeting the function provides some evidence that could significantly reduce the risk for immune system itself as a way to rehabilitation should focus on t y p e 2 . 3 4 ( I s o , 2 0 0 6 ) a n d control diseases.
strengthening hip and knee extensors 35(Chen,2006). For ages, plants containing vagus nerve speaks directly to the relationships between walking speed flavonoids have been used to treat immune system through a and strength, PPT, FR and SIP diabetes in Indian medicine. The neurochemical called acetylcholine.
suggest that the simple measure of green tea flavonoid has been shown And stimulating the vagus nerve sent walking speed is a useful functional to have insulin-like activity as well commands to the immune system to as insulin-enhancing activity. stop pumping out toxic inflammatory TheraSauna Far Infra-Red
responses. He calls this network "the The human body can best absorb Vagus, Immune and Acetylcholine natural way to control the
infrared energy in the 3- to
"It used to be dogma that the brain i n f l a m m a t o r y r e s p o n s e .
24 Issues per Year 4 (c) 2007 Kimberly Burnham 8-19 Diabetes
Strategies may include shifting to complicate decision-making and conditions like Crohn's disease, indoor activities or adapting to less delay treatment initiation inDiabetes and rheumatoid arthritis to favourable conditions; increasing conditions such as ataxia, headaches,Alzheimer's, where scientists have dose/number of glucose-lowering arthritis, neuropathy, type 1 diabetesidentified a strong inflammatory medications during the winter and mellitus, and others.43 (Helms,2005).
component. reducing these during the summer, in Blood Chemistry
Tracery has also written a book anticipation of seasonal variations called "Fatal Sequence," about the and examining the impact of bright said, “the Law of the Artery is double-edge sword of the immune light therapy on activity and A1C Supreme.“ Diabetes, Depression, Nutrition
s u n l i g h t h o u r s d e c l i n e . 4 1 and Physical Activity
occurring among adults with type 2 Physical Activity
Many people use Integrative diseases . He also considered that injury and complications such as Manual Therapy (IMT) to decrease a n a t o m i c a l l e s i o n s c a u s e dblindness, kidney failure, heart pain, increase energy levels and physiological malfunction . e .g .
disease, and stroke. enable them to be more physically Dislocation of the hips is a frequent Higher physical activity levels are active.
Research has shown that physical (Atkinson,1978).
control, as measured by hemoglobin activity can: Lower your blood Upon the principle that the bloodA1C. A 1% absolute increase in A1C glucose and your blood pressure. is our curative agent, will this bloodis associated with an 18% increased Lower your bad cholesterol and raise not give us the best indication ofrisk for heart disease or stroke. your good cholesterol. Improve your destruction going on within the Among Canadians with type 2 body's ability to use insulin. Lower body? All the tissues of the body are diabetes, we postulate that declines your risk for heart disease and stroke. bathed with blood and lymph, and itin walking associated with colder Keep your heart and bones strong. seems only natural to look to thetemperatures and inclement weather Keep your joints flexible. Lower blood for pathology within thesemay contribute to annual post-winter your risk of falling. Help you lose tissues. increases in A1C levels.
weight. Reduce your body fat. Give If the blood contains an abnormal In this study assessments included you more energy. Reduce your stress amount of one or more of its use of a pedometer with a concealed 42(NDIC,2008).
Gluten and Diabetes
(e.g. food frequency, depressive presence of specific serum For more information and
references see
Although we cannot alter weather ingestion has increasingly been
patterns to favour active lifestyles, found to be associated with other 24 e-Newsletters per year $100
we can design treatment strategies conditions not usually correlated t h a t t a k e s e a s o n a l a n d with gluten intolerance. The weather-related variations into subsequent diversity of the clinical 24 Issues per Year 5 (c) 2007 Kimberly Burnham 8-19 Diabetes
Highlighted References
PubMed Abstracts
General References
1. WCA (2007). "Research Explores Chiropractic's Effect On Diabetes." World Chiropractic Alliance (WCA): [Full
Text] and JVSR;
2. Head, K. A. (2006). "Peripheral neuropathy: pathogenic mechanisms and alternative therapies." Altern Med Rev
11(4): 294-329. [Full Text]
3. Field, T., M. Hernandez-Reif, et al. (1997). "Massage therapy lowers blood glucose levels in children with
Diabetes Mellitus. ." Touch Research Institute and Diabetes Spectrum ,10, 237-239.: [Abstract]
4. Vickers, A. and C. Zollman (1999). "ABC of complementary medicine: Massage Therapy." BMJ 319:6 Nov: [Full
T and
5. Yang, K. (2007). "A review of yoga programs for four leading risk factors of chronic diseases." Evid BasedC o m p l e m e n t A l t e r n a t M e d 4 ( 4 ) : 4 8 7 - 9 1 . [ F u l l T e x t ] Innes, K. E. and H. K. Vincent (2007). "The influence of yoga-based programs on risk profiles in adults with type2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review." Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 4(4): 469-86. [PubMed Abstract] Licciardone, J. C., K. G. Fulda, et al. (2007). "A case-control study of osteopathic palpatory findings in type 2diabetes mellitus." Osteopath Med Prim Care 1: 6. [Full Text] Feinglos MN, Hastedt P, Surwit RS. Effects of relaxation therapy on patients with type I diabetes mellitus.
Diabetes Care. 1987, Jan-Feb;10(1):72-5.
9. Surwit RS, van Tilburg MA, Zucker N, McCaskill CC, Parekh P, Feinglos MN, Edwards CL, Williams P, LaneJD. Stress management improves long-term glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2002Jan;25(1):30-4.
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11. Ratner H, Gross L, Casas J, Castells S. A hypnotherapeutic approach to the improvement of compliance inadolescent diabetics. Am J Clin Hypn. 1990 Jan;32(3):154-912. McGrady A, Horner J. Role of mood in outcome of biofeedback assisted relaxation therapy in insulin dependentdiabetes mellitus. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 1999 Mar;24(1):79-88.
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1978 Jul;7(7) :905-10.
14. Stetter F, Walter G, Zimmermann A, Zahres S, Straube ER. Ambulatory short-term therapy of anxiety patientswith autogenic training and hypnosis. Results of treatment and 3 month follow-up. Psychother Psychosom MedPsychol. 1994 Jul;44(7) :226-34.
15. Wichowski HC, Kubsch SM. Increasing diabetic self-care through guided imagery. Complement Ther NursMidwifery. 1999 Dec;5(6):159-63.
16. Galper DI, Taylor AG, Cox DJ. Current status of mind-body interventions for vascular complications ofdiabetes. Family and Community Health. 2003 Jan-Mar; 26 (1):34-4017.AGI (2006). "Guided imagery for Diabetes." Academy for guided imagery: [Full Text]
18. National Institute of Health (2008) [Full Text] Gymnema sylvestre [Full Text] Ananthan R, Baskar C, NarmathaBai V, et al. Antidiabetic effect of Gymnema montanum leaves: effect on lipid 24 Issues per Year 6 (c) 2007 Kimberly Burnham 8-19 Diabetes
peroxidation induced oxidative stress in experimental diabetes. Pharmacol Res 2003;48(6):551-556.
20. Cicero AF, Derosa G, Gaddi A. What do herbalists suggest to diabetic patients in order to improve glycemiccontrol? Evaluation of scientific evidence and potential risks. Acta Diabetol 2004;41(3):91-98.
21. Khare AK, Tondon RN, Tewari JP. Hypoglycaemic activity of an indigenous drug (Gymnema sylvestre,"Gurmar") in normal and diabetic persons. Indian J Physiol Pharm 1983;27:257-258.
22. Meiselman HL, Halpern BP. Effects of Gymnema sylvestre on complex tastes elicited by amino acids andsucrose. Physiol Behav 1970;5(12):1379-1384.
23. Shanmugasundaram ERB, Rajeswari G, Baskaran K, et al. Use of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract in the controlof blood glucose in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Ethnopharm 1990;30(3):281-294.
24. Yeh GY, Eisenberg DM, Kaptchuk TJ, et al. Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemiccontrol in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003;26(4):1277-1294.
2 5 . M e r c o l a , J ( 2 0 0 7 ) I s A l z h e i m e r ' s a F o r m o f D i a b e t e s ? [ F u l l T e x t ] Pilcher, H. (2006). "Alzheimer's disease could be “type 3 diabetes”." The Lancet Neurology - Vol. 5, Issue 5,M
27. MLA Northwestern University (2007, September 27). Alzheimer's Disease Could Be A Third Form Of Diabetes.
S c i e n c e D a i l y. R e t r i e v e d N o v e m b e r 2 6 , 2 0 0 7 , f r o m h t t p : / / w w w . s c i e n c e d a i l y. c o m/releases/2007/09/070926113835.htm28. Touch of Health (2008). "Health Conditions." Touch of Health Website: [Full Text] and
29. Salsich, G. B. and M. J. Mueller (1997). "Relationships between measures of function, strength and walkingspeed in patients with diabetes and transmetatarsal amputation." Clin Rehabil 11(1): 60-7. [PubMed Abstract] _uids=906536130. TheraSauna (2008) [Full Text] and www.TheBurnhamReview.com31. Naturopath (2008) [Full Text] Aetna Clincal Bulletins (2008). "Aetna Coverage Clinical Bulletins." [Full Text]
33. Babu, P. V., K. E. Sabitha, et al. (2008). "Effect of green tea extract on advanced glycation and cross-linkingof tail tendon collagen in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats." Food Chem Toxicol 46(1): 280-5. [PubMedA Iso H, Date C, Wakai K, Fukui M, Tamakoshi A. The relationship between green tea and total caffeine intakeand risk for self-reported type 2 diabetes among Japanese adults. Ann Intern Med. 2006;144:554-6235. Chen, R. (2006). "Green tea, coffee, and diabetes." Ann Intern Med 145(8): 633; author reply 634-5. [Full Text] Anderson RA, Polansky MM. Tea enhances insulin activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:7182-6.
37. Tsuneki H, Ishizuka M, Terasawa M, Wu JB, Sasaoka T, Kimura I. Effect of green tea on blood glucose levelsand serum proteomic patterns in diabetic (db/db) mice and on glucose metabolism in healthy humans. BMCPharmacol. 2004;4:18.and38. Mascitelli, L. and F. Pezzetta (2006). "Green tea, coffee, and diabetes." Ann Intern Med 145(8): 634; authorreply 634-539. Cheng, T. O. (2006). "Green tea, coffee, and diabetes." Ann Intern Med 145(8): 633-4; author reply 634-5. [FullText] Talan, J. (2007). "Scientists Discover A Direct Route From The Brain To The Immune System." The FeinsteinInstitute for Medical Research: [Abstract] and [Full Text]
41. Dasgupta, K., C. Chan, et al. (2007). "Walking behaviour and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: seasonal and 24 Issues per Year 7 (c) 2007 Kimberly Burnham 8-19 Diabetes
gender differences--study design and methods." Cardiovasc Diabetol 6: 1. [Full Text] NDIC (2008). "What I need to know about Physical Activity and Diabetes." National Diabetes InformationClearinghouse: [Full Text]
43. Helms, S. (2005). "Celiac disease and gluten-associated diseases." Altern Med Rev 10(3): 172-92. [Full Text] Atkinson, B. W. (1978). "History of manual therapy." The Journal of the Hong Kong Physiotherapy AssociationVolume 2, 1978-79: [Full Text]
4 5 . M i l l a r d , F. P . (1922). Appl i ed Ana t o m y o f t h e Lym p h a t i cs , [ F u l l T ex t ]w w w . m e r i d i a n i n s t i t u t e . c o m / e a m t / f i l e s / m i l l a r d / m i l l c o n t . h t m l a n and R.M. Ashley, D. O., Detroit, Mich. The Role ofthe Artery is Supreme.
24 Issues per Year 8 (c) 2007 Kimberly Burnham 8-19 Diabetes


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