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Roles and responsibilities

2) Explain the term “Professional”. (C-2) 3) Give an example of a “health care professional”. (C-2) 4) Describe the role of the Oregon Office of Public Health EMS and Trauma Section. (C-2) 5) Describe the differences between ethical behavior and legal requirements and how they pertain to EMT-Intermediates on and off duty. (C-2) 6) Identify whether a particular activity is unethical and/or illegal. (C-1) 7) Describe the importance of EMT-Intermediate involvement in public education. (C-1) 8) Describe continuing education requirements for EMT-Intermediates. (C-1) Emergency Pharmacology
1) Identify the common sources of drug information. (C-1) 2) Discuss the standardization of drugs and how they are classified. (C-2) 3) Differentiate among the chemical, generic, and trade names of a drug. (C-2) 4) List the four main sources of drug products. (C-2) 5) Explain the special consideration in drug treatment with regard to pregnant, pediatric and 6) Discuss the EMT-Intermediate’s responsibilities and scope of management pertinent to the 7) List and describe liquid, solid, and gas drug forms. (C-2) 8) List and differentiate routes of drug administration. (C-2) 9) Differentiate between enteral and parenteral routes of drug administration. (C-3) 10) Review the specific anatomy and physiology relevant to pharmacology. (C-3) 11) Describe mechanisms of drug action, drug-response relationship, factors altering drug responses, drug interactions, predictable and unpredictable drug responses. (C-2) 12) Discuss considerations for storing drugs. (C-2) 13) List and describe the drugs which an EMT-Intermediate may administer. (C-2) 14) Explain procedures and measures to ensure security of controlled substances. (C-2) 15) In a given scenario formulate a pharmacologic management plan including medication Venous Access And Medication Administration
The EMT-Intermediate will be able to safely and precisely access the venous circulation and 1) Review the relevant peripheral vascular anatomy. (C-1) 2) Calculate basic mathematical problems utilized in pharmacology (C-3) 3) Apply formulas as a basis for performing drug calculations. (C-3) 4) Calculate oral and parenteral drug dosages for all emergency medications administered to 5) Discuss the role of medical direction in medication administration. (C-2) 6) Discuss legal aspects affecting medication administration. (C-2) 7) List the Rights of Medication Administration. (C-1) 8) Describe medical asepsis and the differences between clean and sterile techniques. (C-2) 9) Describe use of antiseptics and disinfectants. (C-2) 10) Explain the use of universal precautions and body substance isolation (BSI) procedures when 11) Explain the indications, contraindications, equipment needed, technique utilized, precautions and general principles of peripheral venous cannulation and intraosseous needle placement and 12) Explain the indications, contraindications, equipment needed, techniques utilized, precautions, and general principles of administering medications by the inhalation route, and oral route. (C-3) 13) Explain the equipment used and the procedure for the administration of parenteral medications. 14) Define the different forms and measurements of oral medications. (C-1) 15) Compare and contrast each parenteral route of medication administration. (C-6) 16) Explain the procedure for the administration of medications through the subcutaneous, intramuscular and intravenous routes. (C-2) 17) Describe the equipment needed, techniques utilized, precautions, and general principles for 18) Describe disposal of contaminated items and sharps. (C-2) 19) Integrate pathophysiological principles of medication administration with patient management. AIRWAY MANAGEMENT
Cognitive Objectives
1) Identify the anatomy and physiology of the upper and lower airways. (C-1) 2) Discuss the role of the medulla and chemoreceptors in the control of ventilation. (C-2) 3) Describe the normal arterial partial pressures of PaO2, PaCO2, and pH, explaining their significance and relationship to respiratory compromise and/or disease. (C-3) 4) Associate respiratory volumes and capacities in relationship to the need for assisted ventilations in the following medical presentations. (C-3) 5) Discuss the specific observations and physical findings to be evaluated in patients with 6) Summarize specific observations and physical findings commonly found in patients presenting in respiratory and/or cardiac arrest. (C-5) 7) Discuss the basic principles of airway management. (C-5) 8) Describe the indications for suctioning and identify rigid and flexible suction catheters and the 9) Determine the indications and contraindications for the use of the pharyngeal/esophageal airway 10) Determine the advantages and disadvantages of using the pharyngeal/esophageal airway device 11) Explain under what situations the PEADs may be removed in the prehospital setting. (C-3) AIRWAY DISEASE
Cognitive Objectives
1) Discuss the physiology of ventilation and respiration as it pertains to airway disease. (C-5) 2) Identify common pathological events that affect the pulmonary system. (C-2) 3) Explain how effective assessment is critical to clinical decision-making in the airway management of the respiratory distress patient. (C-5) 4) Explain how hypoxic patients affect assessment and decision-making. (C-4) 5) Determine the general approach, patient assessment, and management priorities for patients 6) Discuss normal and abnormal assessment findings associated with airway disease. (C-4) 7) Compare various airway and ventilation techniques used in the management of airway disease. 8) Discuss the pharmacological preparations that EMT-Intermediates use for the management of 9) Review the equipment used during the physical examination of patients with complaints associated with airway diseases and conditions. (C-1) 10) Describe the epidemiology, pathophysiology, assessment findings and management for the following respiratory diseases and conditions. (C-5) f) Congestive heart failure (covered in greater extent in cardiac section). 11) Differentiate between critical life threatening, potentially life-threatening, and non life-threatening Cardiac Emergencies
b) Describe the physical characteristics of blood, including the composition and function of plasma, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, leukocytes, and platelets. (C-2) c) Summarize the process of blood clotting. (C-3) d) Distinguish the factors that limit clot formation and prevent clotting. (C-3) e) Cite examples of clotting disorders. Give reasons for each condition. i) Thrombotic and embolic conditions (C-2) a) Describe the structure of blood vessel walls. (C-2) b) Describe the structure and function of the arterial system. (C-2) c) Describe the structure and function of a capillary bed. (C-2) d) Describe the structure and function of the venous system. (C-2) e) Trace the pathway of a drop of blood through the body. (C-3) f) Name and give the location of the major arteries and veins in the systemic circulation. (C-1) a) Describe the size and shape of the heart and indicate its location and orientation in the b) Name the covering of the heart. (C-1) c) Describe the structure of the heart wall. (C-1) d) List the structure and function of the four heart chambers. Name each chamber and provide the name and general route of its associated great vessel(s). (C-1) e) Name the heart valves and describe their location, function, and mechanism of operation. (C- f) Name the major branches of the coronary arteries and describe their distribution. (C-2) g) Differentiate between cardiac and skeletal muscle in terms of their intrinsic properties and h) Name the components of the conduction system of the heart and trace the conduction i) Summarize the electrophysiology of membrane potential, sodium channels, potassium channels, calcium channels, depolarization, repolarization, refractory periods, and electrolyte j) Describe the timing and mechanical events of the cardiac cycle. (C-2) k) Discuss how ions, nerves and hormones influence the electrophysiology and mechanics of l) Explain how the body regulates stroke volume, cardiac output, heart rate, preload, afterload, 4) Physiology of Circulation and Perfusion a) Define blood flow, blood pressure and resistance. (C-1) b) List and describe the factors that influence blood flow in the body. (C-2) c) Describe how blood pressure is regulated. (C-3) d) Explain the role of cardiac cell feedback loops; baroreceptors, chemoreceptors, sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation and response in the regulation of cardiac output and blood e) Explain how capillary sphincters control local blood flow and nutrient exchange at the cell. (C- f) Explain the relationship between vasoconstriction, vasodilation, and blood pressure. (C-3) g) List examples of shock and identify which mechanisms of cardiac output and blood pressure a) Identify the cardiac and non-cardiac causes of chest pain. (C-1) b) Identify the traumatic and non-traumatic causes of chest pain (C-1) c) Outline the specific elements to include in the following aspects of a cardiovascular d) Describe the components of the focused history as it relates to the patient with cardiovascular e) Identify the elements of the SHOPS mnemonic as part of a chest pain assessment. (C-1) a) Explain the purpose of EKG monitoring and its limitations. (C-2) b) Specify patient situations when monitoring is indicated. (C-2) c) Identify the operational aspects of EKG monitoring and defibrillator devices. (C-2) d) Describe correct electrode placement for monitoring. (C-2) e) Correlate EKG graph lines with the heart rate. (C-3) f) Define the common terms used in EKG analysis including isoelectric line, duration, segment, g) Given a diagram of a normal electrocardiogram tracing, name the individual waves and h) Discuss the normal findings of each wave and interval of a typical EKG and indicate the events represented by each element of the EKG. (C-2) i) Describe a systematic approach to the analysis and interpretation of cardiac rhythms. (C-3) j) Interpret various rhythms found within the following categories of dysrhythmias k) Identify the primary mechanisms responsible for producing cardiac dysrhythmias. (C-1) l) Outline the assessment for dysrhythmias and discuss the general treatment approach to a) Describe the pathophysiology of angina pectoris. (C-3) b) Differentiate between the signs and symptoms of stable angina and unstable angina. (C-3) c) Describe the pathophysiology of myocardial infarction. (C-3) d) Differentiate the characteristics of angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction. (C-3) e) Identify the most common complications of an acute myocardial infarction. (C-3) f) Identify atypical presentations possible (particularly in females) in a patient having and acute g) Identify the primary hemodynamic changes and the anticipated clinical presentation of a patient with a suspected acute myocardial infarction. (C-4) h) Describe the causes of and pathophysiology associated with congestive heart failure. (C-3) i) Define pulmonary edema and describe its relationship to left ventricular failure. (C-3) j) Define and explain the significance of pulmonary edema and dependent edema. (C-3) k) Differentiate between the chronic and acute clinical presentation of a patient with congestive l) Formulate a patient treatment plan for the patient in acute congestive heart failure. (C-5) m) Determine the most commonly used physician-prescribed drugs classes in the management of chronic congestive heart failure. (C-2) n) Based on the pathophysiology and evaluation of the patient with chest pain, list the anticipated clinical problems according to their life-threatening potential. (C-6) o) Correlate abnormal findings in assessment with clinical significance in the patient with p) Interpret the signs and symptoms of the patient with chest pain, CHF, MI, angina, acute aortic aneurysm, hypertensive emergency, and cardiac arrest. (C-2) q) Differentiate between critical life threatening, potentially life threatening and non-life threatening patient presentations with the use of critical thinking scenarios. (C-3) a) Outline the drug profiles for the prehospital treatment of cardiac chest pain including their mechanism of action, indications, precautions, side effects, contraindications, and dosing b) Specify the measures that may be taken to prevent or minimize complications in the patient suspected of myocardial infarction. (C-3) c) xplain the current ACLS algorithms for bradycardia and acute pulmonary edema (C-3) d) Explain the “window of opportunity” as it pertains to reperfusion of a myocardial injury or infarction and list the characteristics of an eligible patient. (C-2) a) Distinguish the unique characteristics of manual, automatic, semi-automatic and internal b) Define and explain the importance of defibrillation. (C-3) c) Summarize the contraindications and precautions for defibrillation. (C-1) d) Identify the signs of cardiac arrest and describe the importance of confirming cardiac arrest prior to initiating defibrillation. (C-2) e) Describe the safety considerations involved in defibrillation. (C-2) f) Describe correct pad /paddle placement for analysis and defibrillation. (C-2) g) Define and describe the pathophysiology of cardiac arrest. (C-2) h) Outline the sequence for the ACLS universal algorithm for cardiac arrest. (C-1) i) Describe the dysrhythmias seen in cardiac arrest. (C-2) j) Explain the current ACLS algorithms for the following: k) Determine the following drug choices for cardiac arrest including their indications, contraindications, side effects, route of administration, and dosages: (C-4) i) Antiarrhythmic (e.g., Amiodarone, Lidocaine) iii) Sympathomimetics (e.g. Epinephrine) iv) Antidiuretic, antihemorrhagic (e.g. Vasopressin) l) Explain the steps involved in the confirmation of asystole. (C-1) m) Identify circumstances and situations where resuscitation efforts would not be initiated. (C-3) n) Identify communication and documentation protocols with medical direction and law enforcement used for termination of resuscitation efforts. (C-3) 10) Special considerations in cardiac arrest a) Identify causes of sudden cardiac arrest in children. (C-1) b) Explain the use of defibrillation with children. (C-2) c) Identify the differences between adult and child defibrillation. (C-2) d) Indicate the joules used in pediatric defibrillation. (C-1) e) Explain the current ACLS guidelines for recognition and management of the following: (C-3) a) Explain the pathophysiology and risk factors of an arterial aneurysm. (C-1) b) Recognize and describe the signs and symptoms of dissecting thoracic or abdominal c) Describe the significance of unequal blood pressure readings in the arms. (C-2) d) State the symptoms and consequences of chronic hypertension. (C-2) e) Identify the risk factors and precipitating causes of a hypertensive emergency. (C-1) f) Explain the signs and symptoms of a hypertensive emergency. (C-3) g) Determine the drugs of choice for hypertensive emergencies including their indications, precautions, contraindications, side effects, route of administration and dosages. (C-3) Altered Mental Status
Cognitive Objectives
1) Identify the following structures in the brain: (C-1) 2) State the functions of the nervous system. (C-1) 3) Name the divisions of the nervous system. (C-1) 5) Describe the role of polarization, depolarization, and repolarization in nerve impulse 6) Identify the components of the central nervous system. (C-1) 7) Describe the role of the central nervous system. (C-1) 8) Define the Reticular Activating System. (RAS) (C-1) 9) Describe the role of the Reticular Activating System as it pertains to AMS. (C-1) 10) State the function of the meninges and cerebrospinal fluid. (C-1) 11) Identify the divisions of the autonomic nervous system and define their functions. (C-1) 12) State the function of the hormones of the pancreas. (C-1) 13) Describe how glucose is converted to energy during cellular respiration. (C-1) 14) Describe the response of insulin and glucagon to altered levels of glucose. (C-2) 15) Describe the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus. (C-2) 16) Describe the mechanism of ketone body formation and its relationship to ketoacidosis. (C-2) 17) Correlate abnormal findings in assessment with clinical significance in the patient with a diabetic 18) Generalize the pathophysiology of non-traumatic neurologic emergencies. (C-3) 19) Explain the pathophysiology, epidemiology, assessment findings and management of the g) Altered level of conscious/syncope/weakness/headache 20) Correlate abnormal findings in assessment with clinical significance in the patient with CVA/TIA, diabetes, drug overdose, seizures, and infections. (C-3) 21) Interpret the signs and symptoms of the patient with CVA//TIA, diabetes, drug overdose, 22) Demonstrate the management of CVA/TIA, diabetes, drug overdose, epilepsy, and infections. 23) Apply the pathophysiological principles and the assessment findings to formulate a field impression and implement a treatment plan for the patient with altered mentation. (C-3) 24) Develop a patient management plan based on field impression in the patient with altered 25) Determine the need for rapid intervention and transport of the patient with non-traumatic 26) Determine the class, mechanism of action, contraindications/cautions, interactions, adverse Cognitive Objectives
1) List and the components of the trauma system in the State of Oregon. (C-1) 2) Explain the role of and the differences between the levels of trauma centers in Oregon. (C-2) 3) Describe the criteria for transport to a trauma center. (C-2) 4) Describe the criteria and procedure for air medical transport. (C-2) 5) Define energy and force as they relate to trauma. (C-1) 6) Define the laws of motion and energy and understand the role of increased speed has on 7) Define the role of kinematics as an additional tool for patient assessment. (C-2) 8) Describe the organ collisions that occur in blunt trauma and vehicular collisions. (C-1) 9) Describe each type of vehicular collision and list the injuries that would potentially result from 10) Determine the effects of various restraint systems on energy transfer and injury patterns in motor 11) Explain motion and energy considerations of mechanisms other than motor vehicle crashes. (C- 12) Explain the kinematics of penetrating injuries. (C-2) 13) List specific injuries and their causes as related to interior and exterior vehicle damage. (C-1) Hemorrhage and Shock
Cognitive Objectives
1. List the causes of hemorrhage and state examples of medical and traumatic causes for 2. Review the various types of hemorrhage. (C-2) 3. Generalize the body’s response to various stages of blood loss. (C-3) 4. Explain how pediatric and geriatric patients tolerate varying stages of hemorrhage 5. Review the components of perfusion including cardiac output, blood pressure regulation 6. Outline the differences between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism as they relate to the amount of energy production and the production of waste products. (C-1) 7. Categorize traumatic and medical causes of shock by the impaired mechanism(s) of 8. Describe the body’s physiologic response to changes in perfusion. (C-2) 9. Differentiate between the pathophysiology of compensated and decompensated shock. 10. Describe the effects of decreased perfusion at the capillary level. (C-2) 11. Discuss the cellular ischemic phase related to hypovolemic shock. (C-2) 12. Discuss the capillary stagnation phase of hypovolemic shock. (C-2) 13. Discuss the capillary washout phase related to hypovolemic shock. (C-2) 14. Differentiate between the assessment findings of compensated and decompensated 15. Differentiate the assessment findings for hypovolemic, cardiogenic, distributive, 16. Explain the general principles involved in shock management. (C-2) 17. Discuss the physiologic changes associated with the pneumatic anti-shock garment 18. Discuss the indications and contraindications for application and inflation of the PASG. (C- 19. Integrate the principles of pathophysiology into the assessment of hemorrhage or shock. 20. Synthesize assessment findings and patient history information to form a field impression for the patient with hemorrhage or shock. (C-5) 21. Develop, execute, and evaluate a treatment plan based on the field impression for the 22. Differentiate between the treatment strategies for hypovolemic, cardiogenic, distributive, obstructive, neurogenic and hypovolemic shock. (C-3) Cognitive Objectives
At the completion of this unit, the EMT-Intermediate student will be able to: 1. Describe the epidemiology, including incidence, morbidity/mortality, risk factors, and prevention strategies for the patient with a burn injury. (C-2) 2. Describe the anatomy and physiology pertinent to burn injuries. (C-2) 3. Describe the local and systemic complications of a burn injury. (C-2)
4. Identify and describe the depth classification of burn injuries, including the superficial
burn, a partial thickness burn, a full thickness burn, and other depth classifications described by local standing orders. (C-2) 5. Identify and describe methods for determining body surface area percentage of a burn
injury including the “Rule of Nines,” the “Rule of Palms,” and other methods described by 6. Identify and describe the severity of a burn including a minor burn, a moderate burn, a
severe burn, and other severity classifications described by local standing orders. (C-2) 7. Differentiate criteria for determining the severity of a burn between a pediatric patient and
8. Discuss the factors that impact the determination of burn severity. (C-2)
9. Outline the general assessment and management of a thermal burn injury. (C-1)
10. Discuss mechanisms of burn injury and conditions associated with various burn injuries.
11. Explain the indications, precautions, contraindications and dosing for morphine sulfate,
12. Explain the pathophysiology, assessment findings and management considerations for
thermal burns, inhalation injuries and electrical burns. (C-2) 13. Formulate a field impression and implement the management plan for a thermal burn, an
inhalation burn, and an electrical burn. (C-3) Thoracic Trauma
Cognitive Objectives

At the completion of this unit, the EMT-Intermediate student will be able to: 1) List the types of thoracic injuries found in blunt and penetrating trauma. (C-1) 2) Discuss the anatomy and physiology of the organs and structures related to thoracic injuries. (C- 3) Associate respiratory volumes and capacities in relationship to the need for assisted ventilations in the following chest trauma presentations. (C-3) 4) Discuss the general pathophysiology involved in thoracic injuries. (C-2) 5) Discuss the assessment findings associated with thoracic injuries. (C-2) 6) Predict thoracic injuries based on mechanism of injury. (C-3) 7) Discuss the general management considerations for thoracic injuries. (C-2) 8) Explain the need for rapid intervention and transport of the patient with thoracic injuries. (C-3) 9) Discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, assessment findings and management of the 10) Discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, assessment findings and management of the 11) Discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, assessment findings and management of the 12) Discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, assessment findings and management of the 13) Differentiate between thoracic injuries based on assessment and history. (C-3) 14) Formulate a field impression based on the assessment findings. (C-3) 15) Develop a patient management plan based on the field impression. (C-4) Head Trauma
1) Identify primary and secondary brain injury. (C-1) 2) Describe the signs and symptoms of hypoxia in TBI. (C-2) 3) Discuss the effects of hypotension on the TBI patient. (C-2) 4) Calculate an accurate GCS score. (C3) 5) Differentiate between flexor/decorticate and extensor/decerebrate posturing. (C-2) 6) Identify pre-hospital signs of herniation. (C3) Pediatrics
At the completion of this module, the EMT-Intermediate student will be able to: 1) Identify the growth and developmental characteristics of infants and children. (C-2) 2) Explain anatomy and physiology characteristics of infants and children. (C-3) 3) Outline differences in adult and childhood anatomy and physiology. (C-3) 4) Describe techniques for successful assessment of infants and children. (C-3) 5) Identify the common responses of families to acute illness and injury of an infant or child. (C-1) 6) Describe techniques for successful interaction with families of acutely ill or injured infants and 7) Discuss pediatric patient assessment. (C-2) 8) Identify “normal” age group related vital signs. (C-2) 9) Discuss the appropriate equipment utilized to obtain pediatric vital signs. (C-2) 10) Determine appropriate airway adjuncts for infants and children. (C-3) 11) Discuss complications of improper utilization of airway adjuncts with infants and children. (C-3) 12) Discuss appropriate ventilation devices for infants and children. (C-3) 13) Discuss complications of improper utilization of ventilation devices with infants and children. (C- 14) Discuss age appropriate vascular access sites for infants and children. (C-2) 15) Discuss the appropriate equipment for vascular access in infants and children. (C-2) 16) Identify complications of vascular access for infants and children. (C-1) 20) Describe the epidemiology, including the incidence, morbidity/ mortality, and risk factors for respiratory distress/ failure in infants and children. (C-1) 21) Discuss the pathophysiology of respiratory distress/ failure in infants and children. (C-3) 22) Discuss the assessment findings associated with respiratory distress/ failure in infants and 23) Discuss the management/ treatment plan for respiratory distress/ failure in infants and children. 24) List the indications for placement of an oral gastric tube for infants and children. (C-1) 25) Differentiate between upper and lower airway obstruction. (C-2) 26) Describe the epidemiology, including the incidence, morbidity/ mortality, and risk factors for 27) Discuss the pathophysiology of croup in infants and children. (C-2) 28) Discuss the assessment findings associated with foreign body aspiration in infants and children. 29) Discuss the management/ treatment plan for foreign body aspiration in infants and children. (C- 30) Describe the epidemiology, including the incidence, morbidity/ mortality, and risk factors for epiglottitis in infants and children. (C-2) 31) Discuss the pathophysiology of epiglottitis in infants and children. (C-2) 32) Discuss the assessment findings associated with epiglottitis in infants and children. (C-2) 33) Discuss the management/ treatment plan for epiglottitis in infants and children. (C-3) 34) Describe the epidemiology, including the incidence, morbidity/ mortality, and risk factors for asthma/bronchiolitis in infants and children. (C-2) 35) Discuss the pathophysiology of asthma/bronchiolitis in infants and children. (C-2) 36) Discuss the assessment findings associated with asthma/bronchiolitis in infants and children. (C- 37) Discuss the management/ treatment plan for asthma/bronchiolitis in infants and children. (C-3) 38) Describe the epidemiology, including the incidence, morbidity/ mortality, and risk factors for pneumonia in infants and children. (C-2) 39) Discuss the pathophysiology of pneumonia in infants and children. (C-2) 40) Discuss the assessment findings associated with pneumonia in infants and children. (C-2) 41) Discuss the management/ treatment plan for pneumonia in infants and children. (C-3) 42) Describe the epidemiology, including the incidence; morbidity/ mortality, and risk factors for foreign body lower airway obstruction in infants and children. (C-2) 43) Discuss the pathophysiology of foreign body lower airway obstruction in infants and children. (C- 44) Discuss the assessment findings associated with foreign body lower airway obstruction in infants 45) Discuss the management/ treatment plan for foreign body lower airway obstruction in infants and 46) Discuss the common causes of shock in infants and children. (C-2) 47) Evaluate the severity of shock in infants and children. (C-3) 48) Differentiate the assessment findings associated between compensated, and decompensated shock between infants, children and adults. (C-2) 49) Discuss the management/ treatment plan for shock in infants and children. (C-3) 50) Identify the major classifications of pediatric cardiac rhythms. (C-2) 51) Describe the epidemiology, including the incidence, morbidity/ mortality, and risk factors for cardiac dysrhythmias in infants and children. (C-2) 52) Discuss the pathophysiology of cardiac dysrhythmias in infants and children. (C-2) 53) Discuss the assessment findings associated with cardiac dysrhythmias in infants and children. 54) Discuss the management/ treatment plan for cardiac dysrhythmias in infants and children. (C-3) 55) Describe the epidemiology, including the incidence, morbidity/ mortality, and risk factors for tachydysrythmias in infants and children. (C-2) 56) Discuss the pathophysiology of tachydysrythmias in infants and children. (C-2) 57) Discuss the assessment findings associated with tachydysrythmias in infants and children. (C-2) 58) Discuss the management/ treatment plan for tachydysrythmias in infants and children. (C-3) 59) Describe the epidemiology, including the incidence, morbidity/ mortality, and risk factors for bradydysrythmias in infants and children. (C-2) 60) Discuss the pathophysiology of bradydysrythmias in infants and children. (C-2) 61) Discuss the assessment findings associated with bradydysrythmias in infants and children. (C-2) 62) Discuss the management/ treatment plan for bradydysrythmias in infants and children. (C-3) 63) Discuss the primary etiologies of cardiopulmonary arrest in infants and children. (C-2) 64) Discuss basic cardiac life support (CPR) guidelines for infants and children. (C-2) 65) Identify appropriate parameters for performing infant and child CPR. (C-2) 66) Integrate advanced life support skills with basic cardiac life support for infants and children. (C-3) 67) Describe the epidemiology, including the incidence, morbidity/ mortality, and risk factors for 68) Discuss the pathophysiology of seizures in infants and children. (C-2) 69) Discuss the assessment findings associated with seizures in infants and children. (C-2) 70) Discuss the management/ treatment plan for seizures in infants and children. (C-3) 71) Describe the epidemiology, including the incidence, morbidity/ mortality, and risk factors for hypoglycemia in infants and children. (C-2) 72) Discuss the pathophysiology of hypoglycemia in infants and children. (C-2) 73) Discuss the assessment findings associated with hypoglycemia in infants and children. (C-2) 74) Discuss the management/ treatment plan for hypoglycemia in infants and children. (C-3) 75) Describe the epidemiology, including the incidence, morbidity/ mortality, and risk factors for hyperglycemia in infants and children. (C-2) 76) Discuss the pathophysiology of hyperglycemia in infants and children. (C-2) 77) Discuss the assessment findings associated with hyperglycemia in infants and children. (C-2) 78) Discuss the management/ treatment plan for hyperglycemia in infants and children. (C-2) 79) Identify common lethal mechanisms of injury in infants and children. (C-1) 80) Discuss anatomical features of children that predispose or protect them from certain injuries. (C- 81) Describe aspects of infant and children airway management that are affected by potential 82) Identify infant and child trauma patients who require spinal immobilization. (C-1) 83) Discuss the pathophysiology of trauma in infants and children. (C-2) 84) Discuss the assessment findings associated with trauma in infants and children. (C-2) 85) Discuss the management/ treatment plan for trauma in infants and children. (C-3) 86) Discuss the assessment findings and management considerations for pediatric trauma patients with the following specific injuries: head/neck injuries, chest injuries, abdominal injuries, extremities injuries, burn injuries. (C-3) i) http://www.oregon.gov/DHS/children/index.shtml 89) Describe the epidemiology, including the incidence, morbidity/ mortality, and risk factors and reporting requirements for abuse and neglect in infants and children. (C-1) 90) Discuss the assessment findings associated with abuse and neglect in infants and children. (C- 91) Discuss the management/ treatment plan for abuse and neglect in infants and children. (C-3) 92) Define sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). (C-1) 93) Discuss the parent/ caregiver responses to the death of an infant or child. (C-1) 94) Describe the epidemiology, including the incidence, morbidity/ mortality, and risk factors for SIDS 95) Discuss the pathophysiology of SIDS in infants. (C-1) 96) Discuss the assessment findings associated with SIDS infants. (C-2) 97) Discuss the management/ treatment plan for SIDS in infants. (C-3) Geriatrics
At the completion of this lesson, the EMT-Intermediate student will be able to: 1) Describe dependent and independent living environments. (C-1) 2) Identify local resources available to assist the elderly and discuss strategies to refer at-risk patients to appropriate community services. (C-1) 3) Discuss assessment techniques of the elderly patient. (C-2) 4) Describe communication strategies used to provide psychological support. (C-3) 5) Discuss expected physiological changes associated with aging. (C-3) 6) Discuss problems with mobility in the elderly. (C-3) 7) Discuss problems with continence and elimination. (C-3) 8) Discuss pathophysiology changes associated with the elderly in regards to drug distribution, 9) Discuss the impact of polypharmacy, dosing errors, medication non-compliance, and drug sensitivity on patient assessment and management. (C-3) 10) Discuss the assessment and management of the elderly patient with complaints related to the 11) Describe the assessment of nervous system diseases in the elderly, including (C-3) Discuss the assessment of an elderly patient with gastrointestinal problems, including GI 13) Discuss the normal and abnormal changes with age related to toxicology. (C-3) 14) Discuss the assessment of the elderly patient with complaints related to toxicology. (C-3) 15) Describe the assessment and management of the elderly patient with toxicological problems. (C- 16) Discuss the assessment and management of the patient with environmental considerations. (C- 17) Discuss the normal and abnormal changes of the musculoskeletal system with age. (C-3) 18) Discuss the assessment and management of the elderly patient with complaints associated with 19) Discuss the general management of the elderly patient. (C-3) 20) Describe common psychological reactions associated with aging. (C-2) Environmental
At the completion of this module, the EMT-Intermediate student will be able to: 1) Define “environmental emergency.” (C-1) 2) Identify risk factors most predisposing to environmental emergencies. (C-1) 3) Identify environmental factors that may cause illness or exacerbate a pre-existing illness. (C-1) 4) Identify environmental factors that may complicate treatment or transport decisions. (C-1) 5) List the principal types of environmental illnesses. (C-1) 6) Identify normal, critically high and critically low body temperatures. (C-1) 7) Describe several methods of temperature monitoring. (C-1) 8) Identify the methods of heat loss. (C-2) 9) Describe the body’s compensatory process for over heating. (C-2) 10) Describe the body’s compensatory process for excess heat loss. (C-2) 11) Explain the common forms of heat and cold disorders. (C-2) 12) List the common predisposing factors associated with heat and cold disorders. (C-1) 13) List the common preventative measures associated with heat and cold disorders. (C-1) 15) Identify signs and symptoms of heat illness. (C-1) 16) List the predisposing factors for heat illness. (C-1) 17) List measures to prevent heat illness. (C-1) 18) Relate symptomatic findings to the commonly used terms: heat exhaustion, and heat stroke. (C- 19) Discuss the role of fluid therapy in the treatment of heat disorders. (C-1) 20) Differentiate among the various treatments and interventions in the management of heat 21) Integrate the pathophysiological principles and the assessment findings to formulate a field impression and implement a treatment plan for the patient who has dehydration, heat 23) List predisposing factors for hypothermia. (C-1) 24) List measures to prevent hypothermia. (C-1) 25) Identify differences between mild and severe hypothermia. (C-1) 26) Describe differences between chronic and acute hypothermia. (C-1) 27) List signs and symptoms of hypothermia. (C-1) 28) Correlate abnormal findings in assessment with their clinical significance in the patient with 29) Discuss the impact of severe hypothermia on standard BCLS and ACLS algorithms and 30) Integrate pathophysiological principles and the assessment findings to formulate a field impression and implement a treatment plan for the patient who has either mild or severe 32) Discuss the complications and protective role of hypothermia in the context of near-drowning. (C- 33) Correlate the abnormal findings in assessment with the clinical significance in the patient with 34) Differentiate among the various treatments and interventions in the management of near 35) Integrate pathophysiological principles and the assessment findings to formulate a field impression and implement a treatment plan for the near-drowning patient. (C-3) 36) Integrate pathophysiological principles of the patient affected by an environmental emergency. 37) Differentiate between environmental emergencies based on assessment findings. (C-3) 38) Correlate abnormal findings in the assessment with the clinical significance in the patient affected by an environmental emergency. (C-3) 39) Develop a patient management plan based on the field impression the patient affected by an

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2012 Federal Budget March 29, 2012 2012 FEDERAL BUDGET SUMMARY INTRODUCTION On March 29, 2012, The Honourable Jim Flaherty, Canada Minister of Finance, introduced his budget. The highlights of the budget are set out below: PERSONAL INCOME TAX MESURES Medical expense tax credit The budget proposes to add to the list eligible to the credit blood coagulation monitors

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DECISIONS OF THE MEETING OF REGIONAL TRANSPORT AUTHORITY, PALAKKAD HELD ON 26.06.2013. Heard. Perused the connected records. Approval for the bus stand granted , subject to the condition that the panchayath shall ensure water supply withoutinterruption in the bus stand toilets and in the drinking water pipelines. Heard. In view of the observations of Hon’ble High Court of Kerala report

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