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NUBONE +D Calcium/Vitamin D 500mg/200 IU Tablet
INDICATED CLAIMS:

 Helps in the maintenance of Bones and teeth.  Calcium intake, when combined with Sufficient vitamin D, a healthy diet, and regular  May reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis.
GENERAL INFORMATION

Calcium is an essential mineral with a wide range of biological roles. Apart from being a major
constituent of bones and teeth, calcium is crucial for muscle contraction, nerve conduction, the
beating of the heart, blood coagulation, glandular secretion, the production of energy and the
maintenance of immune function, among other things.
Calcium is found in bone and teeth primarily in the form of the calcium phosphate compound
hydroxyapatite. Over 99% of the total body calcium is found in bone and teeth, and calcium
makes up from 1% to 2% of adult body weight.
Milk products are the most calcium-dense foods. Other foods rich in calcium include the
vegetables collard greens, Chinese cabbage, mustard greens, broccoli and bok choy, as well as
tofu and sardines with bones included. About 25% of women in the United States take calcium
supplements. The average intake of calcium in the American diet is approximately 800
milligrams daily. Calcium intake is typically higher in finales than it is in females.
The active form of vitamin D i s I alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D or I,25(OI12)D (again,
when D is used without a subscript it refers to either D2 or D3). I, 25(OH2) D enhance the
efficiency of calcium absorption, and, to a much lesser extent, phosphorus absorption, from
the small intestine. Vitamin D deficiency is characterized by inadequate mineralization or
demineralization of the skeleton. Inadequate mineralization of the s keleton is the cause of
rickets in children (vitamin D is also known as the antirachitic factor), while
demineralization of the skeleton results in osteomalacia in adults. Further, vitamin D
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The information on the product monographs here has been compiled from many sources. The content is for reference only and is to be used at your professional discretion
deficiency in adults can lead to osteoporosis. This results from a compensatory increase in
the production of parathyroid hormone resulting in resorption of bone.
Very few foods are natural sources of vitamin D. Foods that do contain vitamin D include
fatty fish, fish liver oils and eggs from hens that have been fed vi tamin D. Nearly all the
vitamin D intake from foods comes from fortified milk products and other foods, such as
breakfast cereals, which have been fortified with vitamin D. Vitamin D is a fat -soluble
vitamin and therefore its absorption is adversely affected in those with malabsorption
disorders. Those with chronic liver disease, cystic fibrosis, Crohn's disease, Whipple's
disease and sprue are prone to vitamin D deficiency. Others at risk for vitamin D
deficiency, include those that do not drink milk and who do not receive much sunlight,
those who live in regions where they receive little natural light, and alcoholics. The elderly
are at risk for vitamin D deficiency for several reasons, including inade quate exposure to
sunlight, consumption of low amounts of vitamin D-containing foods and the use of certain
drugs, which interfere with the absorption and/or metabolism of vitamin D. In addition,
older adults need higher amounts of vitamin D than younger adults because of decreased
absorption of the vitamin.
PHARMACOKINETICS

Calcium is absorbed from the small intestine by both active and passive mechanisms. At low
and moderate intakes of calcium, calcium is absorbed via active transfer. Active transfer
depends on the action of the active form of vitamin D, 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or 1,
25(01-1)2 D3. Vitamin D-induced calcium transport involves the synthesis of the calcium-
binding protein, calbindin. Calbindin serves as a calcium translocator. It also serves as a
cytosolic calcium buffer. Calcium is typically freed from calcium complexes during digestion
and is released in a soluble and probably ionized form for absorption. Low molecular weight
complexes, such as calcium carbonate, may be absorbed intact.
As calcium intakes increase, the active transfer mechanism becomes saturated and an increasing
proportion of calcium is absorbed via passive diffusion.
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Vitamin D absorbed from the small intestine and stored in the liver and other fat depots.
Cholecalciferol (D3) may be absorbed more rapidly and completely than ergocalciferol (D2)
since ergocalciferol requires the presence of bile salts.
Nutralife nubone+ D formulated with calcium carbonate and vitamin D3 which pharmaceutically
tested to guarantee full potency and absolute clinical purity to ensure maximal calcium
absorption.

NUBONE +D Calcium/Vitamin D 500mg/200 IU Tablet
Product information
Available as 100 tablets
Each tablet contains:
Calcium 500mg and Vitamin D3 200 IU
Non-medicinal ingredients: Microcrystalline cellulose, Croscarmellose, M magnesium Stearate,
Hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose, Carnauba Wax.
Directions for use: adult: take 1 tablet twice daily or as directed by a health care practitioner.
Benefits
 Maintains strong bones and healthy teeth  Helps prevent osteoporosis to reduce the risk of fractures later in life  May help reduce high blood pressure  Relieves symptoms of PMS (Premenstrual Syndrome)  Aids in the nervous system, especially with impulse transmission  Supports colon health  Good for adolescents For Accidental Overdose (such as child ingesting formula)
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The information on the product monographs here has been compiled from many sources. The content is for reference only and is to be used at your professional discretion
CONTRAINDICATIONS

Calcium supplementation is contraindicated in those with hypercalcemia. Conditions causing
hypercalcemia include satcoidosis, hyperparathyroidism, hypervitaminosis D and cancer.
Calcium supplementation is contraindicated in those hypersensitive to any component of a
calcium-containing supplement.
Vitamin D is contraindicated in those with hypercalcemia and in those with evidence of vitamin
D toxicity. Vitamin D is contraindicated in those with hypersensitivity to any component of a
vitamin D-containing product.
PRECAUTIONS

Supplemental calcium taken without food may increase the risk of kidney stones in women and
possibly also in amen. It is thought that taking supplemental calcium without food limits the
opportunity for the beneficial effect that calcium may have in binding oxalate in the intestine.
Therefore, it is advisable that supplemental calcium be taken with food.
Those who form calcium-containing kidney stones are generally advised not to take
supplemental calcium.
Those with achlorhydria should take calcium carbonate with food.
Pregnant women and nursing mothers should avoid vitamin D supplemental intakes greater than
U.S. RDA amounts of the vitamin unless higher amounts are prescribed by their physicians. The
U.S. RDA for vitamin D i s 400 IU or 10 micrograms daily.
Pharmaceutical use of vitamin D must only be undertaken under medical supervision.
Supplemental vitamin D should be used cautiously in those on digoxin or any cardiac glycoside.
Hypercalcemia in those on digoxin may precipitate cardiac arrhythmias. Supplemental closes of
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vitamin D greater that upper limit intake levels (UL) should only be used if medically prescribed
and should be avoided by those on digoxin or other cardiac glycoside. The UL for adults is
2,000 IU or 50 micrograms daily.
Concomitant use of thiazides and pharmacologic closes of vitamin D may cause hypercalcemia
in some.
ADVERSE REACTIONS

Calcium supplements are generally well tolerated. Use of calcium carbonate may cause such
gastrointestinal side reactions as constipation, bloating, gas and flatulence. Prolonged use of
large closes of calcium carbonate-greater than 12 grams daily (about 5 grams of elemental
calcium)- may lead to the milk-alkali syndrome, nephrocalcinosis and renal insufficiency.
Dosage of vitamin D up to 60 micrograms (2,400 IU)/day in healthy individuals rarely causes
adverse reactions. Chronic dosage of 95 micrograms (3,800 IU)/day or greater in healthy
individuals may cause hypercalcemia. Early symptoms of hypercalcemia, include nausea and
vomiting, weakness, headache, somnolence, dry mouth, constipation, metallic taste, muscle
pain and bone pain. Late symptoms and signs of hypercalcemia include polyuria, polydipsia,
anorexia, weight loss, uocturia, conjunctivitis, pancreatitis, photophobia, rhinorrhea, pruritus,
hyperthermia, decreased libido, elevated BUN, albuminuria, hypercholesterolemia, elevated
ALT (SGPT) and AST (SGOT), ectopic calcification, nephrocalcinosis, hypertension and
cardiac arrhythmias.

INTERACTIONS:
DRUGS

Biphosphonates (alendronate, etidronate, risedronate): Concomitant intake of a bisphosphonate
and calcium may decrease the absorption of the bisphosphonate.
Hz blockers (cilnetidine, farnotidine, niizatidine, ranitidine): Concomitant use of Hz blockers
and calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate can cause decreased absorption of these calcium
salts.
For Accidental Overdose (such as child ingesting formula)
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The information on the product monographs here has been compiled from many sources. The content is for reference only and is to be used at your professional discretion Levothyroxine: Concomitant intake of levothyroxine and calcium carbonate was found to reduce levothyroxine absorption and to increase serum thyrotropin levels. Levothyroxine may adsorb to calcium carbonate in an acidic environment, which may block its absorption: There is no evidence that other forms of calcium block levothyroxine absorption if taken concomitantly. Proton Pump Inhibitors (lansoprazole, orneprazole, rabeprazole sodium): Concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors and calcium carbonate or calcium phosphate can cause decreased absorption of these calcium salts. Quinolones (ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxaciir, Lorne floxacin, lnoxifloxacin, nolfioxacin, ofloxacin, spaifloxacin, trovafloxacin): Concomitant use of a quinolone and calcium may decrease the absorption of the quinolone. Tetracycline’s (doxycycline, ininocycline, and tetracycline): Concomitant intake of a tetracycline and calcium may decrease the absorption of the tetracycline. Tetracyclines may form nonabsorbable complexes with calcium. Vitarnbl D Analogues (calcitriol, alfacalcidol): Concomitant use of these vitamin D analogues and calcium can cause increased absorption of calcium. Cholestyranaine: Concomitant intake of cholestyramine and vitamin D may reduce the absorption of vitamin D. Colestipol: Concomitant intake of colestipol and vitamin D may reduce the absorption of vitamin D. HIV protease inhibitors: The HIV protease inhibitors ritonavir, indinavir and nelfinavir may impair vitamin D bioactivalion to 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D. This is based on in vitro studies conducted in human hepatocyte and monocyte cell lines. Ritonavir had the most potent inhibitory effect. Ketoconazole: Ketoconazole may inhibit the biosynthesis and catabolism of I, 25-dihydroxyvitaminD. Reductions in serum 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations have been For Accidental Overdose (such as child ingesting formula)
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The information on the product monographs here has been compiled from many sources. The content is for reference only and is to be used at your professional discretion observed following the administration of 300 to 1,200 milligrams daily of ketoconazole to healthy men for seven days. Mineral Concomitant use of mineral oil and vitamin D may reduce the absorption of vitamin D. Orlistat: Orlistat may decrease the absorption of vitamin D. Phenobarbital and Phenytoin: Phenobarbital and phenytoin may reduce plasma levels of 25- hydroxyvitamin D by inhibiting vitamin D 25-hydroxylase activity in the liver. NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS
Inositol Hexaphosphate: Concomitant use of inositol hexaphosphate (phyt calcium may decrease the absorption of calcium. Minerals (iron,fluoride, magnesium, phosphorous): Concomitant use of iron and! calcium may inhibit the absorption of iron. Similarly, concomitant use of fluoride, magnesium, phosphorous or zinc and calcium may decrease the absorption of these minerals. However, these possible mineral interactions have not been shown to be of clinical significance. Non-digestible oligosaccharides (fiucto-oligosaccharides, inulin): Concomitant use of these oligosaccharides and calcium may increase the absorption of calcium in the colon. Sodium Alginate: Concomitant intake of sodium alginate and calcium may decrease the Vitamin D: Concomitant use of vitamin D and calcium may increase the absorption of calcium. Calcium: Concomitant intake of calcium and vitamin D may be more effective than no therapy or calcium alone in corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis.
Calcium may be poorly absorbed from foods rich in oxalic acid (spinach, sweet potatoes, rhubarb
and beans) or phytic acid (unleavened bread, raw beans, seeds, nuts and grains and soy isolates).
Concomitant intake of a calcium supplement with foods rich in oxalic acid or phytic acid may For Accidental Overdose (such as child ingesting formula)
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The information on the product monographs here has been compiled from many sources. The content is for reference only and is to be used at your professional discretion decrease the absorption of calcium. The phytate associated with dietary fiber appears to be the major factor involved in depressing absorption of calcium. Olestra: The fat substitute olestra inhibits the absorption of vitamin D as well as the other fat-soluble vitamins A, E and K. Vitamins A, D, E (alpha-tocopherol) and K are added to olestra to compensate for this. Olestra contains 12 IU (0.3 micrograms) of vitamin D per gram.
OVERDOSAGE

Overdosage has not been reported with calcium supplements.

Hypercalcemia can result either from excess intakes of prescribed forms of vitamin D or from
consumption of high amounts of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3. The hypercalcemia associated with
hypervitaminosis D may cause multiple debilitating effects. Anorexia, nausea and vomiting have
been observed in hypercalcemic individuals treated with 1,250 to 5,000 micrograms (50,000 to
200,000 IU)/day of vitamin D. Hypercalcemia can result in a loss of the urinary concentrating
mechanism of the kidney tubule, resulting in polyuria and polydipsia. The prolonged ingestion of
excessive amounts of vitamin D and the accompanying hypercalcemia can result in metastatic
calcification of soft tissues, including the kidney, blood vessels, heart and lungs. Typically, chronic
ingestion of 50,000 to 1100,000 IU/day of vitamin D is required to produce hypercalcemia. Since
vitamin D stores in fat: may be substantial, vitamin D intoxication may persist for weeks after
vitamin D ingestion is terminated. The elimination half-life of vitamin D is about 20 to 29 clays.
For Accidental Overdose (such as child ingesting formula)
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The information on the product monographs here has been compiled from many sources. The content is for reference only and is to be used at your professional discretion

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