Safetygram-1: gaseous oxygen

Gaseous Oxygen
This crude oxygen liquid is withdrawn fromthe column and sent to a low-pressure column where it is distilled until it meets commercial specifications. The liquid oxygen is sent to a cryogenic storage tank.
odorless, tasteless, and nonflammable.
Oxygen is necessary to support life. It is a strong oxidizer that combines readily with contain some of the same unit processes such as compression and clean-up, but differ in the fundamental technology to separate air into itscomponents. Oxygen can be separated from Oxygen will react with nearly all organic materials and metals. Materials that burn Adsorption (PSA/VSA) technology. Adsorption easily in air will burn more vigorously in relies on a material (zeolite) that has the property of selectively adsorbing nitrogen while must meet stringent cleaning requirements; under a slight pressure and allowing oxygen to any system must be constructed of materials that have high ignition temperatures and which released from the zeolite by dropping the are nonreactive with oxygen under the service pressure to a lower level (often under vacuum) conditions. Vessels should be manufactured to during the PSA/VSA process. When oxygen is produced by adsorption, argon flows through (ASME) codes and designed to withstand the with the oxygen, producing oxygen with a temperatures and pressures involved.
Oxygen is produced by an air separation unit Oxygen is generally liquefied so it can be (ASU) through the liquefaction of atmospheric more effectively transported and stored in air and separation of the oxygen by continu- large volumes. However, most applications ous cryogenic distillation. The oxygen is then use oxygen in the gaseous form. The primary removed and stored as a cryogenic liquid.
uses of oxygen relate to its strong oxidizing and life-sustaining properties. Oxygen is cally using selective adsorption processes to commonly relied upon in health and medical applications. Liquid oxygen is used as an The ASU manufacturing process begins with a oxidant for liquid fuels in the propellant main air compressor and ends at the output of the product storage tanks. Air is compressedand sent through a clean-up system wheremoisture, carbon dioxide, and hydrocarbons are removed. The air then passes through heat exchangers where it is cooled to cryogenictemperature. Next, the air enters a high pressure distillation column where it is physi-cally separated into a vaporous form of nitrogenat the top of the column and a liquid form of“crude” oxygen (~90% O2) at the bottom.
Responsible Care®
A Public Commitment
Oxygen is widely applied in the metal indus- Table 1: Gaseous Oxygen Physical and Chemical Properties
tries in conjunction with acetylene and otherfuel gases for metal cutting, welding, scarfing, Chemical Formula x
hardening, cleaning, and melting. Steel and Molecular Weight x
iron manufacturers also extensively use oxygen Boiling Point @ 1 atm x
or oxygen-enriched air to affect chemical Freezing Point @ 1 atm x
refining and heating associated with carbon Critical Temperature x
removal and other oxidation reactions. Benefits Critical Pressure
such as fuel and energy savings plus lower total emission volumes are realized when air is Density, Liquid, @ BP, 1 atm x
enriched or replaced with higher-purity oxygen.
Density, Gas @ 68°F (20°C), 1 atm x
In the chemical and petroleum industries, Specific Gravity, Gas (air=1) @ 68°F (20°C), 1 atm x
oxygen is used as a feed component to react Specific Volume @ 68°F (20°C), 1 atm x
with hydrocarbon building blocks to produce Latent Heat of Vaporization x
Expansion Ratio, Liquid to Gas, BP to 68°F (20°C) x
that contain oxygen in their structure. In many Solubility in Water @ 77°F (25°C), 1 atm x
processes, the oxygen for reaction can beobtained from the use of air. However, directuse of oxygen, or enrichment of the air with Health Effects
preceded by visual disturbances, such as loss oxygen, is necessary for some processes.
of peripheral vision, also occur. Continued There are several major petrochemical inter- exposure can cause severe convulsions that oxygen is essentially nontoxic. No health can lead to death. The effects are reversible with high-purity oxygen including ethylene and propylene oxide (antifreeze), vinyl chloride exposed to concentrations up to 50% at 1atmosphere for 24 hours or longer.
Premature infants placed in incubators to (for PVC), and caprolactam (for nylon).
breathe oxygen in concentrations greater than The pulp and paper industry uses oxygen as in air can develop irreversible eye damage.
a bleaching and oxidizing agent. A variety of Within six hours after an infant is placed in a irritation of the respiratory tract, progressive high-oxygen atmosphere, vasoconstriction of physical properties after treatment with decrease in vital capacity, coughing, nasal the immature vessels of the retina occurs, oxygen; plant operating costs also improve.
which is reversible if the child is immediately followed by tracheobronchitis and later by Similarly, oxygen enhances the combustion returned to air but irreversible if oxygen-rich process in industries that manufacture glass, therapy is continued. Fully developed blood aluminum, copper, gold, lead, and cement vessels are not sensitive to oxygen toxicity.
or that are involved in waste incineration or irritation and edema after 24 hours.
Respiratory symptoms can occur in two to six emissions benefits end-users may realize.
hours at pressures above 1 atmosphere. One high-pressure cylinders, tubes, or tube trailers of the earliest responses of the lung is accu- depending on the quantity required by the mulation of water in the interstitial spaces and user. Cylinders are designed and manufac- process efficiency. Aquaculturists such as within the pulmonary cells. This can cause fish-farmers also see benefits in the health reduced lung function, which is the earliest specifications for the pressures and tempera- or size of their livestock when the host measurable sign of toxicity. Other symptoms tures involved. Cylinders are manufactured include fever, and sinus and eye irritation.
according to Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations, which specify the material greater than 2 or 3 atmospheres, a character- of construction, method of manufacture, test- istic neurological syndrome can be observed.
ing, and what products they are permitted to Signs and symptoms include nausea, dizzi- be filled, as well as other details. The quantity ness, vomiting, tiredness, light-headedness, of product a container can hold is determined mood changes, euphoria, confusion, incoordi- by its pressure rating and internal volume.
nation, muscular twitching, burning/tingling Generally the higher the pressure, the more sensations particularly of the fingers and toes, and loss of consciousness. Characteristicepileptic-like convulsions, which may be 1. Cylinder Specification
5. Neck Ring Identification
• DOT–Department of Transportation, which • The cylinder neck ring displays the name of Fig. 1 Typical cylinder shapes and sizes.
is the regulatory body that governs the use 6. Retest Markings
• Specification of the cylinder type of material of Month–Facility–Year–Plus Rating–Star Stamp.
A cylinder is a hollow tube with a closed • Service or working pressure in pounds per • The + symbol (Plus Rating) indicates that the concave base that permits it to stand upright.
cylinder qualifies for 10% overfill.
2. Cylinder Serial Number
• The ★ symbol (Star Stamp) indicates that the • The letters SG precede the serial numbers for cylinder meets the requirements for 10-year the installation of a valve. A threaded neck 3. Registered Owner Symbol
7. CylinderTrak™ Bar Code Label
ring is attached to the tapered end so that a • Symbol used to indicate the original owner of • The CylinderTrak bar code label provides a unique protective cylinder cap can be installed.
cylinder identifier and is used by computer sys- • APROINC is a Registered Owner Symbol for tems to track cylinders throughout the fill process.
As an optional service, we have the capability of groups. When used in groups, the cylinders 4. Date of Manufacture
tracking cylinders to and from customers.
should be piped together, for either stationary • This date (month-year) also indicates the 8. Cylinder Manufacturer’s Inspection Marking
9. Cylinder Tare (Empty) Weight
A tube is a pipe tapered at both ends. Each Valve Connections
Pressure-Relief Devices
end is threaded to allow the installation ofvalves, connections, or relief devices.
Oxygen containers are equipped with pressure- relief devices to protect from overpressuriza- tion and possible rupture. Cylinders less than 65” long use a rupture disk device. Cylinders over 65” use a combination device consisting used for transportation or mounted perma- In addition, a high-integrity connection also of a rupture disk backed by a fusible alloy.
nently at a site. Tubes are generally mounted Combination devices require that both the on a truck-trailer chassis or railcar bed, or placed at stationary locations when large oxygen service; medical post-type valves are reached before the device will relieve. For more information on pressure-relief devices consult for details. For detailed drawings of these Air Products’ Safetygram-15, “Cylinder connections consult CGA Pamphlet V-1. For general drawings consult the Air Products“Specialty Gases and Equipment Catalog.” Container Stampings
WARNING: NEVER use adapters to make
Each cylinder or tube is identified by stamp- cylinder connections!!!
ings in the metal of the shoulder. Fig. 3depicts an example of these stampings and Table 2: Oxygen Service Connections
Cylinder Service
CGA Connection
Fig. 2 A typical tube container system for gaseous Shipment of Gaseous Oxygen
Safety Considerations
• Cylinders should be stored upright in a comply with DOT regulations. This applies with gaseous oxygen. Although nonflammable, well-ventilated, dry, cool, and preferably to motor freight, rail, air, and water ship- • Storage temperatures should NEVER
Transport Association / International Civil Air exceed 125°F (52°C) and the area should It is important to note that fire chemistry be free of combustible materials. Storage International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulations. All packaging used to transport • Oxygen must be separated from flammables and combustibles by 20 feet or a half-hour containing at least 23% oxygen. Materials Specification” or “UN/DOT Authorized” and easily ignited in air not only become more in proper condition for transport. DOT Code susceptible to ignition, but also burn with • Post “No Smoking” and “No Open of Federal Regulations, Title 49, also speci- fies the following labeling and identification that readily trap oxygen. Oxygen levels of DOT Shipping Name: Oxygen, Compressed
DOT Hazard Class: 2.2
personnel must be aware of the hazard.
• Avoid areas where salt or other corrosive DOT Shipping Label: Nonflammable Gas and
Oxidizer (For domestic shipments only the stringent cleaning requirements to eliminate caps and valve outlet seals should remain Identification Number: UN1072
Pamphlet G-4.1, “Cleaning Equipment for • Separate full from empty cylinders. Avoid Oxygen Service,” describes cleaning meth- and CGA Pamphlet O2-DIR, “Directory ofCleaning Agents for Oxygen Service,” pro- • Use a first-in first-out (FIFO) system.
vides comparative information on cleaningagents used to clean oxygen equipment.
Also, review the appropriate Material Safety • Use only oxygen compatible lubricants.
• If you experience any difficulty operating Buildings
the container valve or with the container the supplier. Use the proper connections.
them clear of combustible materials andpost signs indicating the hazard. Also post “No Smoking” signs. Test the atmospheres in confined work areas for oxygen content.
withstand pressures to be encountered.
cause materials that burn in air to burnmore violently or even explosively. Oxygen • It is recommended that all vents be piped the hazard exposure to personnel and material.
Remember, oxygen has no warning

• Use a suitable handtruck designed for First Aid
• Never attempt to lift a cylinder by its cap.
medical advice for proper health instructions.
• Secure cylinders at all times while in use.
Fighting Fires
• Use a pressure reducing regulator or separate control valve to safely discharge Since oxygen is nonflammable, but supports combustion, fire-fighting actions requireshutting off the source of oxygen, if possible, • Use a check valve to prevent reverse flow then fighting the fire according to the materi- al involved. Most cylinders are designed to • Do not overheat cylinder to increase • NEVER insert an object (e.g., wrench,
intense heat or flame, a cylinder may vent screwdriver, pry bar, etc.) into valve cap openings. Doing so may damage the valvecausing it to leak.
• Use a special cap wrench or adjustable strap-wrench to remove overtightened or rusted caps.
Refilling or shipping compressed gas
cylinders without the consent of the
owner is a violation of Federal law.

Personal Protective
Equipment (PPE)

Personnel must be thoroughly familiar with properties and safety considerationsbefore being allowed to handle oxygen and its associated equipment. Safety glasses, safety shoes, and leather workgloves are recommended when handling cylinders.
Only trained and certified emergencyresponders should respond to emergencysituations. In emergency situations, self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) mustbe used. Clothing which is fire-resistant inair may be readily ignitable in oxygen-enriched atmospheres.
Emergency Response System
Product Safety Information
• Call: +1 (800) 523-9374 (Continental U.S.
• Call: +1 (610) 481-7711 (Other locations)
Call: +1 (800) 245-2746
• For assistance involving Air Products and • Enter MSDS Index No. 1000 for a complete Chemicals, Inc. gases and equipment.
list of available safety literature.
Technical Information Center
Information Sources
• Call: +1 (800) 752-1597 (U.S.)
• Call: +1 (610) 481-8565 (Other locations)
• Fax: +1 (610) 481-8690
• E-mail:
• Monday–Friday, 8:00 a.m.–5:00 p.m. EST 1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101Quincy, MA 02269-9101Phone: +1 (800) 344-3555 Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., 7201 Hamilton Boulevard, Allentown, PA 18195-1501Phone: +1 (800) 654-4567, +1 (610) 481-4911. Fax: +1 (800) 880-5204. Printed in USA 310-824 (Rev. 1/00)FOD Index No. 1113


Microsoft word - kit2005_tuberkulose reisinger.doc

8. Kongress für Infektionskrankheiten und Tropenmedizin Aktuelles zur Tuberkulose Prof. Dr. med. Emil C. Reisinger Abteilung für Tropenmedizin und Infektionskrankheiten der Klinik und Poliklinik für Innere Medizin Universität Rostock Ernst-Heydemannstr. 6 D-18057 Rostock Tel.: 0049-381-494-7510 od. 7511 Fax: 0049-381-494-7509 E-mail:

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