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Grade 11 ls content framework 2010

STRAND: Life processes in plants and animals
Grade 11: Life processes related to homeostasis
Different organisms need support, transport and excretory systems, which differ in relation to size, surface area to volume ratio AND type of habitat (aquatic or terrestrial). There is a relationship between transport and excretion systems of larger organisms and gaseous exchange mechanisms [done in Grade 10].
LO1 Investigating
phenomena in the
LO2 Constructing Life Sciences knowledge
LO3 Applying Life Sciences
Life Sciences
in society
Support and transport in plants
Anatomy of dicotyledonous plants
Economic uses of plants related to their Root and stem [leaf done in Grade 10] including the distribution of anatomy e.g. fibres (xylem and sclerenchyma) the different tissues – epidermis, xylem, phloem, sclerenchyma, used to make paper, fabric, for weaving, baskets, etc and secondary growth – wood for Uptake of water and mineral salts into a root and their transport to
Translocation of manufactured substances from leaves to other
Transpiration: definition of and how water loss is related to leaf
structure [recap of grade 10] and the effects of variation in temperature, humidity and light intensity on transpiration rate; how Supporting systems and movement in animals
Different kinds of skeletons: hydrostatic skeleton, endoskeleton, Diseases of the musculo-skeletal system: exoskeleton. Advantages and disadvantages of each. rickets, osteoporosis, arthritis, muscular Human skeleton
Identify bones comprising the axial skeleton [bones forming the skul Injuries: sprains, strains, cramps, dislocations not required] and the appendicular skeleton. [It is not necessary to photographs of) different vertebrates Functions related to movement, protection, support, mineral storage Importance of exercise for healthy muscular and skeletal development and avoidance of Tissues: Bone, cartilage, tendons and ligaments – structure as related to function only. [Other details of tissue structure not Types of joints: fixed, partly moveable and freely moveable (synovial) Role of each of the fol owing in human locomotion- bones, joints, ligaments, tendons and antagonistic muscles How antagonistic muscles work together to raise or lower a limb. Structure of skeletal muscle and changes in myofibril structure when Transport in animals
Many animal groups have transport systems which include blood, blood vessels and heart arranged as circulatory systems Basic design of open circulatory systems, closed circulatory systems Human circulatory system
Structures indicating closed, double circulatory system (pulmonary Cardiovascular diseases – congenital and and systemic), identifying: heart and its associated blood vessels; brain, smal intestine, liver, kidneys and their associated major blood [link to grade 10] e.g. anaemia, high and low vessels, indicating the direction of blood flow and distinction between blood pressure, heart attacks, strokes. oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in different parts of the circulatory system-this can be explained in diagrammatic format. Significance of resting pulse rate in relation to Heart structure – internal and external structure related to
functioning-to be articulated diagrammatical y. Blood transfusions and blood types [link to Events of cardiac cycle, relating events to the flow of blood through Prof Chris Barnard and the first successful heart Mechanisms control ing heartbeat and heart rate
Blood vessels – structure and function of arteries, veins and
Blood and lymph as a tissue: Structure and function of constituent
Relationship between lymphatic system and blood system Excretion
Diseases leading to kidney failure e.g. kidney Excretion in humans
The role of each of the fol owing: lungs, kidney, liver, gut, bladder, Injuries to kidneys and protective measures skin indicating the substance each excretes and the origin(s) of Dialysis and how it works with respect to composition of fluids in different parts The urinary system in humans – position of kidneys, ureters,
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of kidney transplants, compared with dialysis Structure and function of the kidney in terms of the removal of urea and excess water and salts and the reabsorption of glucose and Homeostatic control of water and salts in the kidney involving ADH The structure and function of the nephron in filtration, reabsorption STRAND: Life at the molecular, cellular and tissue level
Grade 11: Viruses, bacteria, protists and fungi
In grade 11, we look at four main groups of organisms i.e. viruses, bacteria, protists and fungi. These 4 groups consist of micro-organisms and, in the case of the protists and fungi, macro-organisms. They are either single-cel ed or form colonies of similar cel s or are made of primitive tissues. The viruses, bacteria, protists and fungi play a very important role in the environment. In addition, many micro-organisms have an effect on the health of other living organisms. Humans have used these organisms for thousands of years for a variety of purposes.
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phenomena in the
LO2 Constructing Life Sciences knowledge
LO3 Applying Life Sciences
Life Sciences
in society
Viruses, bacteria, protists and fungi
Research using other resources eg Biodiversity of these organisms. [Link with grade 10]
Historical developments
Basic structures and general characteristics
Important role in maintaining balance in the environment / in web
cholera, TB, influenza. Select data on of life. [Links to grade 10 & 12] IKS and biotechnology
Roles in symbiotic relationships e.g. nitrogen-fixing bacteria in
• Traditional technology e.g. beer, mahewu, plants; E. coli in human intestines. [Links to grade 10] • Micro-organisms and biotechnology in the Practical investigation: Look for
Effects and management of at least ONE disease from each of
• viruses – e.g. rabies, HIV/AIDS, influenza • bacteria – e.g. blight, cholera, tuberculosis, anthrax Economic use of bacteria, protists and fungi
• fungi – e.g. rusts, thrush, ringworm Medical biotechnology e.g. immunity,
• Immune response by plants or animals against infecting micro- Beliefs, attitudes and values concerning
effectiveness of these treatments, e.g. • Use of drugs e.g. antibiotics and response of infecting micro- causes of and cure of at least ONE disease STRAND: Diversity, change and continuity
Grade 11: Diversity of animals and plants and biogeography
Underlying concepts: Plants and animals can be grouped according to similarities in their basic structure or body plan. Members of each group have modified versions of their basic body plan, depending on their mode of life. Biogeographic variation shows that different but similarly adapted species inhabit different
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phenomena in the
LO2 Constructing Life Sciences knowledge
LO3 Applying Life
Life Sciences
Sciences in society
Plant and animal diversity in South Africa
Enormous diversity of life in southern Africa, and the number of Threats to biodiversity in South Africa: Consider the impact of agriculture, industry, human population growth, cities and roads on Value of retaining biodiversity: tourism Plant diversity
Plants can be grouped according to the presence or absence of: Ancient and unique plant groups in southern Africa: cycads and Welwitschia. Ecotourism and theft of cycads, conservation efforts. as wel as the dependence on water for reproduction important plants, such as fruit trees, and crops • Bryophytes: no vascular tissue, no true leaves and roots, Forestry – economic importance and impact spores, depend on water for fertilisation • Pterophytes: vascular tissue, true leaves and roots, spores, • Gymnosperms and angiosperms: vascular tissue, true leaves and roots, seeds, fertilization independent of water. Gymnosperms produce cones which bear seeds with no protective covering. Angiosperms produce flowers, the seed is Animal diversity
Concept of phylum as il ustrated by a body plan. South Africa: distribution, prevalence, life The Animal kingdom contains about 30 phyla, but we wil focus on cycle, effects on host, treatment, and ways of only six, i.e. Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Annelida, reducing the spread. (Select a local parasitic Arthropoda, Chordata, with respect to the fol owing body plans. worm that is problematic for humans or other • Symmetry (asymmetry, bilateral symmetry, radial symmetry) • Number of tissue layers developing from the embryo (two or • Absence or presence of a coelom (a cavity within the vectors of pathogens that cause disease e.g flies and cholera, ticks and tick bite fever, • Presence or absence of a through-gut mosquitoes and malaria, tsetse flies and • Platyhelminthes (Planaria, flukes • Phylum Porifera: asymmetrical, no tissues and no coelom; Role of invertebrates in agriculture and simple but highly specialized for filter-feeding ecosystems (e.g. pol inators, decomposition, • Phylum Cnidaria: radial y symmetrical, two tissue layers, no coelom, single opening to the gastrointestinal cavity. Simple, but possess highly specialized nematocysts. Sustainable use of animals in South Africa • Phylum Platyhelminthes: bilateral y symmetrical, three tissue layers, no coelom, and a single opening to the gut. • Phylum Annelida: bilateral y symmetrical, three tissue layers, a • Phylum Arthropoda: bilateral y symmetrical, three tissue layers, coelom, through-gut, an exoskeleton made of chitin • Phylum Chordata: bilateral y symmetrical, three tissue layers, coelom, through-gut. Internal skeleton made of cartilage and A very brief comparative analysis of the body plans of the different phyla is required. It should be explained in the context of evolution. Modifications of basic body plans
Select ONE of the fol owing for further study: Looking for explanations for modifications of Mammal forelimb: basic plan modified for digging (mole), flying body plans: Charles Darwin proposed that (bat), fast running (horse), swimming (seal) and climbing trees modification of basic body plans indicates Modification of feeding or locomotory appendages of insects for Modification of flowers such as orchids (or any other suitable group) Biogeography
Diversity exists within continents, but is even more striking on Nature of science: Darwin’s explanation for the biogeographic distribution of species. Worldwide distribution of large flightless birds: ostrich in Africa, emu in Australia, rhea in South America, and moa (recently extinct) in New Zealand. These flightless birds resemble each other, and have similar modes of life in each landmass, but they are distinctly STRAND: Environmental Studies
Grade 11: Human influences on the environment
Over thousands of years, humans have gradual y changed the environments they live in, in order to make their lives and their human endeavours easier, safer, and more profitable. With the human population explosion and modern technology, these changes to the environment have been massive and have had a significant local, national and global impact upsetting the balance in natural ecosystems and threatening the continuation of life on earth. In grade 11, we examine human influences on the environment and consider ways in which we can contribute to a more sustainable future. [This section could possibly be considered as belonging to LO 3, but we have chosen to place much of the content in LO 2 since scientific concepts are
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phenomena in the
LO2 Constructing Life Sciences knowledge
LO3 Applying Life
Life Sciences
Sciences in society
Human influences on the environment
Air, land and water pol ution: causes, impact on the environment ONE example of human influences on and on human health, and possible solutions. • the ozone story – a success story? Kyoto protocol, politics and economics - • greenhouse effect and its importance for sustaining life on • introduction and control of invasive alien earth; enhanced greenhouse effect leading to global warming or smoke from burning coal on a local • desertification, deforestation • effects of overgrazing, crops and commercial forests on • Deposits of poisonous substances in rivers and the water table. Use food pyramids and food webs to interpret environmental changes caused by humans e.g. destruction of fauna and flora by pol utants in streams, rivers, or the sea; eutrophication of rivers; impact of acid rain on ecosystems, deforestation on producers and Pol ution and political, legal, economic, ethical, consumers, insecticides and cul ing on consumers, and overpopulation on producers and consumers. Introduction of invasive alien species into South Africa, impact on Environmental lobbying and the importance of biodiversity, and mechanisms of control. evidence. Biefly discuss the case study of St Exploitation of local indigenous resources e.g. devils claw, rooibos, fynbos, African potato, Hoodia, pepper-bark tree vs sustainability Sustaining our environment e.g. management and treatment of domestic waste and effluents from industry; reduction of emissions through more sustainable use of resources.



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Finite p-nilpotent groups with some subgroups c-supplemented

J. Aust. Math. Soc. 78 (2005), FINITE p -NILPOTENT GROUPS WITH SOME SUBGROUPS c -SUPPLEMENTED XIUYUN GUO and K. P. SHUM (Received 10 June 2001; revised 18 February 2004)A subgroup H of a finite group G is said to be c -supplemented in G if there exists a subgroup K of G such that G = H K and H ∩ K is contained in core G . H /. In this paper some result

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