Carbon and the molecular diversity of life

Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
Important Elements of Life
„ Water – the medium that life survives in „ _______________ – the basis of nearly all chemicals in living organisms Organic Chemistry: study of carbon compounds
– Atomic number = ____ – Valence electrons = _____ (tetravalent) – 4 _______________ bonds (unlikely to form ionic bonds) – Extremely versatile „ Carbon makes small molecules (CO2, CH4) „ Carbon also makes large complex molecules Hydrocarbons
„ Molecules containing only _______________ and _______________ „ Major components of petroleum – “fossil fuels” – C-C and C-H bonds are _______________ Chapter 4: Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
Variation in Architecture
Structural Isomers
„ Structures that differ in _______________ of their atoms „ Number of possible isomers increases as the carbon skeleton size increases „ May also differ in the location of double bonds Geometric Isomers
„ May occur when _______________ bonds present „ Atoms cannot rotate freely about the axis of the bonds „ Have same covalent partnerships, but… „ Differ in their _______________ arrangement „ Results in small differences in shape „ Subtle, but affects biological activity Enantiomers
„ Isomers that are _______________ images „ Left-handed and right-handed versions „ Usually one form is biologically active and mirror image is not „ One may be useful therapeutically while the other is inactive – L-Dopa useful against Parkinson’s disease „ Or one may be harmful, while the other is useful Chapter 4: Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
_______________ Groups
„ Typically bonded to carbon skeleton of organic molecules „ Replace the bond with H in hydrocarbons – Have specific _______________ and _______________ properties – Commonly are _______________ regions of organic molecule – Behave consistently from one organic molecule to another – Number and arrangement determine unique chemical properties of the molecules Functional Groups
– Soluble in water, and increase solubility of organic molecule they are on „ One _______________ – not listed in your text Example: Estradiol and Testosterone
„ Result in differential sex expression Chapter 4: Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
The _______________ Group (– OH)
„ _______________ – organic compound with hydroxyl group „ Hydrogen bonded to an oxygen, oxygen bonded to carbon The _______________ Group (– CO)
„ Carbon atom _______________ _______________ to oxygen „ _______________ if found on the end of skeleton „ _______________ if found in the middle of skeleton „ Polar group – oxygen can be involved in hydrogen bonding The _______________ Group (– COOH)
„ _______________ acids – carbon atom with BOTH – _______________ bond to _______________ AND – _______________ bond to the oxygen of a _______________ group „ Polar group – hydrogen reversibly dissociates as H+ „ Donates a _______________, so it has _______________ properties The _______________ Group (– NH2)
„ _______________ – organic molecules with _______________ atom bonded to two _______________ and to the carbon skeleton – Also has carboxyl group – Amino acid – both amine and carboxylic acid Chapter 4: Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
The _______________ Group (– SH)
„ _______________ – atom of sulfur bonded to atom of hydrogen „ Sulfur has six valence electrons like oxygen – Therefore _______________ covalent bonds possible „ Helps stabilize the structure of proteins The _______________ Group
„ Dissociated form of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) „ Loss of two protons by dissociation leaves phosphate group w/ double negative „ Attaches to carbon skeleton at one oxygen „ Important in cellular energy transfer and storage _______________ Group (– CH3)
„ Three hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a carbon atom „ Important in nonpolar amino acids and tertiary structure of proteins


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