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Microsoft word - 2004_ptests_1.doc
Language & Testing Office
THE MICHIGAN CERTIFICATE
PROFICIENCY IN ENGLISH
Practice Preliminary Tests
PRELIMINARY TEST FOR THE ECPE
INSTRUCTIONS AND EXAMPLES
This set of 10 practice tests has been produced to help familiarize candidates with the format of
the new 35-item preliminary test which will be administered for the first time on 30 November,
In the new test there will be 35 problems: 10 multiple choice cloze problems, 10 grammar
problems, 10 vocabulary problems, and 5 questions about a reading passage. Candidates will have
30 minutes to answer all 35 problems.
Below are examples of each of the different types of problems with the correct answer indicated
with an asterisk (*). GRAMMAR:
Choose the word or phrase that best completes the conversation.
Read the passage, then select the word that best fills the blank in both grammar and
Long ago roads were only trails for people
and animals to walk on, but today roads
must be made for cars, trucks, and buses.
The most modern ______ is often called a
Choose the word that most appropriately completes the sentence.
The first things we study in school are very ________.
Read the passage, then answer the questions following it according to the information
given in the passage.
While I was getting ready to go to town one morning last week, my wife handed me a little piece of red cloth and asked me if I would have time during the day to buy her two yards of cloth like that. The person telling the story is …
LANGUAGE & TESTING OFFICE
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Practice Test 1
"I've been here since the box-office
"Well, I suggest ________immediately."
2. "Why did you wave to that girl?"
7. "So you did invite Mary to the party."
"I ____ her for a classmate of mine."
"Yes. I'm afraid I couldn't _______."
3. "I expected him to do much better."
"Well, _____ that hi didn't study enough."
4. "I hope you've enjoyed yourself."
"Yes. It's been nice ___ for a week."
"Yes, but the sweet corn ______."
5. "Why are you looking so upset?"
"I've lost all the reports ______ to the
excavations in a cave near the Amazon River.
humans inhabited a tropical locale about
lifestyle differed ___(13)___ that of their
better-known prehistoric contemporaries in
reports of other 11,000-year-old human sites in
South America, __(14)__ the theory that the
first New World settlers immediately trekked
inland __(15)__ crossing the Bering Strait
moved into South America along the Andes
__(16)__, the Brazilian work suggests that
ancient travelers moved down the Canadian
coast and entered North and South America
__(17)__ following the major rivers, such as
presence of folks __(18)__ gathered fruit,
caught fish, and __(19)__ a variety of land
animals in a humid, tropical forest far from the
archaeologist at __(20)__ Field Museum in
Chicago and director of the international
26. She _____ a fortune by the time she was
22. They decided to ________ on the project.
27. Learner drivers are usually rather _____.
23. The rescue teams searched the ________
28. She's ______ with the idea of leaving
24. The brothers constant ________ upset their
29. Sixty contestants will ______ for the Miss
25. You needn't worry; we have __________
Lights on, lights off. Just the quick flick of a finger on a simple switch brightens or darkens the room. That power is the envy of geneticists. They long for similar ease in activating and de-activating genes in cultured cells and transgenic animals. In recent years, these scientists have gained some measure of control by using chemical compounds, including the antibiotic tetracycline, to govern genes in cells and mice. The insect hormone ecdysone may provide the most effective gene switch yet, suggest investigators from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, Calif., and the University of California, San Diego. To support that contention, the group has made mammalian cells and strains of mice with genes that are activated when ecdysone reaches them. With such a system, researchers should be able to examine the importance of the timing of gene activity, particularly during an organism's development. Since the hormone has no adverse effect on mammalian cells, ecdysone-based switches may ultimately provide a non-toxic way to control the therapeutic genes inserted into humans. "It looks pretty promising. It seems to work as well as, if not better than, the tetracycline system," says Janet Rossant, a developmental biologist at the Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto.
31. The opening paragraph provides an example of an application of
a. Lights. b. Rooms. c. Electricity. d. Darkness.
32. In recent years chemical compounds have helped scientists
a. to measure cultured cells. b. to control gene activity to a certain extent. c. to train mice. d. to switch from genes to mice.
33. What have investigators managed to do with ecdysone? They've managed to
a. affect the metabolism of special mice. b. produce mammalian cells. c. change the strains of ordinary mice. d. activate ordinary mice.
34. What is an apparent advantage of ecdysone?
a. It helps make mammalian cells. b. It does not harm mammalian cells. c. It is therapeutic. d. It will become non-toxic.
35. According to the last paragraph, scientists are
a. promising miracles. b. clearly in favour of tetracycline instead. c. looking for more promising alternatives. d. optimistic about the potential of ecdysone.
Practice Test 2
1. "Why isn't Dave here tonight?"
6. "Can you carry that table by yourself?"
"Yes, since it's ___, any adult can do it."
2. "That's a lovely boat, isn't it?"
"No. She ____ to meet me here an hour
3. "What are you doing this weekend?"
8. "I'm going out with Tim tonight."
"I hope _____ my research paper."
"Yes, but I wish you ________ ."
4. "Paul does so well at school."
"I know. And yet he _____ studies."
"It's very ______ what I 'm used to."
5. "Dora didn't remember a thing the
10. "What did Joe's father say?"
"She couldn't _____ very attentively."
"He said that it was necessary _______
The plastic oxygen tent that serves as a womb
for premature babies has been the subject of
recent investigations. Since its beginnings
early in the baby __(11)__, the tent has saved
many lives - but often __(12)__ the cost of the
Now, doctors who can __(13)__ a preemie
weighing just 1 pound can sometimes save the
infant's vision, __(14)__ it may never be
20/20, says Earl A. Palmer of the Oregon
applications of extreme cold - to the retina.
was recognized in the 1940s. __(16)__ that
time, doctors thought that excess oxygen was
the only __(17)__. They now know better.
vessels in the eye. As preemies are weaned
from the oxygen, cells in the retina react
__(18)__ issuing a chemical that triggers a
rapid blood vessel growth. The new, weak-
walled vessels __(19)__ blood, prying the
retina from __(20)__ bed. This causes severe
loss of vision in 60% of the smallest preemies.
22. His lawyer advised him to _______ the
29. She's _______ reader of pulp fiction.
25. The ______ between the two families led
30. All my efforts to get his support were to
According to the Big Bang theory, the universe began in a giant explosion. Ever since, the cosmos has ballooned in size, carrying galaxies further apart. But gravity slows that expansion and determines the fate of the universe. If gravity is weak, the universe will remain open, expanding forever. However, if the universe contains sufficient mass, it will eventually close in on itself: Gravity will halt cosmic expansion, crashing galaxies together in a Big Crunch. In a third scenario, the universe is delicately balanced between expansion and collapse, possessing just enough gravity to halt inflation without contracting. Although cosmologists have by no means reached a consensus, recent evidence suggests that the cosmos will grow indefinitely. An analysis of some of the deepest cosmic images ever taken supports this idea. In the new findings, presented last week in Liverpool, England, at the Royal Astronomical Society's National Astronomy Meeting, Thomas Shanks, Nigel Metcalfe, Ana Campos, and their colleagues at the University of Durham in England observe that gravity curves space in such a way that the volume of universe within a given radius from Earth is greater for an open universe than a closed one. The number of galaxies in that volume will therefore also be greater, so counting them could indicate the nature of the universe. So far so good. But the difference in volume between an open and a closed universe becomes significant only when astronomers consider a chunk of universe containing distant objects. Unfortunately, galaxies located far from Earth are often too dim to detect visually.
31. The Big Bang theory maintains that since the universe began
a. the cosmos has remained the same size. b. there have been giant explosions in the cosmos. c. the cosmos has increased in size. d. a part of the cosmos carries galaxies.
32. The third scenario sees the universe
a. as being too delicate to balance. b. as having enough of a gravitational pull to prevent it shrinking. c. as having sufficient gravity to allow it to expand further. d. as being ready to collapse.
33. Analysis of some of the deepest cosmic images ever taken suggests
a. that scientists will reach a consensus. b. an ever expanding cosmos. c. indefinite results. d. that scientists will by no means agree.
34. The new findings referred to maintain that
a. gravity increases volume of space. b. the radius from Earth is opening up. c. gravity closes the universe. d. space is curved by gravity.
35. What problem faces astronomers who are studying the cosmos?
a. Distant galaxies are often not bright enough to locate. b. Comparing open and closed galaxies is impossible. c. Astronomers have not been able to observe distant objects. d. Chunks of the universe do not contain distant objects.
Practice Test 3
1. "I'm sorry I lost my temper like that.
6. "No. I've never been to a more boring talk
"Don't worry. I'm sure I _____ the same
7. "It's a shame Warren didn't get the job."
2. "Jan has got a car just like yours."
"Yes. _____ my advice, he would have got
"They 're similar, but hers is _____ color."
8. "Why has Dave resigned his job?"
3. "Didn't you say your passport had
9. "How would you like me to organize the
4. "Did you attend the concert last night?"
"No, we didn't, _____ we couldn't find a
5. "How did they discover the problem?"
10. "Are your neighbors still keeping you
"The smell _____ the gas-pipe alarmed
"No. I _____ the noise they make."
Clinical trials are used to test all manner of
aspirin prevents heart attacks, you take 10,000
people from the general population, select half
of them __(12)__ random to take aspirin every
day, and follow all 10,000 for five or ten years
to see __(13)__ their cardiovascular systems
hold up. This kind of randomized selection is
at the center of such trials. In practice,
however , it __(14)__ be significantly flawed.
colleagues have been __(15)__ questions about
the quality of allocation concealment - the
process of hiding information about which
patients will be assigned new treatment versus
__(16)__ will get conventional care. For
instance, __(17)__ doctors know that all new
patients registered on odd-numbered days get a
new drug that is __(18)__ investigation,
whereas those registered on even-numbered
days get a placebo, they could easily arrange
__(19)__ appointment books - with only the
best interests of their patients at heart to
undermine the intent of a randomized trial.
__(20)__ when there is negligible evidence,
treatment is most effective, Schultz contends.
21. In the fight that _____, fifty fans were
26. Coming from a hot country, you'll need
22. Receptionists should always be _____.
27. The children were too _____ in watching
23. Michael Jackson is famous for his _____
28. It was a shame to see all his plans go
24. Unfortunately, his efforts to expand the
29. A teacher's job is to _____ knowledge to
25. A policeman in disguise was used as a
30. The three firemen were awarded medals
Finding the right male to mate with is not a simple matter - not even for a female guppy. Oh sure,
she could go just for good looks: a guy's size, tail length, and color, for example. Some of these
physical preferences are so important to reproduction that they appear to be hard-coded into a
guppy's genetic heritage.
Yet female guppies do not depend solely on those factors for choosing a mate, notes Lee Alan
Dugatkin of the University of Louisville in Kentucky. A few years ago, he found that a female
guppy often imitates the mating choices of other females.
In the April 2 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
reports on the first systematic look at whether appearance or cultural cues dominate this fishy issue.
He finds that female guppies, which normally prefer a mate with lots of orange, are easily persuaded
to pick a male with less orange coloration if they observe another female mating with him.
In special cases, looks can override those cultural cues. "When the males are dramatically
different (in amount of color), females don't copy," says Dugatkin. If one of two available males has
at least 40 percent more orange color than the other, a female will mate with him regardless of the
other females' actions. Dugatkin suggests that examining the behavior of guppies may provide
insight into how to study inherited and cultural factors than govern mating choices of women.
31. Which of the following is not characteristic that may determine a female guppy's choice of a
a. Its coloration b. How fast it swims c. Its length d. How big it is
32. Studies conducted a few years ago indicate that a female guppy's choice of a prospective mate
a. how soon it sees the male mating. b. which females the male attracts. c. what other females do when choosing a mate. d. where other females choose to mate.
33. Which of the following do more recent studies of the mating behavior of female guppies reveal?
a. They do not rely entirely on a male's appearance. b. They always reject males with less orange coloration. c. They remain faithful to a single male. d. They are not attracted by the amount of orange in males.
34. The most recent findings indicate that . . .
a. the desire of a female guppy to imitate the behavior of other females overrides all other
b. cultural cues always determine a female's choice of a mate. c. appearance may be a decisive factor in a guppy's choice of a mate. d. dramatically different behavior by males may affect a female's choice.
35. Dugatkin believes that his studies may answer questions concerning . . .
a. why women choose a particular mate. b. how women inherit cultural factors. c. the insights we already have into the mating choices of women. d. only the inherited behavior of women.
Practice Test 4
1. "Has Sue told you the good news?"
6. "How bad is the drought in the region?"
"Yes. I was just leaving ______ work
"They've had ______ rain for over four
2. "Did you visit Disneyland when you were
7. "I see your lawn-mower's working again."
"Yes. I got a mechanic ______."
3. "What do you keep in that room?"
8. "Has the Swiss delegation arrived?"
"______ an old bed and several chairs."
"Yes. They've just checked ______."
4. "What's the new secretary like?"
9. "Are you satisfied with the course?"
"It seems interesting, ______ I think its
5. "How did the witness react in court?"
10. "I'll be away this weekend."
"He seemed quite ______ when he was
"Don't leave without ______ where they
During the past two years, a dozen varieties
of cotton, squash, soya beans, potatoes and
tomatoes created __(11)__ gene splicing have
been approved __(12)__ sale in the U.S. The
added genes confer traits __(13)__ from longer
shelf __(14)__ to pest resistance. The plants
seem safe, __(15)__ environmental watchdog
groups __(16)__ that the spliced genes might
spread into the crops' wild relatives. In such
hosts, the genes might be less benign - and
transgenic plants can form sterile hybrids with
wild relatives. Now researchers in Denmark
__(17)__ shown that these hybrids can be
engineered trait to subsequent generations in
field __(18)__ . Health concerns have also
emerged: a report in __(19)__ New England
Journal of Medicine
indicates __(20)__ a gene
taken from Brazil nuts and engineered into
21. She's so ______ that she refuses to talk to
22. Their new house is really ______; it has
27. The police have promised to ______ the
23. There's ______ on the sale of arms to that
28. The ______ to the play was written by the
24. Bears and other large animals move in
29. Interest in the new fashion began to
25. To get the best effect, the sound has to be
30. Many ______ volcanoes dot the surface of
One hundred and fifteen thousand years ago, the Earth began a descent from the warmth of the last interglacial to the frigid climate of the last ice age. What began as a period with air temperatures similar to the present or perhaps slightly warmer, had declined by 21,000 years ago to a state 7 - 10 degrees Centigrade colder than today. High-latitude temperatures were at least 15 degrees Centigrade colder, and ice sheets more than 1 km thick covered most of North America and large portions of Eurasia above 55 degrees North. The mechanism commonly accepted as initiating the growth of these massive continental ice sheets is the reduction of summertime solar radiation at high latitudes, resulting from cyclical variations in the orbit of the Earth. But many global climate modelling studies have found that the reduction that occurred 115 kyr ago does not, by itself, yield however, climate model experiments reported by Gallimore and Kutzbach show that changing vegetation patterns, specifically the spread of tundra, may have played a prominent role in this reversal of fortunes for the global climate. 31. One hundred and fifteen thousand years ago
a. the last interglacial age began. b. a steady increase in global temperatures was observed. c. temperatures around the world began to drop steadily. d. the last ice age ended.
32. Which of the following climatic conditions did not apply to the Earth 21,000 years ago?
a. Temperatures were up to 10 degrees colder than today. b. Large areas of land masses in the Northern Hemisphere were covered by thick ice sheets. c. In areas closer to the North Pole, temperatures were up to 15 degrees Centigrade colder
d. Ice sheets around the tropics were more than 1 km thick.
33. . . . is commonly believed to have been solely responsible for triggering off the last ice age.
a. Global warming b. The growth of massive ice sheets c. The effects of cyclical variations in the Earth's orbit d. Solar radiation at high latitudes
34. More recent studies of global climatic changes suggest . . .
a. that other factors may have helped produce the last ice age. b. that there was no reduction in solar radiation 115 kyr ago. c. that there was no maintenance of year-round snow cover. d. that there is a need for climatic modelling.
35. The findings of Gallimore and Kutzbach indicate that the global cooling that took place 115 kyr
ago may have been the result of . . . in high latitude zones.
a. a reduction in the area covered by tundra b. an increase in the area covered by tundra c. experiments with trees. d. a reversal of roles.
Practice Test 5
1. "I couldn't sleep at all last night."
6. "Aren't there any children for your son to
"You really shouldn't ______ so much
"Yes, but they 're ______ girls."
2. "I need to contact Tom immediately."
7. "Do you think George can pass the exam?"
"______ harder, he could do quite well."
3. "Jerry can't do all that work alone!"
8. "Your hair is looking really nice."
"Yes, but he won't let anyone ______."
4. "What time shall I ask Sue to phone you?"
9. "Hasn't Dawn got a lovely voice!"
"Ask her to phone whenever she can,
"Yes, ______ beautifully she sings."
5. "Why do you need to see Joan."
10. "I hear a car plunged into the river last
"It's necessary ______ before she applies
"Yes. Fortunately, the driver ______
ethicists hailed it __(11)__ an important step in
the right of patients to choose __(12)__ they
are treated - and how they die. The possibility
that the act might reduce health care costs by
treatments __(13)__ seen as an added bonus.
It has been estimated that almost about 40% of
__(14)__ deaths in the US take place following
the withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments -
often from a sedated or comatose indecision on
designed to reduce this indecision by giving
patients more control over their destiny. It
__(16)__ hospitals to inform patients and their
families - upon a person's admission to the
hospital - of their legal __(17)__ to refuse
various life-sustaining technologies and
advanced directives. The two most common
advanced directives are living wills, in
__(19)__ individuals specify their choices
documents authorizing such decisions, in the
event that an individual becomes mentally
27. The flaw in the diamond was ______ to a
23. The bully's behavior was really ______.
28. The price of gold has been ______ of late.
24. He was charged with ______ his children.
25. The cinema was closed down attendances
30. Don't argue over such ______ things!
The Hutterites call themselves the human version of a bee colony. Members of this Christian sect, who first settled in the United States in the 19th century, shun personal gain and pour their efforts into a well-oiled collective enterprise. Hutterite ideology stresses the shared fate of the group and warns against the sin of selfishness. Anyone who withholds help from others in need, turns lazy, or otherwise undermines community health draws stern reprimands from church elders. Failure to heed these warnings results in forced exile. Hutterite leaders are elected democratically and undergo a long probationary period before acquiring full power. When a colony grows too large – which is not uncommon, as the Hutterites have long experienced high birth rates – it sorts into two groups of equal size, skill, and compatibility. A lottery determines which group stays and which moves to a new location. Such practices sound downright strange to the average suburbanite or city dweller. Indeed, end-of-the-millennium Western societies seem to spawn far more self-absorption than sacrifice for any “greater good.” But the bee like tactics of Hutterite colonies highlight an evolved human capacity for thinking in groups and advancing group interests, even at the expense of personal strivings, asserts David Sloan Wilson, an evolutionary biologist at the State University of New York at Binghamton. “Groups can be functional units in their own right, and individuals sometimes behave more like organs than like organism,” Wilson contends. “As a result, altruism is a common feature of both human and biological nature.” 31. Hutterites are characterized by their . . .
a. pride. b. greed. c. selflessness d. individualism
32. A Hutterite who displays laziness and ignores warnings to reform . . .
a. is made to leave the group. b. turns selfish. c. reprimands church elders. d. shares the fate of the group.
33. Which of the following does not apply to Hutterite leaders?
a. They have to elect deputies. b. They have to prove themselves worthy. c. They are chosen by the group. d. They do not automatically assume full power.
34. What accounts for the division of many Hutterite colonies?
a. The skills of their members become unequal. b. The members are unable to live together peacefully. c. Too many immigrants join the colony. d. New births within the colonies swell their population.
35. Wilson maintains that Hutterite practices . . .
a. mirror the average contemporary Western society. b. reflect how strong an effect altruism can have on our actions. c. prove that personal striving is an overwhelming force. d. have a high capacity for self-absorption.
Practice Test 6
1. "What time does the concert begin?"
6. "Yes, she was. I have no idea why _____."
"It will be ______ at 9 o' clock."
7. "It's strange Bob isn't here today."
"I know. He wouldn't miss a lesson unless
"Yes. And they have some of the ______."
8. "Sheila is really proud, isn't she!"
"Yes. She looks ______ her nose at most
9. "Where did Jan get all that money?"
"Her ______ uncle left it to her in his will."
"Yes. I'm afraid this table is ______."
10. "What did the teacher do when Paul took
5. "What are the brothers like?"
"Well, Tom is hard-working ______ Pete
As ecological crises go, the damage done by
acid rain had seemed pretty easy to fix. Just
plants, and trees would again flourish and
acidic waters return __(12)__ their natural pH.
But even though the United States, Canada,
pollution, forests, lakes, and streams have not
bounced back as __(13)__ as expected. The
reason, scientists have suspected, is that acid
rain has wrought profound changes in the soil,
to __(14)__ all these ecosystems are linked.
Now, __(15)__ looking over 30 years of data
from a New Hampshire forest, researchers may
__(17)__ 30 years, acid rain has been leaching
the soil in their study area of vast quantities of
the base mineral ions that buffer, or neutralize,
__(19)__ the rate at which these ions are still
being depleted, they find it could __(20)__
decades before the acid-ravaged ecosystems
26. There should be more laws to ______ the
22. Your father fears are ______. There's
27. They had been without food for days, so
23. We had to ______ for tickets for over an
28. The accused was ______ of all charges.
24. The ______ look on her face had such a
29. When do ______ for the new play begin?
25. The ______ weather conditions made it
30. She can be rather ______ at times, so don't
The closest relatives of the hoatzin, a blue-faced South American bird, are neither turkeys nor chickens, as many bird experts had assumed; they are cuckoos, a new study concludes. The finding shows that 220 years of research on the hoatzin was no wild-goose chase. Since describing the bird, Opisthocomos hoazin
, in 1776, ornithologists have had problems pinpointing its closest kin, as the hoatzin looks and acts son unlike other birds. It digests its food, for example, the way a cow does, in a chamber above its stomach. Scientists have disagreed most recently over whether hoatzins are closer to cuckoos or to galliforms such as pheasants, chickens, and turkeys. Galliforms are among the most ancient birds, while cuckoos appeared more recently. The scientists conclude, however, that the hoatzin belongs next to the cuckoo's nest, not in it, because of the species' DNA and structural differences. For example, the cuckoo has two forward and two backward toes, while the hoatzin has three forward and one backward. Indeed, the team recommends placing hoatzins in their own suborder, Opisthocomi, in the Cuculiformes order. All other members of the order, such as cuckoos, should then come under the suborder Cuculi. The findings serves as an "eye-opening example of how molecular data can resolve phylogenic relationship, "says S. Blair Hedges of Pennsylvania State University in University Park. Morphology "has tricked people for a long time." 31. A recent study on the hoatzin . . .
a. has confirmed previous assumptions. b. has taken 220 years of research. c. has linked it to the cuckoo family. d. has concluded that it is a relative of the wild goose.
a. the way it looks and acts. b. the food it consumes. c. the way it eats. d. its closest kin.
33. The arrival of Galliforms on our planet . . .
a. preceded the appearance of Cuculiformes. b. succeeded the appearance of Cuculiformes. c. occurred simultaneously with that of the Cuculiformes. d. introduced species such as the cuckoo.
34. The example showing one difference between hoatzins and cuckoos . . .
a. quotes a dissimilarity in the DNA of the two birds. b. is based on their foot structure. c. presents the differences in the structure of their nests. d. notes the differences in the number of toes each bird has.
35. If adopted, the recommendations of the research team would . . .
a. remove the order of Cuculiformes. b. create two suborders of Cuculiformes. c. place all Cuculiformes under the suborder Cuculi. d. place more species under the suborder Opisthocomi.
Practice Test 7
1. "Why hasn't the suspect been charged?"
6. "What's your new apartment like?"
"We can't ______ that he stole the goods."
"Well, it's a bit small, but _____ it's quite
2. "Isn't fall a beautiful season?"
"Yes. I love to see the ground covered
"_____ I like her, she's not the best person
3. "Why did you send those children away?"
8. "Was Dan badly injured in the crash?"
"I won't have them ______ football near
"No, but if he hadn't been wearing his seat
4. "My car broke down again this morning."
9. "Aren't you afraid she 'll make a mistake?"
"Isn't it time you ______ rid of it?"
"No. She's someone I can really rely
5. "I'm going to Jan's party this evening."
10. "Why did Jake turn down that job offer?"
Scientists have been studying evidence of
Records of atmospheric pollution __(11)__
back to ancient times have been preserved in
various parts of natural deposits, especially
polar ice __(12)__, ombrogenic (nutrients
derived exclusively __(13)__ the atmosphere)
bogs, and aquatic sediments. Because of the
rapid __(14)__ of accumulation, ice deposits
often provide the most detailed paleopollution
records including short-term fluctuations.
monitoring tends to be tempered __(15)__ the
thick pile of firn that must be drilled or
excavated to reach preindustrial layers and by
the very low concentrations of trace metals,
__(16)__ necessitate meticulous procedures in
the collection and analysis of samples. Peat
bogs and aquatic sediments are deposited at
compact records that can further be distorted
by basin characteristics and postdepositional
differences in the accumulation efficiency
__(19)__ nature of the archives, the various
deposits have __(20)__ a coherent picture of
long-term contamination of the atmosphere
21. The doctor gave her some tablets which
22. The students were asked to write a ______
27. Professor Dobbs is considered to be the
23. The accused ______ all the charges that
28. A number of ______ issues will have to be
24. She's just too ______ to listen to anyone's
29. I have never seen her in such a ______
Certain gases in the atmosphere allow visible light to pass through, but they block much of the heat reflected from the Earth's surface - in the same fashion as the glass windows in a greenhouse. Without this greenhouse effect, worldwide temperatures would be lower by 35 degrees Celsius, most of the oceans would freeze, and life would cease or be totally altered. According to the theory of global warming, an increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will produce unacceptable temperature increases. A doubling of the volume of gases, for example, would cause temperatures to go up by 1.5 degrees C or more, a phenomenal change by historical standards. The most dramatic consequence of the warming would be a rise in sea level from the melting of the polar ice caps, a rise that the Environmental Protection Agency projects to be 20 feet as early as the year 2000 - sufficient to submerge large parts of coastal cities. Global warming would result in profound shifts in agriculture and may, as some have suggested, hasten the spread of infection diseases. Aside from water vapor, the principal greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, resulting from the burning of fossil fuels; methane, produced by the breakdown of plant materials by bacteria; nitrous oxide, produced during the burning of fossil fuels and by the decomposition of chemical fertilizers and by bacterial action; and chlorofluorocarbons, used for industrial and commercial purposes, such as air conditioning. Of these, carbon dioxide is the most important. The atmospheric concentration of this gas was 280 parts per million before the Industrial Revolution; with the increasing use of fossil fuels, the figure is currently 350 parts. The idea of global warming gained support as temperatures soared to record levels in the 1980s' but there are several problems with the theory, including doubts about the reliability of the temperature record. Despite this, a majority of climatologists feel that a risk of global warming exists, although there is much disagreement concerning the extent and the timing. At the 1992 U.N. Conference on Environment and Development, over 150 nations signed the U.N. Convention on Climate Change, which pledges signatories to control emissions of greenhouse gases. 31. The greenhouse effect described in the opening paragraph . . .
a. enables heat to be reflected more easily from the Earth's surface. b. would cause the oceans to freeze. c. helps sustain life on Earth. d. allows visible light to pass through the atmosphere.
32. Which of the following is not an anticipated result of global warming?
a. A increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. b. Flooding of many coastal areas. c. Higher worldwide temperatures. d. A change in agricultural patterns.
33. . . . is contributing most to global warming.
a. The growing use of air-conditioning. b. The burning of fossil fuels. c. The decomposition of chemical fertilizers. d. The production of methane.
34. Most climatologists disagree about . . .
a. which gases will be responsible for global warming. b. whether or not global warming will occur. c. how global warming can be prevented. d. when global warming will occur and how extensive it will be.
35. The 150 signatories of the Convention on Climate Change . . .
a. undertook to limit the levels of greenhouse gases they produce. b. promised to stop using fossil fuels in future. c. are obliged to report increase in levels of greenhouse gases. d. undertook to limit their use of greenhouse gases.
Practice Test 8
1. "What was all that noise last night?"
"They _____ a party in the apartment
"Unless he _____ the interview board, he
2. "Was Bill of any help to you?"
"Yes. He's _____ hard-working!"
"Never in my life _____ so badly!"
3. "The mayor was here yesterday."
8. "When are you getting married?"
"Yes. I was unfortunate _____ him."
"As soon as we _____ somewhere to live."
9. "Have you heard about Bob's promotion?"
"_____ by a jellyfish, she's reluctant to go
"Yes. It was my recommendation that he
5. "Have you ever returned to your old
10. "She's a great skater, isn't she?"
"_____ I drive through it on my way home
enriched uranium and other highly radioactive
materials have been produced within the U.S.
over the past two decades. For __(11)__ ounce
created, transported or sold, Department of
Energy officials entered a __(12)__ into a
database. The tracking system ensures that
__(13)__ weapons-grade nuclear materials are
stolen or misplaced and provides evidence that
the US is complying __(14)__ international
treaties. But in 1993 the software, written 20
years ago for an obsolete mainframe, had
become impractical to maintain, __(15)__ the
Because of the importance of the system,
Congress asked the General Accounting Office
(GAO) to __(16)__ up on the project a year
later. The GAO's report was disturbing. It
warned __(17)__ the DOE's contractor had
__(18)__ as alternatives, meet users' needs or
21. I'm afraid the problem _____ from his
26. Workers often need to be provided with
22. The best thing to _____ your thirst is a
27. The manager has always _____ to please
23. The country's industrial growth has _____
24. After their release, the hostages described
29. Bats, owls and other _____ creatures are
25. The moment he walked into the house, he
30. The little child was perched _____ at the
Analysts expect personal computers to reign once again over the big-ticket gift market this holiday season. Sales may get an additional boost as people with home offices rush to buy PCs by the end of the tax year. Forty percent of these new acquisitions in the United States at least, will replace existing slow or obsolete systems, according to Nikki and David Goldberg, authors of Choose to Reuse
. While some of the castoffs will be passed on to other family members or used for game and educational software, most are expected to be mothballed - relegated to closets, the basement, or a corner of the guest room. Indeed, millions of PCs worldwide will have been retired from service already. Although these units are too slow or limited to handle the computer enthusiast's burgeoning demands, most still have a lot of data-processing power left. It's because consumers recognize this latent value that they've been squirreling their discards away instead of putting them out with the trash. When commercial users upgrade their PCs, even the trash isn't an option for the old ones. Because of the high content of heavy metals in computers, they qualify as hazardous waste, requiring costly, regulated disposal. Increasingly, therefore, both individual and corporate computer users have begun looking for new homes for this hardware. Though not widely visible, many firms have sprung up to accept these orphans. Propelled by options for recycling cyberjunk. 31. As the holiday season approaches, personal computers are expected . . .
a. to become a popular gift item. b. to replace other gift items which have been popular until now. c. to fall in popularity. d. to retain their popularity as high-priced gift items.
32. What will be the fate of most of the systems which will be replaced?
a. Other family members will be allowed to use them. b. They will be used to decorate various rooms. c. They will be placed in mothballs. d. They will be stored away.
33. Why haven't these units been thrown away?
a. They can still be of use. b. They are too slow to handle the demands of computer enthusiasts. c. Their applications are limited. d. They place burgeoning demands on computer enthusiasts.
34. The disposal of PCs creates problems because . . .
a. they re difficult to upgrade. b. they contain dangerous materials. c. they are costly. d. they need to be regulated.
35. Which of the following is not a consideration of the firms that offer to recycle cyberjunk?
a. Public safety. b. Concern for other people. c. Housing. d. Profit.
Practice Test 9
1. "How extensive was the damage?"
6. "I'll be staying at Tina's tonight."
"Over three-fifths of the cargo ______
"You 'd better ______ your mother know
2. "Why are you taking a photo of that
"It was a complete flop. ______ turned
"That's the house ______ my father was
3. "Why are you looking so worried?"
8. "Is your sister's condition any better?"
"I'm concerned about what ______ to
"She appears to gave got ______ the worst
4. "Why isn't anything happening?"
9. "Harry hasn't got the experience for the
"The police ______ for the robbers to
"That's why the firm is putting him on a
5. "You were the one who gave me the
"______ by her son's behavior, she got up
"Really? I don't remember _____ anything
In 1535, on his first voyage to America, the
French explorer Jacques Cartier sailed up the
currents __(12)__ his progress for a full day.
Cartier was forced to moor __(13)__ the night
near a low-lying island in the middle of the
river. In the morning, he was started to see
large white porpoises __(14)__ the ship. The
native pilots said they were __(15)__ to eat
and called them Adothuys
. The animals were
beluga whales, an Arctis species that had lived
These small, __(16)__ whales first came to
the river from the Atlantic Ocean, shortly after
the Ice __(17)__ ended. When the climate
warmed, the Atlantic rose, flooding much of
__(19)__ the Gulf of St. Lawrence, almost as
far as the Great Lakes and into New York and
Vermont. Many species of seals and whales
ventured into this inland sea, called the
Champlain. In __(20)__, the land reemerged,
the basin dried and the St. Lawrence took
26. Security guards have to be ______ at all
27. Someone has been ______ with the lock
23. A flashlight is ______ when you are on a
29. The witness was found guilty of ______.
25. Her poems began to reveal her growing
Using explosive blasts and large vibrating trucks, an international team of seismologists has peered far below Russia's Ural Mountains to find out why they resemble no other mountain chain. Reaching unprecedented depths of 150 to 200 kilometers, the seismic imaging equipment illuminated structures all the way down to the base of the lithosphere - Earth's outer shell. "This is certainly the most ambitious effort ever undertaken in terms of imaging the lithosphere," says James H. Knapp of Cornell University. The project teamed U.S. researchers with scientists from Germany, Russia, and Spain. To peek under Earth's skin, Knapp and his colleagues created small artificial earthquakes. The seismic waves raced down into the lithosphere and bounced off hidden structures, such as faults or folds. The seismologists focused their study on the Urals because the 3,000-kilometer-long chain is frozen in mid-evolution. The range formed when Asia smashed into Europe between 600 million and 300 million years ago, at about the same time that North America collided with Africa, building the Appalachian Mountains. The Appalachians entered old age when North America separated from Africa, tearing apart the lithosphere and causing the once-towering mountain range to collapse. The Urals have remained intact because Asia never separated from Europe. "This is an important time to reexamine how mountain belts evolve, because we see in the Urals an example of one that didn't," says Knapp. 31. The international team of seismologists conducted their experiments . . .
a. to explain the unprecedented depth of the Urals. b. to discover more about the uniqueness of the Urals. c. to learn more about he world's mountain chains. d. to search for hidden structures.
32. Previous attempts at imaging the lithosphere . . .
a. have been more successful. b. have not attempted so much. c. have gone to much greater depths. d. have triggered off small earthquakes.
33. The formation of the Urals occurred at about the same time as . . .
a. the creation of Asia. b. the separation of Asia from Europe. c. the collision between North America and Africa. d. the collapse of the Appalachians.
34. We can assume that the Appalachians Mountains . . .
a. were much higher in the past. b. were once a part of Africa. c. were formed when North America and Africa separated. d. have remained intact since they were formed.
a. have not followed the usual evolutionary pattern of most mountain chains. b. Have suffered the same fate as the Appalachians c. Have undergone several phases of growth and collapse. d. Have now entered there old age.
Practice Test 10
1. "I thought Jeff didn't have a surfboard."
6. "We've invited over thirty people to our
"Never mind. Remember what they say,
2. "How long will the expedition take?"
"It ______ on what the weather conditions
7. "How did Dave react to the news?"
"No sooner ______ than he burst into
3. "What re my chances of passing?"
"A hundred dollars ______ too much to
4. "What did Martin want to know?"
"______ his injury, he played better than
10. "Can I borrow the car tonight, Dad?"
"I'd rather you ______ in this weather."
cleanliness. The man __(11)__ pulls out his
comb and slicks back his hair when a good-
who files her perfect nails __(13)__ pretending
to ignore a hunk are sending a clear message.
Meadow voles, small polygamous rodents,
may play the __(14)__ game, a series of new
experiments suggests. They groom to maintain
their coats, of course, __(15)__ the behavior
__(16)__ with each other, assert Michael H.
Ferkin of the University of Memphis and his
from various parts of its body. In the dim,
animals rely on these smells for numerous
tasks, such as discerning family members
__(18)__ newcomers or identifying mates.
Earlier studies hinted that self-grooming may
play a __(19)__ in this silent communication
system. The monogamous prairie vole, for
example, grooms more around his __(20)__
21. I was puzzled by his ______ reply to my
27. You need to ______ the door hinges if
23. I'm ______ to all kinds of soft cheese.
28. The child ______ in pain as the nurse
24. The business went ______ as soon as he
29. It took the soldiers a few minutes to
25. H refused to ______ the many warnings I
30. She has been made the sole ______ in the
Nearsightedness, or myopia, results when the eye becomes too long from front to back. Ordinarily, light passes through the corneal lens and focuses images on the rear portion of the eye, known as the retina. The myopic eye is so long that the images focus in front of the retina, making objects at a distance blurry. In the farsighted, or hyperopic, eye, the eye is short; images focus behind the retina, causing nearby objects to blur. Animal and human babies usually begin life slightly hyperopic. As they grow, their eyes lengthen until all images fall perfectly on the retina, a process called emmetropization. By the first grade, nearly all children have perfect vision. Researchers do not know what mechanisms spur the eye to grow to a length that matches flawlessly the eye's optics. It takes work to see at varying distances, even when vision is "perfect." Reading, for instance, requires tiny muscles in the eye to accommodate for the short focus by making the lens rounder. When this retina, whether as the result of myopia or hyperopia, corrective lenses can be recruited to do the work. Increasingly, people in developed countries have come to rely on corrective lenses. Sometime between starting school with perfect vision and beginning high school, up to 50 percent of kids in the United States become myopic. In places like Taiwan and Hong Kong, where kids typically study 10 to 12 hours per day. 70 percent of older students need to squint to see the blackboard. 31. The condition called myopia develops when . . .
a. the distance between the lens and the retina is increased. b. the lens of the eye can no longer focus. c. light is unable to pass through the corneal lens. d. light focuses on the retina.
32. The process called emmetropization . . .
a. eventually produces myopia in first graders. b. produces blurry images on the retina. c. slowly corrects the initial condition of hyperopia which most newborn babies have. d. corrects the myopia that most newborn babies have.
33. The mechanisms behind the process of emmetropization . . .
a. are perfectly understood. b. remain a mystery. c. have been fully explained. d. have never concerned researchers.
34. A corrective lens is used to ensure that . . .
a. images fall in focus on the retina. b. the corneal lens becomes rounder. c. distances do not vary. d. tiny muscles in the eye work.
35. Indications are that myopia among high school students . . .
a. depends on climatic and geographical differences. b. is on the decline in developed countries. c. results from squinting in the classroom. d. results from an increased reading load.
NOTICIAS INTERNACIONALES AL 24/05/2013 BRASIL Merma la intención de confinar animales ante el incremento en los costos de producción Fonte: Portal DBO com agências 20 de maio, 2013 Os pecuaristas de Mato Grosso deverão confinar menos animais neste ano do que em 2012. Pesquisa divulgada pelo Instituto Mato-Grossnse de Economia Agropecuária (Imea) mostra que a intenção de t
Assessment of variable obstruction by forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced oscillometry, and interrupter technique Alfredo Boccaccino, M.D.,* Diego G. Peroni, M.D.,# Angelo Pietrobelli, M.D.,#Giorgio Piacentini, M.D.,# Alessandro Bodini, M.D.,# Atanasio Chatzimichail, M.D.,§Enrico Spinosa, M.D.,* and Attilio L. Boner, M.D.# (Italy and Greece) ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to