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Reserch article 11.pmd

Research Article I
Sri Lanka Dental Journal 2011; 41(01-02) 09-16 Properties of carbonated beverages sold in Sri Lanka:
implications for tooth erosion
Nilantha Ratnayake, Lilani Ekanayake and Berty Gangadhara
Abstract:
Drinks report-2008 indicates that a total of 552 Objective: To analyse the chemical properties
billion litres of soft drinks were consumed in 2007, of carbonated beverages commonly available in which is equivalent to 82.5 litres per person and Sri Lanka in terms of the pH, calcium and fluoride carbonated soft drinks claimed 36.8% of the soft drink market.1 According to Naska et al. theavailability of soft drinks in house-holds in Material and methods: Random samples of
European countries is steadily and significantly fifteen brands of carbonated beverages available increasing particularly among the low socio- on the market were analysed for their acidity, economic groups.2 Similar trends have been calcium and fluoride concentrations.
observed in developing countries. India isexperiencing an increase in the consumption of Results: The pH of the beverages ranged from
sugar sweetened carbonated drinks while a recent 2.30 to 3.39. The calcium ion concentrations of report indicates that Sri Lankans have consumed beverages were within the range of 0.35 mmol/l 62 million litres of carbonated soft drinks in concentrations of all beverages were below 1ppm and ranged from 0.038 to 0.211 ppm.
It is well documented that the consumption ofsoft drinks has detrimental effects on oral health.
Conclusions: The present study revealed that
In addition to dental caries, the consumption of carbonated beverages analysed have low pH carbonated beverages is considered as a risk values as well as low concentration of calcium factor for dental erosion as well.5,6 The high sugar and fluoride ions. Therefore these beverages may in soft drinks is responsible for dental caries while have a potential to cause dental erosion.
the erosive potential of a soft drink is related toits pH, titratable acidity and mineral content.7 Key words: carbonated beverages, pH, fluoride
ions, calcium ions
It may be due to the fact that dental erosion is anemerging oral health problem in many societies Introduction
and soft drinks is an important factor implicated Soft drinks are a common component of the diet in the aetiology of dental erosion, several studies in many parts of the world today. Global Soft have been conducted to determine the erosive Dr. Nilantha Ratnayake
Institute of Oral Health, Maharagama, Sri Lanka.
Prof. Lilani Ekanayake
Department of Community Dental Health Faculty of Dental Science, University of Peradeniya, (Correspondence)
Peradeniya. Tel: 081-2397320 Fax: 081-2388948 E-mail: lilanie@pdn.ac.lk Mr. Berty Gangadhara
Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Dental Science, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya.
Nilantha Ratnayake, Lilani Ekanayake and Berty Gangadhara potential of soft drinks by analysing their pH, within a period of not less than 10 minutes. Since titratable acid content and ionic composition.8,9 there were three bottles from each brand, 15 However, despite the fact that the adverse health readings were recorded for each brand and the implications of soft drink consumption are now mean of the fifteen readings was considered as well known and the consumption of soft drinks is high in Sri Lanka, there is no information aboutthe properties of soft drinks available on the Sri Determining calcium and fluoride ion
Lankan market. Knowledge of the properties of concentrations of beverages:
soft drinks will be helpful in educating the public Orion® Benchtop Ion Selective Electrode meter about the adverse effects related to their (Analytical Technology Inc., USA) was used for consumption. Therefore the aim of this study was determining both the calcium and fluoride ion to analyse the chemical properties of carbonated concentrations. Inoplus® calcium electrode (Orion beverages commonly available in Sri Lanka in Research Inc., USA) and the Orion® fluoride/ terms of the pH, calcium and fluoride ion combination fluoride electrode (Orion Research Inc., USA) were used in the analysis of calciumand fluoride ions respectively. Five readings were Materials and methods
The present study was a component of a broader determined for each brand using 15 readings from study on prevalence and risk indicators for tooth wear in 17 year olds in Sri Lanka. The ethicalapproval for that study was obtained from the Ethical Review committee of the Faculty of The ingredients and the manufacturer as listed on the label of the bottles of carbonated beverageanalysed are given in Table 1.
Random samples of fifteen brands of carbonatedbeverages available on the market were analysed Table 2 shows the pH, calcium and fluoride ion concentrations of the carbonated beverages that concentrations in the Bio Chemistry laboratory were analysed for their chemical composition.
of the Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of The pH ranged from 2.30 (Coca Cola®) to 3.39 Dental Science, University of Peradeniya.
(Elephant Ginger Beer®/ Seven Up®). The Samples were collected randomly from different calcium ion concentrations of beverages were outlets in three districts of the country and one within the range of 0.35 mmol/l (My Cream soda® bottle from each brand was purchased from a and My Cola®) and 1.12mmol/l (Elephant Orange district. The samples purchased were in sealed Crush®). The fluoride ion concentrations of all plastic bottles stored in a dry place at room beverages were below 1 ppm and ranged from temperature away from direct sunlight and came 0.038 (My Cream Soda®, Elephant Cream Soda®) from different batches. The minimum volume of Calcium, fluoride ion concentrations and pH Determining pH of beverages:
values of carbonated beverages reported in some Hanna pHep® pH meter (Hanna Instruments inc., studies conducted in developed countries are Italy) was used to measure the pH of beverages.
compared with the findings of the present study The instrument was calibrated using a pH 7.01 in Table 3. Compared to the pH values of Coca buffer solution. Measurements were made at Cola® and Fanta® reported in other studies, the room temperature. The first reading was taken pH values of Coca Cola® and Fanta® samples analysed in the present study were the lowest subsequently four other readings were taken Properties of carbonated beverages sold in Sri Lanka: implications for tooth erosion Discussion
A study conducted among adolescents in Sri Fifteen carbonated beverages available on the Sri Lanka has found that consumption of Coca Cola® Lankan market were analysed for their pH value, was significantly associated with tooth wear calcium and fluoride ion concentrations. As the including tooth erosion in adolescents.14 The pH present study was a component of a broader values of Coca Cola® and Fanta® marketed in study on tooth wear including tooth erosion, the Sri Lanka are lower when compared to the pH chemical analysis was limited to assessing the values of the same brands sold in developed above properties. According to Lussi and Jaeggi countries (Table 3). Therefore the erosive pH value, calcium and fluoride ion concentrations potential of these beverages may also be greater are important factors that predict the erosive than those same brands sold in the developed potential of a beverage as they determine the degree of saturation with respect to tooth mineral,which is the driving force for dissolution of tooth Calcium, phosphate and fluoride ions could reduce mineral.7 Moreover the measurement of pH is the erosive potential of acidic beverages.15 A considered as a simple and practical method to comparison between different beverages has assess the erosive potential of a beverage.10 found that even small differences in calcium, The pH of the carbonated beverages analyzed in phosphate and fluoride are responsible for the this study ranged from 2.30-3.39. It is well distinct differences in erosive potential of established that enamel dissolution occurs below beverages.16 This highlights the importance of the pH of 5.5. Therefore all carbonated beverages these ions in influencing the erosive potential of a considered in this study have the potential for beverage. When the beverages were analysed enamel dissolution as their pH values are well for calcium and fluoride ion concentrations it was below the critical level of 5.5. The inherent acidity found that the concentrations of these ions were of carbonated beverages is due to the acids that very low. Findings from other studies also indicate are added during the manufacturing process.
that calcium and fluoride ion concentrations of Acids such as citric and phosphoric acid are added many carbonated beverages are low (Table 3).
to improve the organoleptic properties of a Though not available in Sri Lanka, several calcium carbonated beverage such as taste which are enriched carbonated beverages are currently important for their consumption.9 The differences available on the market in some countries. As these beverages have a reduced capacity to analyzed may be attributed to varying types and demineralize enamel they may offer some benefit amounts of acid present in the beverages.
to those who are at risk of tooth erosion.17 According to the labels on the bottles, the acidulantin Cola drinks analysed in this study was The carbonated beverages were analysed for their phosphoric acid (330) while in all other beverages properties in only one laboratory and is therefore the acidulant was citric acid (338). Of all the a limitation of the present study. However, using carbonated beverages Cola Cola® (pH=2.30) had three samples of each beverage which were the lowest pH. Similar findings have been reported purchased from three different districts for in other studies as well.11,12 It has been shown analysis and also taking five readings for from that the pH of a beverage is the strongest each sample may have minimized errors to a determinant of its erosive potential and dissolution certain extent. Therefore in future studies of this of enamel increases logarithmically inversely with nature, it would be an advantage if analysis is the pH of the drink.9,13 Therefore as Coca Cola® carried out in multiple laboratories.
has the lowest pH, it is reasonable to assume thatit has the highest erosive potential as well. In fact The present study revealed that carbonated epidemiological evidence substantiates this point.
beverages analysed have low pH values as well Nilantha Ratnayake, Lilani Ekanayake and Berty Gangadhara as low concentration of calcium and fluoride ions.
Therefore it could be concluded that they mayhave a potential to cause tooth erosion.
Acknowledgement
This study was supported by grant RG/2007/HS/
11 from National Science Foundation of Sri
Lanka.
The authors wish to thank Dr P Ruwanpura andMr. BBM Pieris for the technical support.
Properties of carbonated beverages sold in Sri Lanka: implications for tooth erosion Table 1. Ingredients and the manufactures of beverages analysed*
Beverage
Ingredients*
Manufacturer
Carbonated water, Sugar, Acidulant (338), Caffeine, Carbonated water, Sugar, Caramel (E150d), Carbonated water, Sugar, Acidulant 338, Natural Carbonated water, Sugar, Citric acid, Colour (110), Carbonated water, Sugar, Acidulant (330), Colour Carbonated water, Sugar, Acidulant (330), Colour (110, 112), Artificial flavours, Stabilizer (414, 444, 480),Preservative (211) Carbonated water, Sugar, Acidulant (E330), Food starch, preservative E211, Colour E110, Emulsifierand Stabilizer (E445), Flavour, Buffering agent (E331) Carbonated water, Sugar, Acidulant (330), Colour (102), Natural flavours, Preservative (211) Carbonated water, Sugar, Citric acid, Essence Cream Soda, Colour (E102), Preservative (E211) Carbonated Water, Sugar, Flavour E330, E211, E102 Carbonated Water, Sugar, Acidulant (E330, 296), Buffering agent (E331), Preservative E211, Flavour Carbonated water, Sugar, Acidulant 330, Natural Carbonated water, Sugar, Citric acid, Sea foaming Carbonated water, Sugar, Acidulant 330, Flavour, Carbonated water, Sugar, Citric acid, Essence Necto, Colour (E124,122,133), Preservative (E211) Acidulant 330= citric acid; 338= phosphoric acid Nilantha Ratnayake, Lilani Ekanayake and Berty Gangadhara Table 2. pH, calcium and fluoride ion concentrations of carbonated beverages
Beverage
Fluoride
Fluoride
mean (SD)
mean (SD)
mean (SD)
mean (SD)
Properties of carbonated beverages sold in Sri Lanka: implications for tooth erosion Table 3. Comparison of pH, calcium and fluoride ion concentrations of carbonated beverages
reported in various studies with the findings of the present study
Beverage
Fluoride
Fluoride
Coca Cola®
Present study
Present study
Sprite®
Present study
Present study
Seven-up®
Present study
References
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Source: http://control.slda.lk/media/sldj/41_1_2011/RA1.pdf

Curriculum vitae

CURRICULUM VITAE Birth Date: Citizenship: Current Position: Chief Professor, Department of Anatomy (Division of Cell biology), School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University (Morioka, Japan) Education: Doctor of Medicine, Asahikawa Medical College Bachelor of Medicine, Iwate Medical University Employment: Chief Professor, Department of Anatomy (Division of Cell biology),

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