Microsoft word - document7
The flora surveyed at the site was done so using stratified sampling and random
sampling. The sample points are shown in Figure 3.01.
In Table 1.1 that follows, there is a complete of the plants and trees found at the
FLORA: Table 1- A Complete List of the Floral Species Found at the Vision
City Project Site
Species Common Name
Species Scientific Name
Wild Cashima, Wild Sugar Apple Rollinia exsucca
FLORA: Notes on Some Floral Families at the Vision City Project Site
This is a family of flowering, fruit-bearing plants. The members of this family are
very cosmopolitan and subsist all over the New, as well as the Old World.
The Annonaceae, or the soursop family, is a flowering family consisting of trees,
shrubs and lianas. The fruits of this family are large, pulpy and edible. Some
family members also produce aromatic oils, which can be used for perfumes or
These plants are rhizomatous or tuberous herbs typically with
calcium oxalate crystals or raphides and a milky sap. Leaves are
usually large, spade-like and have a sheathing base. The flower is
a fleshy spike or spadix partially enveloped by a bract, which is
brightly coloured. The Philodendrons and Monsteras are part of
this family and are popular as ornamentals. They are mostly
Araliaceae is a family of flowering plants, also known as the Aralia family or the
Ginseng family. The family includes trees, shrubs, lianas and herbs. These are
The Asteraceae are herbs, shrubs or less commonly, trees and are perhaps the
largest family of flowering plants. The family Asteraceae is known as the aster or
daisy family. These dicotyledons derive their name from the genus Aster
shaped flowers of the family’s many daisies.
Species in this family are mostly tropical trees or shrubs. The flowers are usually
large and “showy”. They have a large diversity in the Neotropics. Tabebuia
species are frequently used to line streets and beautify natural areas.
There are three subfamilies of Bromeliaceae: Pitcairnoideae (terrestrial with
pointy leaves), Bromelioideae (terrestrial epiphytic, tanks), and Tillandsioideae
(epiphytes). Pitcairnoideae grow rooted in the soil. The leaves often have spiny
edges, and may be thick and fleshy. The next two subfamilies are considered
more evolved and many are epiphytic, absorbing water through their leaves
This family is also called the incense tree family. The family includes both trees
and shrubs and is native to tropical regions. Some members of the family
produce fragrant resins used as incense or perfume, most notably frankincense
The Clusiaceae are trees or shrubs, usually with milky or colourer sap. The
leaves are simple and are opposite, whorled or rarely alternate and the fruit is
These flowering plants include trees, shrubs and lianas. This family is widely
distributed and is cultivated for ornamentals and for its edible fruits.
This family of plants are the tree ferns, some of which are arboreal. Some
members of this family are very specific to particular habitats.
This is the family of grasses. They are mainly herbaceous, but some members
are woodier for example bamboo. These are entirely monocotyledons and have
a widespread distribution, tolerating many diverse habitat conditions.
The Heliconia family, which is a single genus, is distributed in mainly tropical and
subtropical regions. It is cultivated as an ornamental plant. The defining features
are the highly coloured bracts, which make these species very recognizable.
Also known as, the Barbados-cherry family, this family is very diverse in its family
members. This family comprises of trees and lianas.
This family consists of perennial flowering herbs that grow from rhizomes. The
fruits are fleshy, dry capsules. The family is sometimes called the "prayer-plant
family”. The most famous species in the family is Arrowroot (Maranta
), a plant of the Caribbean, which is known for its easily digestible
starch. Several species of genus Calathea
are grown as houseplants.
This family is a taxon of dicotyledonous flowering plants that is found mostly in
the tropics. They are annual or perennial herbs, shrubs or small trees. A
number of these are considered to be invasive plants.
The Meliaceae, or the Mahogany family, is a flowering plant family of mostly
trees and shrubs, with only a few herbaceous plants. Most of these species are
evergreen, even though there are some species, which show deciduous
behaviour. Species in this family are used for making oil, soaps, insecticides and
The Mimosaceae are mostly tropical and subtropical trees and shrubs. The
arrangements of their leaves are nearly always the same with alternate, stipulate
and bi-pinnately arranged compound leaves.
There is over 1,000 species in the Moraceae family comprising of trees, shrubs
and rarely herbs worldwide. Most have a milky sap. Their leaves are simple and
alternate most of the time. The flowers are unisexual and are densely
The banana family consists of large tree-like perennial herbs, the Musaceae
have alternate leaves with concentric sheathing portions that create pseudo-
trunks from which the blades diverge. The blades have prominent mid-rib and
parallel lateral veins. Members of this family are highly recognisable.
This family is also referred to as the Nutmeg family, as it is named after its most
famous member, Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans
). These plants are flowering plants
with several hundred species of trees and shrubs in tropical regions. The best-
known species are those from the genera: Myristica
This family consists of trees and shrubs found in the tropics, subtropics and
temperate regions. The leaves are usually opposite and frequently glandular
dotted. Psidium guajava
“guava” is a shrub, which is pink or cream inside and
The palms are a highly recognisable family of plants are found widely in tropical
and subtropical habitats. Many species are known to tolerate specific habitats,
while some of which are important to the survival some animal species in
This family of dicotyledonous plants are characterised by their "butterfly-shaped"
flowers, composed of a top petal, the "standard”, followed by two opposing petals
on the sides, the "wings", followed by a bottom petal, the "keel", in which the
reproductive organs are situated. The fruits are pods. This family used to be
called legumes. Some members are cultivated for food, for example chickpeas
Member of the pepper family are fleshy herbs and soft shrubs. The fruit is a
berry or a drupe. The genus, Peperomia
is widespread throughout the tropics
and has a distinct candle-like inflorescence.
The ferns are an ancient group of plants which pre-date even earliest dinosaur
fossils. They are leafy plants that grow in moist areas under the forest canopy,
along rivers and streams and other sources of permanent moisture. Ferns are
highly prized ornamental plants in the tropics.
The rose family is a large family of plants, which is typically divided into four
subfamilies: Rosoideae, Spiraeoideae, Maloideae and Amygdaloideae. These
subfamilies are primarily described by the structure of the fruits which they bear.
This is a family consisting mostly of trees and shrubs. The leaves are simple and
entire and usually opposite. The fruit is variable, often forming multiples.
This citrus family is made up of herbs, shrubs and trees with waxy dark green
leaves. The flowers are sweetly scented and self-pollinating; however, bees do
assist with pollination. The fruits are spherical to oblong and the intensity of their
colour depends upon both the climate and the cultivation.
The Sapotaceae or the sapodilla family are trees or shrubs with milky sap, which
is characterised by the presence of reddish-brown hairs on the leaf undersides
and other plant surfaces. The fruit is a berry.
Sterculiaceae or the cacao family are flowering plants. The family name is
derived from the genus Sterculia
. The most famous products of the family are
chocolate and cocoa from Theobroma cacao
, followed by cola nuts. Many
The Verbenaceae or Vervine family consists mainly of tropical plants, which have
noteworthy heads, spikes and clusters of small flowers. The members of this
FLORA: Table 2- The Flora Species of Commercial and Cultural Importance
Species Scientific Name
Uses and Importance
purposes, candles, soaps. Wood: Class II Timber
AVIFAUNA: Table 3- A Complete List of Birds at the Vision City Project Site
AVIFAUNA: Notes about the Families found at the Project Site
They are the scavengers of the forest and are well distributed throughout
Trinidad. They are often observed soaring high over the canopy, or occasionally
Commonly called ‘Birds of Prey’. These are birds that forage on various living
creatures such as birds and small mammals, with the different species inhabiting
different parts of the environment. The species that were observed on the study
site are well distributed throughout Trinidad and Tobago.
Though they are ocean going birds, they are commonly known to soar from on
end of the island to the next, this is occasionally done as individuals or in small
groups. In this study, the Frigatebird was only a single individual observed flying
Owls are commonly heard and seen through out Trinidad and Tobago. The owl
observed, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl, is widely distributed being the most common
With a water-way present on the study site, this will be frequently visited by
herons of the district from as far as Manzanilla. The frequency of visit will be
determined by the population of their food, which are mainly frogs. The
Tricolored Heron is one of the common herons of the region, being medium to
large in size, they are well distributed throughout Trinidad and Tobago.
These birds are commonly known in Trinidad and Tobago as “Cornbirds”. They
are mainly of the colour combination, yellow and black. Their nests which are
tear drop/ pendulous in shape, were observed on the perimeter of the study site.
Each of the species observed on the site are noted as well distributed throughout
These birds are usually high flying birds that feed on insects that rise with the
thermal currents in the air. During periods of rain they descend to levels just over
the tree lines to forage on rising insects. The species observed in the study area
is noted in high frequency throughout the Northern Region of Trinidad.
These birds are small high-flying birds that also forage on small insects that rise
with the thermal currents. The are different to the family of Apodidae in structure
and are known to perch even in town area/ building and poles of the street lights.
The species observed on the study site are found throughout Trinidad and
Hummingbirds, which are considered to be the most fascinating family of birds
due to their iridescent colours and their ability to fly backwards. All of the species
observed are well distributed in the northern region of Trinidad, with some
occasionally observed foraging in residential and business areas of towns.
This family is well represented and distributed throughout Trinidad and Tobago.
Some of the species strictly inhabit dense/ forest vegetation, while others are
known to visit and occupy town areas. The species observed are common in
both spectra of habitats mentioned here Trinidad.
These are considered to be the singers of the forest, but they are known to
inhabit or visit forest edges and back yards in many residential areas. The
species and family are well distributed throughout Trinidad and Tobago.
The family possesses many small birds which vary drastically from each other,
some being dull in colour while others possessing brilliant colours. Some
species strictly inhabits dense/ forest vegetation, while others are known to
inhabit towns making it, its’ permanent residence. The family is well distributed
The name derived from its overseas relatives that mimic the sounds of various
items in their community. The representatives of the family are similar only in
shape or appearance, not being able to mimic the sounds of its environment.
This family is well distributed throughout Trinidad and Tobago and enjoys the
cross sections of habitats, both open areas and dense/ forest vegetation.
They are forest dwellers that feed on insects that dwell on the sides of trees or
just above the forest floor. They are often in association with the movement of
colonies of Army Ants that are carnivorous and drive many insects into the
foraging path of the Woodcreepers. While they inhabit dense/ forest vegetation,
their distribution is widespread throughout Trinidad and Tobago.
This family has only one species represented in Trinidad and Tobago and is
frequently found in sporadic areas throughout the eastern area of the island. The
Rufous Jacamar enjoys dense vegetation but can also be noted in the savannah
resting on open perches. It has iridescent colours that has inspired its local
This family of birds enjoys the dense vegetation, where they seek out insects,
which comprise the bulk of its diet. Their distribution throughout Trinidad and
Tobago is widespread with different species preferring higher or lower density
This is a family of small, heavy bodied birds that inhabits the branches and
leaves, where it seeks out insects. Their general habitat varies and some
species may be noted flying across clearings that bounds residential areas. The
family distribution is widespread throughout Trinidad and Tobago, with one
particular species that inhabits swamps.
The family derived its name from its’ ‘Old World’ relatives which are known to
make a “koo koo” sound, but those present in Trinidad and Tobago, are similar to
them only in shape and appearance, while being unable to that sound. The
family enjoys dense vegetation and forest environments are well distributed
within in forested areas of the Trinidad.
This family comprises of small, heavy-bodied birds that spend large amount of
times in elaborate courtship displays. They inhabit areas of dense growth, where
they forage upon small fruits near their areas of display. The family is found
throughout most rural areas in Trinidad and Tobago.
This family of small birds enjoy all habitat excluding grasslands. One species of
this family is a migrant relative that enjoys waterways in Trinidad and Tobago for
several months in each year. The family is well distributed throughout Trinidad
This family of birds are well-loved pets for many. They are observed in all
habitats from open areas, inclusive of towns to forest habitats, with a preference
for treetops. Each of the species found in the study, enjoy the same distribution
widespread distribution throughout the island.
This family of birds, which are brightly coloured, and has developed a symbiotic
relationship with the Aztec Ants colony, thus are found in unison. Though this
family of birds enjoys dense vegetation as their habitat, they are found in varied
habitats throughout Trinidad and Tobago.
This is a family of seedeaters that has rare species such as the Red Breasted
Robin. Much of the species is in danger of becoming vulnerable because of
entrapment and the lost of savannah habitats. The family enjoys various types of
habitats, from forest to savannahs, with the majority of species being well
distributed throughout Trinidad and Tobago.
This family is found in a variety of habitats over a wide area. It is an extremely
active and energetic family of birds, as they would cling to vegetation at every
angle in order to forage. They are often hanging upside down to looking for food
This family frequents the undergrowth and low branches in the forest and second growth. They
are small, inconspicuous, wren-like birds with a very long thin bill. They also possess a long
narrow tail, which it flicks loosely as it moves restlessly among the foliage somewhat in a manner
of certain antbirds. They are insectivorous.
These are small and cryptically coloured birds with short rounded wings, stumpy tails and
slender, straight or slightly curved bills. They inhabit undergrowth and low vegetation and are
more commonly heard than seen. They are insectivorous and quite usually forages among the
foliage. They are found in practically all habitats from the residential areas to forested areas.
This family is common known as woodpeckers. These birds live, feed and breed
in trees and can be seen perched vertically on tree trucks foraging for food.
Some of these species have specific habitats, preferring secondary rainforests in
some cases. Some species prefer to inhabit forested areas near residential
areas. This family has a wide range across Trinidad.
These characteristic and recognisable family of birds are nocturnal birds. The bill
is short, while the head is large with large eyes. The most common call made by
these birds are a “hoot” while some various screams. The Ferruginous Pygmy-
Owl is the most common in Trinidad and is found from residential areas to
BUTTERFLIES: Table 4- A Complete List of Butterflies found at the Vision
City Project Site
BUTTERFLIES: Notes on the Families of Butterflies at the Vision City
These are large butterflies that are brightly coloured often displaying iridescent
colours and a precarious flight pattern as they bob up and down through dense
vegetation. The butterflies are often found flying in solitude, even though they
are widespread through Trinidad and Tobago.
This is another family of large butterflies; however, they do not have iridescent
colours. They are observed as solo foragers inhabiting dense vegetation
feasting on a large variety of fallen fruits. The family and the species found in
this study are widely distributed through out Trinidad and Tobago.
They are medium size butterflies that are brightly coloured in the varying species.
They may be found in habitats that range from cleared areas to areas of dense
vegetated areas, where they forage upon flowering shrubs.
These are small to medium size butterflies that inhabit areas with dense
vegetation to forested habitats. They are often over-looked due to their
translucent wings which gives rise to family’s common name ‘Clearwings’. The
family displays a wide distribution throughout Trinidad and Tobago.
This family is well represented in Trinidad and displays a range of size from
medium to large. They are said to be sun-loving though they are often found
under the cover of vegetation, thus their habitats range from cleared areas to
densely vegetated areas. Their distribution is wide spread throughout Trinidad
and Tobago as they display a large range of bright colours.
These are small butterflies that are often over-looked due to their small size.
Many species of this family are subtle in colour, blending into their environment.
They are located in dense vegetation favouring the small pockets of light. The
family has a widespread distribution in Trinidad.
These are small to medium butterflies with many species being dull in
appearance or displaying little pink, purple or blue hues. They are well
distributed in Trinidad’s forested areas, where they inhabit well lit pathways.
They are medium to large butterflies that are often ornate in shape, bearing
extended tornus into a tail formation. They are frequently found at forest edges
They are small to medium size butterflies with the majority of species being light
coloured to white and inhabits moist areas of the forest, with some species found
in open areas. The family distribution is widespread within Trinidad.
These are colourful butterflies, which prefer to hang on the underside of the
leaves or close to the undergrowth. This is yet another widely distributed species
Post Treatment Instructions for Endodontic (root canal) Treatment What to Expect: 1. It is not uncommon for the tooth to still be uncomfortable in the first few days following treatment. The area around the tip of the root(s) of the tooth needs time to heal. Your dentist may have given you prescriptions for pain medication and/or antibiotics. Taking theses prescriptions as prescribed wil
Review article Five decades of Antihistamines - an objective analysis Balakrishnan D * *Senior Assistant Professor of ENT, Madras Medical College and Civil Surgeon at the Peripheral Hospital, Chennai 600082 India. Adapted from a guest lecture delivered by the author at the Fifth National Conference of The Association of Paediatric Otolaryngologists of India 18-20 September 1998 Trivandru