Microsoft word - ch14_15reproductive3.doc

Reproductive Systems (Ch. 14 & 15)

I. Male reproductive system – Fig. 14-1

A. Scrotum & testes (sing. = testis) or orch/o- ; didy- 1. divided sac 2. testes contain microscopic tubules that produce sperm (spermatozoon; pl. = 3. testosterone produced by different cells between tubules 4. testes develop in pelvic cavity, descend into scrotum ~ 7th month of development cryptorchidism (cryptorchism) = failure to descend B. perineum: clinically from posterior scrotum → anus Epididymis – C-shaped, single coiled tubule “upon” & posterior to testis Ductus (vas) deferens – runs with testicular A & V as spermatic cord through inguinal Ejaculatory duct – connects vas deferens to urethra Urethra – through prostate, then penis D. Accessory glands -- Produce bulk of seminal fluid [ + sperm = semen] --2 glands posterior to bladder --produces most of semen 1. 3 elongated masses of erectile tissue --covered by prepuce (“foreskin”) – removed by circumcision hydrocele = fluid spermatocele = cystic mass w/sperm in epididymis blood vessels = varicocele 2. vasectomy vs. vasovasostomy (reversal) 4. benign prostatic hypertrophy vs. benign prostatic hyperplasia vs. prostatic cancer -if severe, treated by TURP (Fig. 14-10)

DRE (digital rectal exam) – can palpate enlargement
5. testicular cancer is based on germ cells of origin
6. Major sexually transmitted diseases/infections (STDs/STIs) i. chlamydia: usually asymptomatic, most common STD ii. gonorrhea: (“seed discharge”) iii. syphilis: asymptomatic, or chancres (bloodless ulcer), or “great imitator” i. hepatitis B
ii. herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) “genital herpes”: lies dormant and can recur
iii. HIV
iv. human papilloma virus (HPV) – 20 million (?) currently infected (50-90%?): flat
genital warts on mucus membranes, cauliflower-like on skin (condyloma
-Gardisil vaccine provides partial protection 7. Operative/Therapeutic terms (where’s the Cialis and Viagra?) brachytherapy – implantation of radioactive “seeds” near prostate “short” circumcision II. Female reproductive system – Fig. 15-1
gynecology = study of female reproductive system “woman” A. external genitalia = vulva (covering) or episi/o 1. labium majus & labium minus [text Latin is wrong] enclose reproductive & urinary 2. space between the labia minora is the vestibule
3. clitoris is erectile tissue anteriorly
episiotomy = incision to facilitate birth 1. produces ova = released in ovulation 2. each ovum is surrounded by follicular cells that produce estrogen & progesterone D. uterine (fallopian) tubes = “salping/o” 1. fringed end (fimbriae) – capture ovum 2. lined with ciliated epithelium to create current for capture and transport adnexa = collective term for ovaries and uterine tubes
E. uterus (= metr-, hyster-) “womb” fundus = “base” between entrance of uterine tubes cervix = “neck” - location for Papanicolaou (Pap) smear to detect cervical cancer • myometrium = muscular layer • endometrium = partially shed in menstruation “tipping” (literally, “turning”) 4. “pelvic floor relaxation” is failure of supportive ligaments F. vagina (“sheath”) = “colp/o”, “birth canal” commonly 2. Bartholin (greater vestibular) glands– secrete lubricant 3. relatively common site of fistula --vesicovaginal --rectovaginal --urethrovaginal mammary gland breast
mammary papilla = “nipple”
areola = pigmented area around nipple (helps infant locate?)
1. modified sweat glands (should be covered with Integumentary system!) 2. size variation in non-pregnant women due to adipose tissue, not a reflection of 3. presence of more than two breasts/nipples [polymastia/polythelia (supernumerary nipples)] is a reflection of our evolutionary heritage 1. removal of ovary and uterine tube = salpingo-oophorectomy --“everything” = total hysterectomy – bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy 2. salpingitis vs. salpingostomy et. al.
3. breast cancer is most common female cancer -- biopsy types (7): Fig. 15-10 & pp. 725-726 -- surgical procedures: Fig. 15-17 4. cervical neoplasia/dysplasia = “cervical cancer” • potential (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] – 3 grades)
localized malignant (carcinoma in situ [CIS])
loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP)/large-loop excision of the
transformation zone (LLETZ)
5. Major sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) gonorrhea: leading cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
III. Pregnancy
fertilized ovum → 8th week → 40th week • thus, estimated date of confinement/delivery (EDC/EDD) is normally 280 days (40
weeks) from last menstrual period (LMP)
• maternal (endometrium) + embryo/fetal tissue (chorion) • major source of nutrition/waste removal/gas exchange from 8th week on • placenta previa refers to malposition near cervical canal (Fig. 15-20) • abruptio placenta refers premature detachment of a normally situated placenta • floats embryo/fetus in clear amniotic fluid • tested via amniocentesis (Fig. 15-21) • polyhydramnios • tested via chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
- field of medicine dealing with pregnancy - OB-GYN, but not always both gravida = “pregnant woman”, so nulligravida & primigravida para = “to bear”, i.e. live birth, so nullipara, primipara, & multipara 1. Preeclampsia/pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)
• “toxemia of pregnancy” – not literally: unknown cause • spontaneous abortion (SAB) = “miscarriage” • therapeutic abortion (TAB) = to protect the health of the mother 3. D & E – dilation and evacuation (removal of conceptus)
D & C – dilation and curettage: sometimes used as a synonym, but also performed as a
biopsy or to control bleeding, remove polyp


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