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Events 2001- 2002

2001/2002 RESEARCH SEASON
EVENT SUMMARY AND CONTACT INFORMATION
Event K012
Ecology of Antarctic Demersal Fishes
14 Nov to 26 Dec
School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland
Cape Roberts,
Dr John A Macdonald, Telephone: (09) 373 7599 extension 7207, Facsimile: (09) 373
Cape Evans
7417. Email: ja.macdonald@auckland.ac.nz
The density and variability of populations of a common bottom-dwelling fish,
Trematomus bernacchii, will be estimated using mark and recapture and video bait
stations. One proposed location has been subject to four decades of fish collecting
(Cape Armitage), while others remain unexploited (Cape Roberts, New Harbour,
Backdoor Bay). Fishing stations will be set up in a grid pattern on the ice over water
depths of 30 – 60 m and fish will be caught in baited bottom traps, supplemented by
angling. Fish will be weighed, measured, and scales removed for age estimation.
They will then be injected with tetracycline for calibrating growth rings, marked
with a numbered tag, and returned to the bottom at the site of capture. Each station
will be recorded as a differential GPS location, and sampling will be repeated a year
later at the same locations. Standard fisheries formulae will be used to estimate
population sizes, and mobility will be monitored by comparing recaptures within
the grid. Results will provide a basis for assessing effects of human activities on
Ross Sea fish populations, and for evaluating any proposed commercial fishery.
Event K015
Deciphering the Glacial History of Northern Victoria Land
09 Nov to 14 Dec
Department of Geography, University of Auckland, PO Box 92019, Auckland
Mesa Range,
Dr Paul Augustinus, Phone: (09) 373 7599 extension 7603, Facsimile: (09) 373 7435
Northern
Email: p.augustinus@auckland.ac.nz
Victoria Land
Controversial and conflicting interpretations have been proposed regarding the historyof the Antarctic ice sheet based on field data from different sectors of the TransantarcticMountains (TAM). The main ice sheet draining the TAM into the Ross Ice Shelf(RIS) is constrained by the latter so that EAIS advances appear to be out of phasewith global cold stages. However, the Talos Dome and other large neves in NorthernVictoria Land (NVL) are isolated from the main EAIS and outlet glaciers drainingthem were not constrained by the RIS. Consequently the NVL glacial systems shouldrespond much more sensitively to global climate controls than the main ice sheet.
Previous work suggests that the glacial history varies regionally as a consequence ofcomplex tectonic controls so that identification of climate controls on glaciation andseparation of tectonic controls is problematic. Nevertheless, understanding of thesecomplex controls is essential due to the ongoing and crucial debate regarding thelong-term stability of the ice sheet and sensitivity of the ice sheets to climate change.
The project will entail glacial geologic mapping careful sampling and dating of glacialsequences and surfaces in NVL using cosmogenic nuclides (CNs) and luminescence(OSL) dating methods.
Event K021
Evaluation of Deterioration of Historic Huts & Bio-Diversity of
04 Jan to 16 Jan
Terrestrial Microorganisms
Cape Evans,
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Waikato, PO Box 3105, Hamilton
Cape Royds,
Prof Roberta Farrell, Phone: (07) 838 4704, Facsimile: (07) 838 4976
Mt Fleming
Email: rfarrell@waikato.ac.nz
The extreme polar environment has protected many of the wooden huts and artefacts
of the Heroic Period of exploration from rapid decay but they are not free from
deterioration. This programme has three objectives; first, to identify the cause of
biological and non-biological deterioration present in the Historic Huts and artefactsof the Ross Dependency; second, to investigate the bio-diversity of the biologicalorganisms in the Historic Hut areas, especially fungi and bacteria, using molecularDNA probes as well as traditional morphologically-based taxonomic approaches;and third, to test conservationally acceptable materials for their long-termpreservation. In considering non-biological decay of the Huts and artefacts, such asUV light, iron corrosion products, salts and other caustic compounds that progressfrom wood surfaces to inner regions of the wood, we can study a sensitive globalmonitor of the Antarctic environment which has been ‘operating’ since the beginningof the 20th century. The second objective, by comparison to isolates in New Zealandand around the world, will aid in establishing organisms introduced to the Antarcticversus indigenous organisms, and establish the viability and biochemical responsesof these organisms in the extreme environment.
Event K023
Probing and Exploiting DNA Diversity in Antarctic Biotopes
21 Jan to 8 Feb
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University College London
Cape Crozier,
Dr Don Cowan, Email: don.cowan@ucl.ac.uk
Scott Base,
Biological Sciences, Waikato University, PO Box 3105, Hamilton
Dry Valleys
Professor Roy Daniel, Telephone: (07) 838 4022, Facsimile: (07) 838 4324
Email: daniel@waikato.ac.nz
The Antarctic continent represents a relatively uncharacterised biological resource
where the microbial biodiversity offers enormous potential for both fundamental
and application-directed studies. Our recent data on ATP content in Ross Desert
soils, which suggests that microbial biomass is many orders of magnitude higher
that previously reported. The Antarctic environment contains a surprisingly wide
range of extremophilic biotypes potentially harbouring a wide variety of different
organisms living under differing extreme adaptive pressures. This project aims to
continue and extend this successful preliminary research. A variety of modern
molecular techniques, in use by and under development by the applicants, will
characterise the microbial diversity in Antarctic marine and terrestrial biotopes, and
identify and acquire specific gene products of potential biotechnological significance
Event K024
Biodiversity and Performance of Lichens and Mosses
29 Oct to 22 Nov,
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Waikato, PO Box 3105, Hamilton
1 Feb to 6 Feb
Prof T G Allan Green, Phone: (07) 838 4225, Facsimile: (07) 838 4324
Botany Bay
Email: greentga@waikato.ac.nz
This international programme will investigate the biodiversity of lichens and mosses
along the entire latitudinal range of the Ross Dependency. It has strong linkages to
related programmes studying the genetics of mosses and insects and DNA in soils.
It also links with a new Antarctic Terrestrial Transect from the Sub-Antarctic into
Continental Antarctica. Traditional techniques of survey and taxonomy will be used
to continue the construction of a full inventory for the Ross Sea. The latest in-field
methods for measuring productivity will be used to investigate adaptations to the
Antarctic climate and rates of acclimation during the growing season. The length of
the productive season is suspected to be a key control on biodiversity and this will be
investigated using monitoring systems that run for the entire year. Possible linkages
between productivity on land and nutrient inputs from marine systems will also be
researched. Such linkages would provide a new level of complication to the
ecosystems. The programme aims to considerably improve our knowledge of these
terrestrial antarctic biota, to confirm and improve New Zealand expertise in the area
and to provide information for the better management and conservation thus allowing
New Zealand to meet treaty obligations.
Event K028
Biodiversity of Terrestrial Invertebrates
4 Jan to 15 Jan
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105,
Cape Crozier,
Hamilton 2001
Botany Bay,
Dr Ian Hogg, Telephone: (07) 838 4225, Facsimile: (04) 838 4324
Marble Point,
Email: hogg@waikato.ac.nz
Terra Nova Bay,
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105,
Cape Evans,
Hamilton 2001
Cape Bird
Dr Chrissen Gemmill, Telephone: (07) 838 4053, Facsimile: (04) 838 4023
Email: c.gemmill@waikato.ac.nz
This programme is investigating the biodiversity of terrestrial and near-shore marine
invertebrates (particularly collembolids, acari, amphipods), and mosses along the
entire latitudinal range of the Ross Dependency. It has linkages to related programmes
studying the biodiversity of lichens and DNA in soils. Traditional, morphologically-
based, taxonomic approaches for assessing biodiversity will be combined with more
recent molecular techniques (e.g. allozyme and DNA analyses). Individuals from
each study site will be evaluated using protein electrophoresis, mtDNA and
morphological analyses. These analyses are designed to accurately assess existing
levels of biodiversity and to provide information on the origin, evolutionary
relationships and present day dispersal patterns of antarctic invertebrate taxa. This
programme will improve our knowledge of the antarctic terrestrial and near-shore
fauna and flora, develop New Zealand expertise in the area and provide information
for the better management and conservation of antarctic terrestrial habitats.
Event K030
Molecular Ecology of Antarctic Fauna
2 Nov to 30 Jan
Department of Ecology, Massey University, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North
Cape Bird
Professor David Lambert, Telephone: (06) 350 5799 extension 2607, Facsimile: (06)
350 5623. Email: D.M.Lambert@massey.ac.nz
On Ross Island Antarctica and other locations on the Victoria Land Coast, there are
stratified deposits of subfossil bones of Adélie penguins which underlie existing
colonies. Some of these bones have been carbon dated to more than 15,000 years.
The Antarctic environment represents an ideal one for the preservation of DNA.
Using DNA technology, we are analysing samples from both extant and extinct
penguin populations and, in conjunction with Prof Carlo Baroni from the University
of Piza, we aim to continue our carbon dating of such bones. Specifically, our
research aims to directly measure, for the first time, the rate of evolutionary changes
in microsatellite and mitochondrial genes over a substantial time frame. Our data
will provide fundamental knowledge about the genetic processes which underlie
evolution in the Antarctic. In collaboration with Ass Prof Peter Metcalf from the
University of Auckland we are also estimating evolutionary rates of change in avian
influenza virus and comparing these results to our penguin data.
Event K034
Stress and Corticosterone Responses in the Adelie Penguin
26 Oct to 27 Nov
Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University,
Cape Bird
Palmerston North
Dr John F Cockrem, Telephone: (06) 350 4483, Facsimile: (06) 350 5636
Email: J.F.Cockrem@massey.ac.nz
Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) survive and breed in a climatic conditions
that would be considered stressful for birds of lower latitudes. Corticosterone is the
major adrenal steroid in birds, and plasma corticosterone levels increase in response
to stressors such as capture and handling. It has been suggested that corticosterone
responses differ between Arctic and other birds, but there is little information on
corticosterone responses in Antarctic birds. We will quantify variation in
corticosterone responses within and between individual Adelie penguins and
characterise changes in corticosterone responses during fasting. Corticosteroneresponses will be measured in Adelie penguins exposed to a south polar skua(Stercorarius maccormicki) which is a natural predator of penguin eggs and chicks,and the effects of corticosterone on incubation behaviour in Adelie penguins will beexamined. Corticosterone responses of Adelie penguins to the presence of peoplewill be measured, and the minimum distance for a person to approach a penguinwithout initiating a corticosterone response will be determined. These studies willcontribute both to knowledge of stress in birds and to our understanding of the impactof human activities on penguins in Antarctica.
Event K042
Glacial History of East Antarctic Ice Sheet at Allan Hills
19 Nov to 20 Dec
School of Earth Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington
Allan Hills
Prof Peter Barrett, Telephone: (04) 463 5336, Facsimile: (04) 463 5186
Email: peter.barrett@vuw.ac.nz
This project is a detailed study of ancient glacial deposits termed the Sirius Group at
Allan Hills, Southern Victoria Lane, Antarctica. The Sirius Group is a collection of
Neogene deposits that crop out at high elevations (mostly >1500 m) throughout the
Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). They are of considerable interest because they
represent the last major expansion of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS). Allan
Hills occupies a low point in the TAM, making the site more susceptible to overriding
by the EAIS during minor volume fluctuations. The aim of this project is to show
whether the Sirius Group was deposited by valley glacier or continental ice sheet, by
wet- or dry-based glacial ice, by single depositional event or several overriding events
and to determine paleoflow direction.
Event K047
Climate and Landscape History from Shallow Drilling in the Dry Valleys
19 Nov to 15 Dec
School of Earth Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington
Table Mt,
Dr Warren Dickinson, Telephone (04) 495 5233 extension 8405, Facsimile: (04) 495
Dry Valleys
5186. Email: Warren.Dickinson@vuw.ac.nz
Detailed climate records from Antarctic ice cores are used by many scientists to test
predictive models of global climate change. These cores are limited by age but may
extend back to about 400,000 years ago. The climate history prior to this time is
obscure, but marine and sediment records show clear evidence of major fluctuations
in the ice cover and glacial intensity of Antarctica. The primary aim of this project
is to recover a climate record from Antarctic ground ice which potentially holds
detailed climate information and dates back to 15 million years ago. The project is
based on new portable drilling techniques which allow shallow coring of permafrosted
glacial sediments. The cored material will not only be used to determine climate
history from the geochemistry of the ground ice but will also provide stratigraphic
information for ground penetrating radar studies and outcrop maps of glacial
sediments.
Event K049
Holocene Climate History from Coastal Ice
24 Oct to 02 Jan
School of Earth Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington
Lower Victoria
Ms Nancy Bertler, Telephone (04) 495 5233 extension 8391, Facsimile: (04) 495 5186
Glacier,
Email: nancy.bertler@vuw.ac.nz
Polar Plateau
This study investigates the regional Holocene climate of the South Victoria Landcoast, with special emphasis on the glacial history of the Wilson Piedmont Glacier(WPG) as a key indicator of the prevailing climate of the Dry Valleys, and sea iceextent in the McMurdo Sound. To achieve this aim, ice cores will be analysed,which are the most detailed, continuous, and direct recorder of past climate change.
Event K052
Natural Spatial Subsidies in Continental Antarctic Soils
27 Dec to 21 Jan
Plant & Microbial Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch
Garwood Valley,
Dr L G Greenfield, Telephone (03) 364 2797, Facsimile: (03) 364 2083
East Beacons
Email: l.greenfield@botn.canterbury.ac.nz
Dry valley plant-soil systems are stressed and rely on external resources (spatial
subsidies). The effect (s) of such subsidies on these ecosystems is largely unexplored
but may influence community and ecosystem level properties.
We plan to conduct an experiment at two sites in Antarctica – a stressed site (Garwood Valley) and an extreme site (Beacons) where resources may enter by aerialdeposition. We will estimate and use resources of differing quality (bird droppings,microbial mats, surface foams and dust) and measure how the decomposer subsystemdevelops including community composition and diversity microbial activity and keydecomposer processes including decomposition and nitrogen release patterns.
Event K054
Geophysical Response of Contaminants in Soil and Permafrost
19 Nov to 15 Jan
in the Vicinity of Scott Base
Scott Base,
Department of Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800,
Mount Pleasant,
Christchurch
Lake Vida,
Dr David Nobes, Telephone: (03) 364 2987 extension 7733, Facsimile: (03) 364 2769
Lake Vanda,
E-mail: d.nobes@geol.canterbury.ac.nz
Bull Pass
Controlled spill and laboratory studies of contaminants in temperate climates haveindicated that petroleum products and organic solvents are electrically resistive andhighly reflective for radar energy. Recent field tests suggest that sites with oldercontaminant plumes are electrically conductive and absorb radar energy. The workproposed is to: 1) test the geophysical response of contaminants in a cold climate,specifically in the area immediately surrounding Scott Base; and 2) map the extentof contaminants, both laterally and with depth, in the soils and permafrost, again inthe area immediately surrounding Scott Base. The results will initially be correlatedclosely to previous studies of, for example, oil contaminants near Scott Base, but thegoal is to extend the work and to determine the vertical and horizontal extent ofcontamination using near-surface geophysical methods.
Event K055
Dynamics and Ionisation in the Antarctic Middle Atmosphere
11 Jan to 25 Jan
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800,
Scott Base,
Christchurch
Arrival Heights
Dr Grahame Fraser, Telephone: (03) 364 2987 extension 7588, Facsimile: (03) 364
2469. E-mail: g.fraser@phys.canterbury.ac.nz
The programme is based on continuous monitoring of winds in the middle atmosphere
at altitudes of 60-100km using a ground-based radar at Scott Base. The dynamical
processes of this region are significant in controlling the circulation at lower altitudes,
including the stratospheric ozone layer. The circulation is dominated by pole-to-
pole flow, from the summer pole to the winter pole. This circulation is largely driven
by atmospheric waves with time scales from 15 minutes to 15 days. The large scale
of the phenomenon benefits considerably from co-operative optical observational at
the South Pole and in New Zealand by US colleagues, and by our radars near
Christchurch. We also use satellite data for the region between Antarctica and New
Zealand.
The goal of the programme is to study the seasonal behaviour of this wave-driven circulation, particularly its dependence on major disturbances in the stratospherewhich result in the transport of energy and momentum by waves to the higher altitudes.
A portion of the programme is directly in support of Antarctic logistics by providing ionospheric data used in forecasting HF communication propagation conditions.
Event K057
Cardiovascular and Respiratory Physiology of Antarctic Fish
14 Nov to 13 Dec
Department of Zoology, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch
Scott Base
Assoc Prof Bill Davison, Telephone: (03) 364 2029, Facsimile: (03) 364 2024
Email: w.davison@zool.canterbury.ac.nz
Antarctic fish in McMurdo Sound live in a constant thermal environment of –1.8°C.
Despite their isolation in this cold water, these fish are afflicted by diseases and
parasites. One disease, termed X-cell disease affects large numbers of the cryopelagic
Pagothenia borchgrevinki. The disease affects the gills, reducing oxygen uptake
and thus ultimately the ability of the fish to function. This programme will determine
the extent of this problem, including an examination of hypertension created by
increased resistance to blood flow through the gills, and oxygen uptake by the gills.
There is a general belief that anaerobic processes in fish do not adapt well to cold
waters and this is seen in Antarctic notothenioids. There is, however, the potential
that this is a function of ecotype rather than cold adaptation. Using both Antarctic
and temperate water notothenioid fish we will investigate the anaerobic capacities of
this group.
Event K059
Human Impacts and the Microbial-Chemical Ecology of
10 Oct to 29 Oct,
Antarctic Sponges
25 Jan to 13 Feb
Australian Institute of Marine Science,
Scott Base,
Dr C N Battershill, Telephone (0061) 747 534 444, Facsimile: (0061) 747 534 285
Turtle Rock
Email: c.battershill@aims.gov.au
Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch
Professor Murray Munro, Telephone: (03) 364 1434, Fax (03) 364 2110
Email: m.munro@chem.canterbury.ac.nz
This project will examine human impacts on the microbial and chemical ecology of
antarctic sponge species. When considered as an indicator of coastal marine benthic
condition sponges represent the most sensitive relevant metazoan phylum.
Furthermore, their symbiotic microbial flora has recently been shown to be an even
more sensitive indicator of environmental health. We propose to examine the
microbial flora associated with several important Antarctic sponge species, with
emphasis on symbiotic relationships. The total microbial communities will be
described using cultivation and molecular techniques to facilitate examination of
population changes with respect to increasing levels of pollution. Sponges, sediment
and water will be screened for the presence of hydrocarbons, heavy metals and other
anthropogenic pollutants such as nutrients. The effects of increased contaminant
corals are to be investigated using settlement plates with focus on chemical cues
during settlement. This is the first study of human effects on Antarctic benthic
communities using such a multi-disciplinary approach, and the first to examine
Antarctic sponge-symbiont relationships.
Event K061
Phreatomagmatic Eruption Processes of Incipient Ferrar Volcanism
21 Nov – 27 Dec
Geology Department, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin
Allan Hills
Dr James D.L. White, Telephone: (03) 479 7519, Facsimile: (04) 479 7527
Email: james.white@stonebow.otago.ac.nz
The proposed study of Mawson Formation at Allan Hills would extend results from
a successful field season in December 1999 in which Mawson Formation in the
Coombs Hills was examined. Mapping revealed a large inferred vent structure in
the Coombs Hills area, filled entirely by phyroclastic rocks characterised by strong
local variation along steep contacts, abundant peperitic intrusions, a lack of layering
except at the structurally highest outcrop and in disrupted blocks, and intense ingestion
of sedimentary material from the enclosing Beacon strata. The area seems to represent
a huge, proportionally shallow-formed, volcanic root zone, similar in many respectsto those of diatremes. Similar huge root zones have not been previously identified,and it is important to extend the study from the Coombs Hills to the adjacent AllanHills in order to better characterise contacts with enclosing strata over a larger area,and to assess the degree of deposit variation with distance from the Coombs Hills.
Determination of the controls on such large-scale phreatomagmatic volcanoes is animportant goal. Combining information from Coombs Hills and Allan Hills willallow rigorous assessment of eruptive processes for what I tentatively view a singleeruptive centre and adjoining deposits.
Event K062
Magmatism in the Transantarctic Mountains
16 Nov to 18 Dec
Department of Geology, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin
Reeves Bluff,
Assoc Prof Alan Cooper, Telephone: (03) 479 7515, Facsimile: (03) 479 7527
Mulock GI,
Email: alan.cooper@stonebow.otago.ac.nz
Worcester Range
Magmas generated during the early stages of the Neoproterozoic – lower PaleozoicRoss Orogeny have similar compositions and similar emplacement histories in boththe Southern Royal Society Range and Skelton Glacier areas. These alkaline or ‘A’-type magmas have not been described from elsewhere in the TAM. In the Dry Valleysto the north, and the Central TAM to the south, Ross magmatism has the characteristiccalc-alkaline signature of convergence and subduction along the paleo-Pacific marginof the East Antarctic craton. ‘A’-type magmas, however, require an extensional, ortranstensional tectonic regime, despite their occurrence in a supposed convergentmargin. This programme proposed to try to establish the scale of segmentationbetween convergent and extensional sections of the TAM by investigating the natureof magmatism immediately south of the Skelton Glacier. Comparison of the RossOrogen of Southern Victoria Land with present day active margins around the worldwill enable a paleotectonic reconstruction of this segment of the Gondwana Marginand an assessment of its relevance to the evolution of the orogenic belt extensionthrough New Zealand and Australia.
Event K063
The Effect of Spatial and Temporal Variation in Marine
12 Oct to 12 Dec,
Productivity on energy acquisition in Female Weddell Seals
21 Jan to 4 Feb
University of Otago, Department of Zoology, PO Box 56, Dunedin
Hutton Cliffs,
Dr Lloyd S Davis, Telephone (03) 479 7654, Facsimile: (03) 479 7584
Cape Royds
Email: adelie@stonebow.otago.ac.nz
The fate of populations of marine predators is ultimately determined by the oceanic
processes that influence the spatial and temporal distribution of primary productivity.
This study will quantify the links between the foraging performance of Weddell
seals breeding in McMurdo Sound and a range of oceanographic parameters, including
sea surface temperature, productivity and bathymetry encountered during their winter
foraging in the Ross Sea. These data are a crucial component in understanding how
antarctic predators will respond to changes in the distribution of marine resources as
a result of global climate change or commercial fisheries activity
Event K064
Basal Ice and Substrate Deformation at Subfreezing Temperatures
3 Dec to 18 Dec,
Department of Geography, University of Otago, P O Box 56, Dunedin
4 Jan to 14 Jan
Dr Sean Fitzsimons, Telephone: (03) 479 8786, Facsimile: (03) 479 9037
Lower Wright
Email: sjf@perth.otago.ac.nz
This proposal seeks support for an investigation of glaciological and geological Taylor Valley
processes that occur beneath glaciers that have basal ice temperatures significantlybelow freezing (<-10°C). The proposed research has three elements two of whichinvolve excavating a 50m tunnel in the ice: Making observations of the physical characteristics of landforms (moraines)and sediments at the ice margin; Conducting experiments on the motion of the base of a glacier and its bedand; Studying the physical and chemical composition of the base of a glacier.
Event K066
Mechanisms of Evolutionary Adaptation in Antarctic Fish
05 Nov to 04 Dec
Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin
Scott Base,
Dr Craig Marshall, Telephone: (03) 479 7570, Facsimile: (03) 479 7866
Email:craig.marshall@stonebow.otago.ac.nz
This project aims to investigate the evolutionary events associated with physiological
adaptations to the unique environment of the Antarctic and Southern Ocean. The
separation of Antarctica from its Gondwanan neighbours altered its climate
profoundly and lead to the freezing of the continent and surrounding waters. Many
organisms were unable to adapt to the new conditions. Prominent among those
organisms able to exploit the new environment were the notothenioid fish which
resisted freezing by virtue of a new blood protein. The development of an antifreeze
glycopeptide is not the only evolutionary cold-adaptation found in these fish; all
icefish lack haemoglobin and some have also lost the related protein, myoglobin;
the lipid transporter, serum albumin, appears to be absent in this group of; the enzymes
of Antarctic notothenioid fish show higher activity at -2°C than expected from
comparison with temperate fish. The relatively recent divergence (~45Ma) and
complete molecular evolutionary history of this group of fish make it an ideal system
for investigating the specific molecular events responsible for evolutionary adaptation
both in these Antarctic fish and in vertebrates generally.
Event K069
Monitoring Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling and Space
4 Jan to 17 Jan
Weather at High Latitudes
Scott Base,
Physics Department, University of Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia
Arrival Heights
Professor Brian Fraser, Telephone: (+61 2 49) 21 5445, Facsimile (+61 2 49) 21 6907
Email: bhbjf@cc.newcastle.edu.au
This project will provide a better understanding of the dynamics and volatility of the
near-Earth space, a plasma region populated by ionised gas embedded in the
geomagnetic field. The dynamic behaviour of this plasma system, now referred to as
“space weather” is of vital importance to the operation of modern technological systems,
and its effects are most apparent at high latitudes, eg the aurora. Space weather can
disrupt the operation of satellites, radio navigation and power distribution systems.
The results of this study will provide important input parameters to global
magnetospheric circulation models currently under development for space weather
forecasting. In particular, it will study the dynamics and topology of the southern high
latitude cusp, and polar cap, geomagnetic field regions open to direct solar influence.
Ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves will be used as tracers in the study of high latitude
plasma dynamics and magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Scott Base magnetometer
and optical imager data, in conjunction with multi-point and multi-instrument
observations from Australian manned bases and USA-UK polar cap automatic
geophysical observatories (AGOs), will provide the basic data set for the study.
Event K073
Cold Expectations: The Impact of Prior Perceptions on Mood in
20 Aug to 24 Aug,
Antarctica
8 Oct to 15 Oct,
Human Sciences Division, PO Box 84, Lincoln University, Canterbury
13 Feb to 18 Feb
Dr Gary Steel, Telephone: (03) 325 2811 extension 8784, Facsimile: (03) 325 3857
Scott Base
Email: steelg@lincoln.ac.nz
Research into the influence of expectations on emotions has had a long history inpsychology, although a beginning has been made on empirical examination of thepatterns and causes of moods in extreme polar environments, no published researchexists on the expectation-emotion connection. Using a series of brief interviews,data will be collected regarding respondents’ prior beliefs and expectations aboutthe affective, social, and physical nature of Antarctica, and their subsequent, on-siteperceptions of Antarctica. These interviews will be assessed for the degree to whichthere is discrepancy between expectations and perceptions. The level of discrepancywill then be compared to Profile of Mood States subfactor scores, which will becollected at the time of the interviews.
Event K081
Ecology of Coastal Benthic Communities in Antarctica
24 Oct – 6 Dec,
NIWA, P O Box 8602, Christchurch
15 – 22 Jan
Dr Ian Hawes, Telephone: 348 8987, Facsimile: 348 5548
New Harbour,
E-mail: i.hawes@niwa.cri.nz
Cape Evans,
National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, PO Box 11-115, Hamilton
Bratina Island
Drs. Alf Norkko/Simon Thrush, Telephone: (07) 856 7026, Facsimile (07) 856 0151
Email: a.norkko@niwa.cri.nz, s.thrush@niwa.cri.nz
This new two-year project will increase our understanding of the environmental
processes, which influence the spatial structure of populations and communities of
coastal soft-bottoms in Antarctica. It is concerned principally with how productivity
gradients within and between habitats are functionally linked to the structure and
biodiversity of the benthic system. During the course of the project we will address
how the spatial structure of benthic communities relate to site-specific productivity,
the role of benthic animals in recycling of pulsed food sources, and the behaviour
and resource utilisation by mobile benthic key species (urchins and scallops) over
different spatial scales. This work will involve sampling depth and resource gradients
within locations and, ultimately, between locations along the latitudinal gradient of
the Victoria Land coast. Characterising the structure and function benthic
communities and its link to sit-specific productivity is essential to an improved
understanding of Antarctic ecology and creates a baseline for distinguishing natural
environmental variability, occurring over short ecological time and space scales,
from larger scale phenomena such as global warming.
Event K085
Processes and Interactions in the Antarctic Atmospheric
NIWA, Private Bag 50061, Omakau, Central Otago
12 Oct to 19 Oct,
Dr Stephen Wood, Telephone: (03) 447 3411 Facsimile: (03) 447 3348
14 Nov to 27 Nov,
Email: s.wood@niwa.cri.nz
21 Jan to 4 Feb
Although the Antarctic atmosphere has a unique physical and chemical character, its Scott Base,
nature can influence all latitudes. The goal of this programme is to improve our Arrival Heights
understanding of the Antarctic atmosphere’s role in global change and theconsequences of its response to that change. It is a coordinated research effort focusedin three areas: the evolution of ozone depletion over Antarctica, the effect of thatdepletion on New Zealand and globally, and the influence of the Antarctic region ongreenhouse trace gases. The most dramatic effect of anthropogenic changes in thestratosphere is ozone depletion over Antarctica, which causes an increase inbiologically-damaging radiation that may damage Antarctic ecosystems. Althoughozone-destroying chlorine will soon begin to decline, ozone recovery may be delayed1-2 decades due to climate change. Testing the agreement between observations inthe Antarctic and predictions based on models will give early insight into the futureof the ozone layer. Changes in greenhouse gases, including ozone, affect the radiativebalance of the atmosphere in ways that are not yet fully understood.
Event K087
Tropospheric and Stratospheric Air Sampling
NIWA, P O Box 14 901, Kilbirnie, Wellington
Mr G Brailsford, Telephone: (04) 386 0393, Facsimile: (04) 386 2501
28 Jan to 1 Feb
Email: g.brailsford@niwa.cri.nz
Scott Base,
As a major contribution to the balance of greenhouse gases, uptake of excess rt flight
atmospheric CO by the Southern Ocean is assumed in predictions of future climate change, but remains poorly quantified and understood. The Southern Ocean isexpected to play a major role in CO uptake for several reasons. CO solubility is higher in colder waters, high wind speeds over the Southern Ocean drive rapid gasexchange across the air-sea interface, and deep ocean mixing in the high southernlatitudes provides an efficient connection between the atmosphere and the very largecarbon reservoir in the deep ocean. At present the most practical way of addressingthe uncertainty in CO uptake is to use precise measurements of atmospheric CO in the Antarctic and high latitudes to infer surface fluxes and to complement this workwhere possible with in-situ measurements of relevant ocean chemistry and biology.
Event K089
Climate Data Acquisition – Scott Base and Arrival Heights
16 Jan to 24 Jan
NIWA, PO Box 8602, Christchurch
Scott Base,
Mr Andrew Harper, Telephone: (03) 348 8987, Facsimile: (03) 348 5548
Arrival Heights
Email: a.harper@niwa.cri.nz
The goal of this programme is to obtain a high-quality continuous climate record for
Scott Base and Arrival Heights in Antarctica, and archive it in NIWA’ publicly accessible
climate database. Scott Base is one of 47 reference climate stations for the New Zealand
region managed by NIWA, and climate observations (wind speed and direction, air
temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, global solar radiation, diffuse solar
radiation and direct solar radiation) are recorded there daily. This climate record began
in 1957 and is one of the longest continuous records in Antarctica. Wind speed and
direction, air temperature, relative humidity and global solar radiation are now also
recorded at Arrival Heights. The measurements are needed for characterising the local
climate and state of the environment, identifying climate variations and changes, and
in research on climate-sensitive processes and ecosystems.
Event K102
Seismological and Geomagnetic Observatories
IGNS, P O Box 1320, Kelburn, Wellington
Dr Fred Davey, Telephone: (04) 473 8208, Facsimile: (04) 471 0977
Email: fred.davey@gns.cri.nz
The seismological observatory records data on a continual basis from earthquakes
occurring around the world. These data are analysed and transmitted to New Zealand
and international agencies. The Scott Base – Dry Valleys seismograph system is one
of the few in Antarctica and makes a significant contribution to New Zealand and
global earthquake studies.
The magnetic observatory at Scott Base is an important site because of its long operation period. This observatory gives a record of long-term changes in the Earth’sgeomagnetic field. The observatory equipment at the Hatherton laboratory will becalibrated and checked this season. The Scott Base magnetic observatory is part ofan international network monitoring the Earth’s magnetic environment.
Event K114
Seismic and Reconnaissance Survey for Stratigraphic Drill sites
09 Oct to 15 Dec
Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Ltd,
New Harbour,
Dr Tim Naish, Telephone: (04) 570 4767, Facsimile: (04) 570 4603
Windless Bight,
Email: t.naish@gns.cri.nz
Brown Penn
This proposal seeks Antarctica New Zealand logistical support for a seismic reflection survey at Windless Bight and a 10-day reconnaissance survey on the Ross Ice Shelfin the Brown Peninsula and Black Island region. The reconnaissance survey willinvolve shallow drilling (to 20m) to establish shelf ice thickness and condition, andbathymetric sounding to establish sub-ice water depth. The data will form an essentialpart of the preparation for a seismic survey to be run in late 2002 and a drillingprogramme proposed as part of the ANDRILL Consortium, McMurdo Portfolio in2003-2008. It is proposed that the contracted drilling team move to the Black Island-Brown Peninsula region after completion of shot hole drilling in Windless Bight,thus taking advantage of equipment, expertise and personnel already at Scott Base.
Event K122
Adelie Penguin Population Dynamics
30 Nov to 28 Jan
Landcare Research, Private Bag 6, Nelson
Cape Bird,
Dr Peter Wilson, Telephone: (03) 548 1082, Facsimile: (03) 546 8590
Cape Crozier,
Email: wilsonpr@landcare.cri.nz
Cape Royds
This collaborative project (joint NZ/US) addresses the theoretical question “Whatmechanisms control population size and colony distribution of Adelie penguins(Pygoscelis adeliae)?” and has application in understanding the impact of climatechange and human impacts (fisheries, tourism, pollution) on the Antarctic marineecosystem. We will distinguish the relative importance of key resources (nestingspace and food) that constrain growth of colonies, and examine behavioural(immigration/emigration and breeding effort/success) mechanisms that may influencecolony size. The research will be carried out at three Adelie penguin colonies onRoss Island, each differing in size by an order of magnitude. We will quantifyreproductive effort and success, energetic cost of foraging, foraging range, diet quality,habitat use, emigration/immigration rates and sea-ice cover using techniques includingaerial photography, telemetry, satellite imagery, stable isotopes, automated weighingsystems, and the use of time-depth recorders and doubly-labelled water to assessenergetic costs of foraging. Factors responsible for colonisation and growth incolonies will be modelled to help understand population regulation, the present effectsof climate and to predict future trends.
Event K123
Impacts of Fuel Spills on Antarctic Soils
30 Nov – 26 Jan
Landcare Research New Zealand Ltd, Private Bag 3127, Hamilton
Marble Point,
Dr Jackie Aislabie, Telephone: (07) 858 3713, Facsimile: (07) 858 4964,
Bull Pass,
Email: aislabiej@landcare.cri.nz
Dry Valleys,
Antarctic soils are unique as they occur in an extremely cold, arid environment.
There is increasing concern about the impacts of human activities in the Antarctic.
In occupied regions there is evidence of terrestrial oil contamination. To assessmore effectively the effects of fuel spills, and to determine whether ameliorationmeasures are necessary, it has become apparent that information is needed on theproperties of Antarctic soils, and how they respond to hydrocarbon contamination.
The goal of this programme is to determine the impact of fuel spills on Antarcticsoils. The research is divided into three objectives. Two are focused on the effectsof hydrocarbons on the biological, physical and chemical properties of soils, and thethird on developing a decision support system for prevention of and remedial actionafter (oil) spills in ice free areas of the Ross Sea Region.
Event K131
Sea Ice and Southern Ocean Processes
Industrial Research Ltd, P O Box 31 310, Lower Hutt
15 Oct – 22 Nov
Dr T G Haskell, Telephone: (04) 569 0000, Facsimile: (04) 569 0754
Cape Evans,
Email: t.haskell@irl.cri.nz
Scott Base
A consortium made up of four NZ Universities, international collaborators and IRL proposes a programme or research ‘Sea Ice and Southern Ocean Processes’ that is ofdirect relevance to southern hemisphere climate and the fisheries of interest to NewZealand. This is being achieved by research on two complementary and intersectingobjectives: intermediate-scale properties of faults in sea ice, which focuses on aspects ofsea ice that disturb its homogeneity; ocean wave / sea ice linkages relevant to climate, where the aim is to discoverhow sea ice is changed by waves with particular notice taken of spatialvariability and abrupt transitions; Specific research projects include: physical and mechanical measurements of sea ice imperfections using conventional and novel techniques including NMR; thermalconductivity; optical characterisation; experiments and modelling of wave propagationin heterogeneous media; the characterisation of the varied growth processescontrolling the formation of sea ice.
Event K136
UV-B Effects on Bottom-Ice Algae
10 Oct to 9 Nov
New Zealand Institute for Industrial Research Ltd
Cape Evans
Dr Ken G Ryan, Telephone: (04) 569 0444 ext 4279, Facsimile: (04) 569 0132
Email: k.ryan@irl.cri.nz
The energy budget of the Southern Ocean is a vital component of global climate,
and an understanding of the factors that influence primary productivity will provide
a baseline for climate modellers. Productivity in ice-covered regions is dominated
by ice algae, and we can now make in situ measurements of their photosynthetic
rates without disturbing them at all. In previous programmes we made initial
assessments of the impact of UV-B on bottom-ice algal productivity and biodiversity.
This proposal will continue and extend that work by examining the biochemical
response and nutritional status of the algae to UV-B stimulus. Unlike higher plants,
Antarctic algae do not synthesise the UV-B absorbing flavonoids of terrestrial plants,
and other compounds such as MAAs may have an equivalent UV-B protective
function. Ultimately, the UV-B induced predominance of a less palatable but more
UV- B tolerant alga
may be more important ecologically than any loss of productivity.
In 2001 we will begin a tripartite investigation (New Zealand/Australia/UK) of the
effects of climate change on total primary productivity (sea ice, phytoplankton and
benthic communities) in coastal ecosystems, focussing on the impact of changes or
reduction of sea ice extent
Event K294
Natural History New Zealand
2 Nov - 16 Nov
Vivienne Allan, Antarctica New Zealand, Private Bag 4745, Christchurch, Phone 358
0200. Email: v.allan@antarcticanz.govt.nz
Filming for ‘Hot Science’ programme for National Geographic
Event K352A
Study on the Role of Gravity Waves in the Dynamics and
28 Jan 02 –
Energetics of the Antarctic Boundary Layer. (Malaysian
18 February 02
Antarctic Programme)
Scott Base
Air Pollution Research Unit, University
New Zealand Institute for Industrial Research Ltd
Assoc. Prof. Azizan A Samah, Telephone: 603 759 5504, Facsimile: 603 759 5457
Email: f4aziz@umcsd.um.edu.my
This research project intends to study the role of gravity waves in the dynamics of
the Antarctic boundary layer in the Ross Sea Region. Gravity waves activity has
been detected in the British antarctic Survey Stable I/II program associated with
shear instabilities in the Katabatic flow (Darby and Mobbs 1988). This study will
investigate further the role of gravity waves flow interactions. The first phase of thestudy will be the observation and detection of the gravity waves using an array ofmicrobarographs and related flux measurements using sonic anemometers and twoautomatic weather stations. The second phase will be an extension of the first studyand boundary layer radiosonde flights to determine the vertical profile of the boundarylayer. The third phase of the study will be the use of observation and rams model tomodel and understand the interactions of gravity waves with the boundary layer.
This study too will enable a comparison to be made between the dynamics of astably stratified boundary layer with a strong coriolis force and convectively drivenboundary layer with near zero coriolis force Event K352B
Model Development and Application of Microwave Remote
18 Oct – 29 Oct
Sensing in the Antarctic
Cape Evans
Multimedia University
Prof. Dr. Chuah Hean Teik, Telephone: 03 8312 5257, Facsimile: 03 8318 3029
Email: htchuah@mmu.edu.my
This project proposes to develop a theoretical model that studies the interaction of
electromagnetic waves with sea ice. Previous studies on the microwave remote
sensing with applications in vegetation and snow have been carried out and can be
extended to applications in sea ice. In microwave remote sensing, understanding the
sea ice-wave scattering mechanisms is important, as this will affect the sea ice
backscattering radar returns measured by the remote sensing satellites. The effects
of different sea ice parameters on the polarimetric radar returns and brightness
temperature for co and cross-polarization will be explored and theoretical calculations
will be compared with ground truth measurement results. The satellite radar images
will be a useful tool for monitoring the physical properties of sea ice, such as age
(first year or multiyear), thickness and extent. In addition, inversion techniques
based on theoretical models and remotely sensed satellite data can be applied to
retrieve sea ice parameters. This will definitely support the exploration and monitoring
work in the large Antarctic sea ice area. The use of satellite radar allows large area
coverage and is independent of the Sun as the illumination source. A classification
scheme will also be developed to classify the land cover and sea ice extent in the
Antarctica, using available satellite images of the continent.
Education programme: Secondary Schools Antarctic Education
19 Nov - 29 Nov
Initiative
Cape Evans
Natalie Cadenhead, Antarctica New Zealand, Private Bag 4745, Christchurch
Phone 358 0200. Email: n.cadenhead@antarcticanz.govt.nz
Liam Nolan, Tauranga Girls College, 930 Cameron Road, Tauranga
Phone (07) 578 8114, Fax (07)578 8447. Email: liamnolans@yahoo.com
Looking at the processes and difficulties of scientific research in Antarctica, focussing
on the importance of Antarctica in environmental monitoring, and the impact of
global human activities on Antarctica. Joining K081 to gather first hand experience
of conditions, scientific research, logistical constraints and environmental monitoring
in Antarctica. Production of educational resources on return to New Zealand.
Education programme: Familiarisation visit for Antarctic
5 Nov - 12 Nov
education institutes and educator from Lincoln College.
Natalie Cadenhead, Antarctica New Zealand, Private Bag 4745, Christchurch
Phone 358 0200. Email: n.cadenhead@antarcticanz.govt.nz
Familiarisation visits for educators representing the Antarctic Visitors Centre,
Christchurch, Kelly Tarlton’s Underwater world and Antarctic Encounter, Auckland,
and Otago Museum, Dunedin, which provide Antarctic information on a day to daybasis to a wide audience. Visit to provide credibility to educators. This event willwork with an educator from Lincoln College research for the new Arts Curriculum,a ceramic artist as an Antarctic Foundation funding opportunity and a familiarisationvisit by a NZDF media representative.
Education programme: Education Initiatives in Antarctica
29 Oct - 5 Nov
Programme
Natalie Cadenhead, Antarctica New Zealand, Private Bag 4745, Christchurch
Phone 358 0200. Email: n.cadenhead@antarcticanz.govt.nz
Visit by educators from Christchurch and Wellington Colleges of Education to gather
information to create curriculum based educational resources relating to Antarctica
in the curriculum areas of Social Studies, Geography, science and environmental
education.
Event will work with (K393KG)who is a media representative who will profile Education programme: Education Initiatives in Antarctica
28 Jan - 4 Feb
Programme
Scott Base Operations Manager will act as minder for this group while in Antarctica
Natalie Cadenhead, Antarctica New Zealand, Private Bag 4745, Christchurch
Phone 358 0200. Email: n.cadenhead@antarcticanz.govt.nz
Visit by University of Otago educator (Jim Higham) to gather information to create
curriculum and university based educational resources relating to Antarctica in the
areas of tourism and environmental education.
Media Initiatives in Antarctica Programme
29 Oct - 5 Nov
Natalie Cadenhead, Antarctica New Zealand, Private Bag 4745, Christchurch
Phone 358 0200. Email: n.cadenhead@antarcticanz.govt.nz
Kim Griggs, 52 Helston Road, Johnsonville, Wellington
Phone: 04 938 4852. Email:kim@griggs.net
Visit by media representative to profile New Zealand supported science events. This
event will work with educators from Christchurch and Wellington Colleges of
Education who will gather information to create curriculum based educational
resources relating to Antarctica (K391C)
Media Initiatives in Antarctica Programme
5 Nov - 10 Nov
Vivienne Allan, Antarctica New Zealand, Private Bag 4745, Christchurch
Phone 358 0200. Email: v.allan@antarcticanz.govt.nz
Familiarisation visits for media representing New Zealand Defence Force. This event
will work with (K391B) education familiarisation group and (K394MN) foundation
funding arts opportunity event.
Media Initiatives in Antarctica Programme
14 Nov - 27 Nov
Vivienne Allan, Antarctica New Zealand, Private Bag 4745, Christchurch
Phone (03) 358 0200, Fax (03) 358 0211. Email: v.allan@antarcticanz.govt.nz
Opportunity for media representative to profile science events supported by New
Zealand.
Artists to Antarctica Programme
8 Jan - 22 Jan
Scott Base Operations Manager will act as minder for this event while in Antarctica
Vivienne Allan, Antarctica New Zealand, Private Bag 4745, Christchurch
Phone 358 0200. Email: v.allan@antarcticanz.govt.nz
Visit by Ann Noble, photographer, to take photographs of science activities and an
in-depth study of an Antarctic environment
Artists to Antarctica Programme
30 Nov - 13 Dec
Scott Base Operations Manager will act as minder for this event while in Antarctica
Vivienne Allan, Antarctica New Zealand, Private Bag 4745, Christchurch
Phone (03) 358 0200, Fax (03) 358 0211. Email: v.allan@antarcticanz.govt.nz
Visit by Artist Denise Copland to create installation exhibition on return to New
Zealand of work based on Shackleton and Scott, and the theme of Antarctica as a
global barometer.
Artists to Antarctica Programme Historic Hut Photography Project
8 Jan - 22 Jan
This event will be accompanied at all times by a represntative from the Antarctic
Heritage Trust while at the historic huts.
Antarctic Heritage Trust, Private Bag 4745, Christchurch
Phone 358 0200. Email: n.watson.aht@antarcticanz.govt.nz
Visit by photographer to professionally photograph historic huts.
Artists to Antarctica Programme – Antarctic Foundation
5 Nov - 10 Nov
funding opportunity visit
Natalie Cadenhead, Antarctica New Zealand, Private Bag 4745, Christchurch
Phone 358 0200. Email: n.cadenhead@antarcticanz.govt.nz
Familiarisation visit by ceramic artist as Antarctic Foundation funding opportunity.
This event will work with educators representing education institutes, which provide
Antarctic information on a day to day basis to a wide audience (K391B) and the visit
by NZDF media personnel (K393KH).
Artists to Antarctica Programme
12 Nov - 23 Nov
Scott Base Operations Manager will act as minder for this event while in Antarctica
Natalie Cadenhead, Antarctica New Zealand, Private Bag 4745, Christchurch
Phone 358 0200. Email: n.cadenhead@antarcticanz.govt.nz
Visit by Richard Thompson, painter to do photographs of Antarctic environment
and gather information for installation exhibition on return to New Zealand

Source: http://antarcticanz.govt.nz/images/downloads/events/20012002.pdf

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