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1.0 Flora

The flora surveyed at the site was done so using stratified sampling and random
sampling. The sample points are shown in Figure 3.01.
In Table 1.1 that follows, there is a complete of the plants and trees found at the
site.
FLORA: Table 1- A Complete List of the Floral Species Found at the Vision
City Project Site
Species Common Name
Species Scientific Name
Wild Cashima, Wild Sugar Apple Rollinia exsucca
FLORA: Notes on Some Floral Families at the Vision City Project Site
Anacardiaceae
This is a family of flowering, fruit-bearing plants. The members of this family are very cosmopolitan and subsist all over the New, as well as the Old World. Annonaceae
The Annonaceae, or the soursop family, is a flowering family consisting of trees, shrubs and lianas. The fruits of this family are large, pulpy and edible. Some family members also produce aromatic oils, which can be used for perfumes or These plants are rhizomatous or tuberous herbs typically with calcium oxalate crystals or raphides and a milky sap. Leaves are usually large, spade-like and have a sheathing base. The flower is a fleshy spike or spadix partially enveloped by a bract, which is brightly coloured. The Philodendrons and Monsteras are part of this family and are popular as ornamentals. They are mostly Araliaceae
Araliaceae is a family of flowering plants, also known as the Aralia family or the Ginseng family. The family includes trees, shrubs, lianas and herbs. These are Asteraceae
The Asteraceae are herbs, shrubs or less commonly, trees and are perhaps the largest family of flowering plants. The family Asteraceae is known as the aster or daisy family. These dicotyledons derive their name from the genus Aster star shaped flowers of the family’s many daisies. Bignoniaceae
Species in this family are mostly tropical trees or shrubs. The flowers are usually large and “showy”. They have a large diversity in the Neotropics. Tabebuia species are frequently used to line streets and beautify natural areas. Bromeliaceae
There are three subfamilies of Bromeliaceae: Pitcairnoideae (terrestrial with pointy leaves), Bromelioideae (terrestrial epiphytic, tanks), and Tillandsioideae (epiphytes). Pitcairnoideae grow rooted in the soil. The leaves often have spiny edges, and may be thick and fleshy. The next two subfamilies are considered more evolved and many are epiphytic, absorbing water through their leaves Burseraceae
This family is also called the incense tree family. The family includes both trees and shrubs and is native to tropical regions. Some members of the family produce fragrant resins used as incense or perfume, most notably frankincense Clusiaceae
The Clusiaceae are trees or shrubs, usually with milky or colourer sap. The leaves are simple and are opposite, whorled or rarely alternate and the fruit is Combretaceae
These flowering plants include trees, shrubs and lianas. This family is widely distributed and is cultivated for ornamentals and for its edible fruits. Cyatheaceae
This family of plants are the tree ferns, some of which are arboreal. Some members of this family are very specific to particular habitats. Graminaceae
This is the family of grasses. They are mainly herbaceous, but some members are woodier for example bamboo. These are entirely monocotyledons and have a widespread distribution, tolerating many diverse habitat conditions. Heliconiaceae
The Heliconia family, which is a single genus, is distributed in mainly tropical and subtropical regions. It is cultivated as an ornamental plant. The defining features are the highly coloured bracts, which make these species very recognizable. Malpighiaceae
Also known as, the Barbados-cherry family, this family is very diverse in its family members. This family comprises of trees and lianas. Marantaceae
This family consists of perennial flowering herbs that grow from rhizomes. The fruits are fleshy, dry capsules. The family is sometimes called the "prayer-plant family”. The most famous species in the family is Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea), a plant of the Caribbean, which is known for its easily digestible starch. Several species of genus Calathea are grown as houseplants. Melastomataceae
This family is a taxon of dicotyledonous flowering plants that is found mostly in the tropics. They are annual or perennial herbs, shrubs or small trees. A number of these are considered to be invasive plants. Meliaceae
The Meliaceae, or the Mahogany family, is a flowering plant family of mostly trees and shrubs, with only a few herbaceous plants. Most of these species are evergreen, even though there are some species, which show deciduous behaviour. Species in this family are used for making oil, soaps, insecticides and Mimosaceae
The Mimosaceae are mostly tropical and subtropical trees and shrubs. The arrangements of their leaves are nearly always the same with alternate, stipulate and bi-pinnately arranged compound leaves. Moraceae
There is over 1,000 species in the Moraceae family comprising of trees, shrubs and rarely herbs worldwide. Most have a milky sap. Their leaves are simple and alternate most of the time. The flowers are unisexual and are densely Musaceae
The banana family consists of large tree-like perennial herbs, the Musaceae have alternate leaves with concentric sheathing portions that create pseudo- trunks from which the blades diverge. The blades have prominent mid-rib and parallel lateral veins. Members of this family are highly recognisable. Myristicaceae
This family is also referred to as the Nutmeg family, as it is named after its most famous member, Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans). These plants are flowering plants with several hundred species of trees and shrubs in tropical regions. The best- known species are those from the genera: Myristica and Virola. Myrtaceae
This family consists of trees and shrubs found in the tropics, subtropics and temperate regions. The leaves are usually opposite and frequently glandular dotted. Psidium guajava “guava” is a shrub, which is pink or cream inside and The palms are a highly recognisable family of plants are found widely in tropical and subtropical habitats. Many species are known to tolerate specific habitats, while some of which are important to the survival some animal species in Papilionaceae
This family of dicotyledonous plants are characterised by their "butterfly-shaped" flowers, composed of a top petal, the "standard”, followed by two opposing petals on the sides, the "wings", followed by a bottom petal, the "keel", in which the reproductive organs are situated. The fruits are pods. This family used to be called legumes. Some members are cultivated for food, for example chickpeas Piperacaea
Member of the pepper family are fleshy herbs and soft shrubs. The fruit is a berry or a drupe. The genus, Peperomia is widespread throughout the tropics and has a distinct candle-like inflorescence. Polypodiaceae
The ferns are an ancient group of plants which pre-date even earliest dinosaur fossils. They are leafy plants that grow in moist areas under the forest canopy, along rivers and streams and other sources of permanent moisture. Ferns are highly prized ornamental plants in the tropics. Rosaceae
The rose family is a large family of plants, which is typically divided into four subfamilies: Rosoideae, Spiraeoideae, Maloideae and Amygdaloideae. These subfamilies are primarily described by the structure of the fruits which they bear. Rubiaceae
This is a family consisting mostly of trees and shrubs. The leaves are simple and entire and usually opposite. The fruit is variable, often forming multiples. Rutaceae
This citrus family is made up of herbs, shrubs and trees with waxy dark green leaves. The flowers are sweetly scented and self-pollinating; however, bees do assist with pollination. The fruits are spherical to oblong and the intensity of their colour depends upon both the climate and the cultivation. Sapotaceae
The Sapotaceae or the sapodilla family are trees or shrubs with milky sap, which is characterised by the presence of reddish-brown hairs on the leaf undersides and other plant surfaces. The fruit is a berry. Sterculiaceae
Sterculiaceae or the cacao family are flowering plants. The family name is derived from the genus Sterculia. The most famous products of the family are chocolate and cocoa from Theobroma cacao, followed by cola nuts. Many Verbenaceae
The Verbenaceae or Vervine family consists mainly of tropical plants, which have noteworthy heads, spikes and clusters of small flowers. The members of this FLORA: Table 2- The Flora Species of Commercial and Cultural Importance
Species Common
Commercial/ Cultural
Species Scientific Name
Uses and Importance
purposes, candles, soaps. Wood: Class II Timber 2.0 FAUNA
AVIFAUNA: Table 3- A Complete List of Birds at the Vision City Project Site
Scientific Names
Common Names

AVIFAUNA: Notes about the Families found at the Project Site
Cathartidae
They are the scavengers of the forest and are well distributed throughout Trinidad. They are often observed soaring high over the canopy, or occasionally Accipitridae
Commonly called ‘Birds of Prey’. These are birds that forage on various living creatures such as birds and small mammals, with the different species inhabiting different parts of the environment. The species that were observed on the study site are well distributed throughout Trinidad and Tobago. Fregatidae
Though they are ocean going birds, they are commonly known to soar from on end of the island to the next, this is occasionally done as individuals or in small groups. In this study, the Frigatebird was only a single individual observed flying Strigidae
Owls are commonly heard and seen through out Trinidad and Tobago. The owl observed, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl, is widely distributed being the most common Ardeidae
With a water-way present on the study site, this will be frequently visited by herons of the district from as far as Manzanilla. The frequency of visit will be determined by the population of their food, which are mainly frogs. The Tricolored Heron is one of the common herons of the region, being medium to large in size, they are well distributed throughout Trinidad and Tobago. Icteridae
These birds are commonly known in Trinidad and Tobago as “Cornbirds”. They are mainly of the colour combination, yellow and black. Their nests which are tear drop/ pendulous in shape, were observed on the perimeter of the study site. Each of the species observed on the site are noted as well distributed throughout Apodidae
These birds are usually high flying birds that feed on insects that rise with the thermal currents in the air. During periods of rain they descend to levels just over the tree lines to forage on rising insects. The species observed in the study area is noted in high frequency throughout the Northern Region of Trinidad. Hirundinidae
These birds are small high-flying birds that also forage on small insects that rise with the thermal currents. The are different to the family of Apodidae in structure and are known to perch even in town area/ building and poles of the street lights. The species observed on the study site are found throughout Trinidad and Trochilidae
Hummingbirds, which are considered to be the most fascinating family of birds due to their iridescent colours and their ability to fly backwards. All of the species observed are well distributed in the northern region of Trinidad, with some occasionally observed foraging in residential and business areas of towns. Columbidae
This family is well represented and distributed throughout Trinidad and Tobago. Some of the species strictly inhabit dense/ forest vegetation, while others are known to visit and occupy town areas. The species observed are common in both spectra of habitats mentioned here Trinidad. Turdidae
These are considered to be the singers of the forest, but they are known to inhabit or visit forest edges and back yards in many residential areas. The species and family are well distributed throughout Trinidad and Tobago. Thraupidae
The family possesses many small birds which vary drastically from each other, some being dull in colour while others possessing brilliant colours. Some species strictly inhabits dense/ forest vegetation, while others are known to inhabit towns making it, its’ permanent residence. The family is well distributed The name derived from its overseas relatives that mimic the sounds of various items in their community. The representatives of the family are similar only in shape or appearance, not being able to mimic the sounds of its environment. This family is well distributed throughout Trinidad and Tobago and enjoys the cross sections of habitats, both open areas and dense/ forest vegetation. Dendrocolaptidae
They are forest dwellers that feed on insects that dwell on the sides of trees or just above the forest floor. They are often in association with the movement of colonies of Army Ants that are carnivorous and drive many insects into the foraging path of the Woodcreepers. While they inhabit dense/ forest vegetation, their distribution is widespread throughout Trinidad and Tobago. Gualulidae
This family has only one species represented in Trinidad and Tobago and is frequently found in sporadic areas throughout the eastern area of the island. The Rufous Jacamar enjoys dense vegetation but can also be noted in the savannah resting on open perches. It has iridescent colours that has inspired its local Formicariidae
This family of birds enjoys the dense vegetation, where they seek out insects, which comprise the bulk of its diet. Their distribution throughout Trinidad and Tobago is widespread with different species preferring higher or lower density Vireonidae
This is a family of small, heavy bodied birds that inhabits the branches and leaves, where it seeks out insects. Their general habitat varies and some species may be noted flying across clearings that bounds residential areas. The family distribution is widespread throughout Trinidad and Tobago, with one particular species that inhabits swamps. Cuculidae
The family derived its name from its’ ‘Old World’ relatives which are known to make a “koo koo” sound, but those present in Trinidad and Tobago, are similar to them only in shape and appearance, while being unable to that sound. The family enjoys dense vegetation and forest environments are well distributed within in forested areas of the Trinidad. Pipridae
This family comprises of small, heavy-bodied birds that spend large amount of times in elaborate courtship displays. They inhabit areas of dense growth, where they forage upon small fruits near their areas of display. The family is found throughout most rural areas in Trinidad and Tobago. Parulidae
This family of small birds enjoy all habitat excluding grasslands. One species of this family is a migrant relative that enjoys waterways in Trinidad and Tobago for several months in each year. The family is well distributed throughout Trinidad Psittacidae
This family of birds are well-loved pets for many. They are observed in all habitats from open areas, inclusive of towns to forest habitats, with a preference for treetops. Each of the species found in the study, enjoy the same distribution widespread distribution throughout the island. Trogonidae
This family of birds, which are brightly coloured, and has developed a symbiotic relationship with the Aztec Ants colony, thus are found in unison. Though this family of birds enjoys dense vegetation as their habitat, they are found in varied habitats throughout Trinidad and Tobago. Fringillidae
This is a family of seedeaters that has rare species such as the Red Breasted Robin. Much of the species is in danger of becoming vulnerable because of entrapment and the lost of savannah habitats. The family enjoys various types of habitats, from forest to savannahs, with the majority of species being well distributed throughout Trinidad and Tobago. Coerebidae
This family is found in a variety of habitats over a wide area. It is an extremely active and energetic family of birds, as they would cling to vegetation at every angle in order to forage. They are often hanging upside down to looking for food Sylviidae
This family frequents the undergrowth and low branches in the forest and second growth. They are small, inconspicuous, wren-like birds with a very long thin bill. They also possess a long narrow tail, which it flicks loosely as it moves restlessly among the foliage somewhat in a manner of certain antbirds. They are insectivorous. Troglodytidae
These are small and cryptically coloured birds with short rounded wings, stumpy tails and slender, straight or slightly curved bills. They inhabit undergrowth and low vegetation and are more commonly heard than seen. They are insectivorous and quite usually forages among the foliage. They are found in practically all habitats from the residential areas to forested areas. This family is common known as woodpeckers. These birds live, feed and breed in trees and can be seen perched vertically on tree trucks foraging for food. Some of these species have specific habitats, preferring secondary rainforests in some cases. Some species prefer to inhabit forested areas near residential areas. This family has a wide range across Trinidad. Strigidae
These characteristic and recognisable family of birds are nocturnal birds. The bill is short, while the head is large with large eyes. The most common call made by these birds are a “hoot” while some various screams. The Ferruginous Pygmy- Owl is the most common in Trinidad and is found from residential areas to BUTTERFLIES: Table 4- A Complete List of Butterflies found at the Vision
City Project Site
Species Name
Common Name
BUTTERFLIES: Notes on the Families of Butterflies at the Vision City
Project Site
Morphidae
These are large butterflies that are brightly coloured often displaying iridescent colours and a precarious flight pattern as they bob up and down through dense vegetation. The butterflies are often found flying in solitude, even though they are widespread through Trinidad and Tobago. Brassolidae
This is another family of large butterflies; however, they do not have iridescent colours. They are observed as solo foragers inhabiting dense vegetation feasting on a large variety of fallen fruits. The family and the species found in this study are widely distributed through out Trinidad and Tobago. Heliconidae
They are medium size butterflies that are brightly coloured in the varying species. They may be found in habitats that range from cleared areas to areas of dense vegetated areas, where they forage upon flowering shrubs. Ithomidae
These are small to medium size butterflies that inhabit areas with dense vegetation to forested habitats. They are often over-looked due to their translucent wings which gives rise to family’s common name ‘Clearwings’. The family displays a wide distribution throughout Trinidad and Tobago. Nymphalidae
This family is well represented in Trinidad and displays a range of size from medium to large. They are said to be sun-loving though they are often found under the cover of vegetation, thus their habitats range from cleared areas to densely vegetated areas. Their distribution is wide spread throughout Trinidad and Tobago as they display a large range of bright colours. Lycaenidae
These are small butterflies that are often over-looked due to their small size. Many species of this family are subtle in colour, blending into their environment. They are located in dense vegetation favouring the small pockets of light. The family has a widespread distribution in Trinidad. Satyridae
These are small to medium butterflies with many species being dull in appearance or displaying little pink, purple or blue hues. They are well distributed in Trinidad’s forested areas, where they inhabit well lit pathways. Papilonidae
They are medium to large butterflies that are often ornate in shape, bearing extended tornus into a tail formation. They are frequently found at forest edges Pieridae
They are small to medium size butterflies with the majority of species being light coloured to white and inhabits moist areas of the forest, with some species found in open areas. The family distribution is widespread within Trinidad. Riodinidae
These are colourful butterflies, which prefer to hang on the underside of the leaves or close to the undergrowth. This is yet another widely distributed species

Source: http://ema.co.tt/docs/visioncity/Appendix_7_Biological_Study_1.pdf

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